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Dealing With Security Threats

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  • 1. Dealing with security threats A more connected world than what you think….. Ilias Chantzos Director EMEA & APJ Government Relations Kenya 9 March 2010 1
  • 2. Agenda • A bit about Symantec and where  the information comes from • The current threat landscape – Threats to government and national  security/CIIP – Threats to consumers – Examples • Anatomy of a security breach • Operationalising security
  • 3. Symantec Global Presence Global Intelligence Network (GIN) ATTACK ACTIVITY MALCODE INTELLIGENCE VULNERABILITIES SPAM / PHISHING • 240,000 sensors •130M+ clients, servers,    • 32,000+ vulnerabilities • 2.5M decoy accounts • 200+ countries gateways • 11,000 vendors ‐72k  techs • 8B+ emails analyzed daily Gotheburg, Sweden Aschheim, Germany Reading, Green Park, GBR Wiesbaden, Germany Calgary, Alberta, CA Ratingen, Germany Dublin, Ireland Warsaw, Poland Roseville, MN Shannon, Ireland Seattle, WA Bloomfield Hills, MI Toronto, CA Zaltbommel, NLD Springfield, OR Englewood, CO Brussels, Belgium Milan, Italy Newton/Waltham, MA San Francisco, CA Herndon, VA Seoul, South Korea Oak Brook, IL Madrid, Spain Beijing, China Mountain View, CA Alexandria, VA Tokyo, Japan Orem, UT Cupertino, CA Durham, NC Dallas, TX Atlanta, Georgia Chengdu, China Shanghai, China Santa Monica, CA Houston, TX Heathrow, FL Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Dubai, UAE San Luis Obispo, CA Culver City, CA Austin Texas Miami, FL Taipei, Taiwan Mumbai, India Hong Kong, China Mexico City, Mexico Pune, India Chennai, India Singapore Brisbane, Aus Sao Paola, Brazil Sandton, South Africa Sydney, Aus Buenos Aires, Argentina Melbourne, Aus 4 MSS Security  11 Security  Research  29 Global Support  Operations Centers Centers Centers Government – Commercial ‐ Consumer 3
  • 4. How Likely Is It? To be struck by lightening? To be bitten by a snake? 1 in 2.6M 1 in 42M To be in car accident? ? To be attacked online? 1 in 300 1 in 5 4
  • 5. The current threat landscape Threats to Government and CIIP Presentation Identifier Goes Here 5
  • 6. Malicious code is installed… • Over 60% of all malicious code detected by Symantec discovered in 2008. • Over 90% of threats are threats to confidential information. 6 6
  • 7. Information is at risk Majority of data breaches in More than half of breaches Education (27%), followed by (57%) due to theft or loss, Government (20%) and followed by insecure policy Healthcare (15%) (21%) 7
  • 8. Threat Activity Trends - Malicious Activity • In 2008 the United States was the top country for malicious activity (raw numbers) with 23% of the overall proportion. China was ranked second with 9%. • As Internet and broadband grows in certain countries their share of malicious activity also grows. 8 8
  • 9. Governments Are Prime Targets Certain contact and account data were taken, including user IDs and passwords, email addresses, names, phone numbers, and some basic demographic data. Data breach at federal government jobsite USAJobs.gov Hackers breached the site, then modified it to redirect users to a rogue URL that in turn directed attack code against their systems. Government travel site GovTrip.gov users suffer malware attacks Administrators … were forced to withdraw the page after it was defaced by more than 170 people over a frenzied few hours. Defra website using Wiki editing techniques defaced Shortly after police confiscated the group's servers, DoS attacks took the official government website and the Swedish national police site offline. The attacks were assumed to be a reprisal from disgruntled Pirate Bay users. DoS attacks on Swedish policy and official government website 9
  • 10. Different threat scenarios • Collect intelligence on the infrastructure – To attack the infrastructure – To determine the location of valuable  information • Collect intelligence – Capture  and extract information – Intercept communications and ciphers • Disable the infrastructure – That you have already infiltrated – Directly attack it from outside • Collect OSINT • Conduct Psyops • Achieve information dominance by  communicating your own message
  • 11. Causing problems to the navy
  • 12. Stopping the airforce 12
  • 13. Information leaking
  • 14. Using COTS to collect intelligence
  • 15. DDoS on Estonia some stats • Attack Duration: •Peak saw traffic • 128 Unique DDoS  equivalent of 5000 Attacks: 17 attacks – Less than 1 minute clicks per second – 115 – ICMP Floods 78 attacks – 1 minute ~ 1 hour •Attacks stopped at 16 attacks – 1 hour ~ 5 hours Midnight – 4 – TCP SYN Floods – 9 – Generic Traffic  8 attacks – 5 hours ~ 9 hours •Tactics shifted as weaknesses emerged Floods 7 attacks – 10 hours or more Source = ArborSert •Swamped web sites 80 associated with Government Ministries, Banks, Newspapers & • Daily Attack Rate: 60 Broadcasters – 03/05/2007 = 21 40 •Emergency Services – 04/05/2007 = 17 20 Number disabled for at least 1 hour – 08/05/2007 = 31 0 •Access was cut to – 09/05/2007 = 58 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 sites outside of Estonia 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 5/ 5/ 5/ 5/ 5/ 5/ 5/ 5/ 5/ /0 /0 /0 /0 /0 /0 /0 /0 /0 – 11/05/2007 = 1 in order to keep local 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 Attack Intensity access available Source = ArborSert 15
  • 16. Cyber defense and shooting warfare • Why blow something up? – If you can use it to collect intelligence – If you can disable it when you want – If you can use it afterwards again • Russian attack in Georgia – Information‐intelligence is power – Preceded by cyber attack – Psychological effect/operations – Information dominance  – Propaganda
  • 17. Taking down the traffic grid
  • 18. Energy supply and distribution 1999 SCADA failure in Bellingham Washington ¼ mil gal of gasoline 18
  • 19. Attacking the energy grid
  • 20. Collecting OSINT
  • 21. A Real And Present Danger Suddenly the blue screen of death has a different meaning…….. FOOD, WATER, ENERGY SEA, AIR, ROAD & RAIL TRAFFIC IT & TELECOMS FINANCE MILITARY 21
  • 22. Current and future trends • Hacking is for fortune not for fame • Attackers become more sophisticated and  well invested • Target is confidential information • Attack techniques increase in  sophistication and stealth – Single use malware – Evasion techniques (web and coding) • Increased sophistication of botnets • Virtual worlds and social engineering • Critical infrastructure protection  dependant on Internet Security
  • 23. Threats to consumer……. Presentation Identifier Goes Here 23
  • 24. Stolen information is sold • Credit card information (32%) and bank account credentials (19%) continue to be the most frequently advertised items. • The price range of credit cards remained consistent in 2008, ranging from $0.06 to $30 per card number. • Compromised email accounts can provide access to other confidential information and additional resources. 24 24
  • 25. Website compromise • Attackers locate and compromise a high-traffic site through a vulnerability specific to the site or in a Web application it hosts. • Once the site is compromised, attackers modify pages so malicious content is served to visitors. Site-specific vulnerabilities Web application vulnerabilities 25 25
  • 26. Vulnerability Trends Browser plug-in vulnerabilities • Vulnerabilities in Web browser plug-ins are frequently exploited to install malicious software. • Memory corruption vulnerabilities again made up the majority of the type of vulnerabilities in browser plug-in technologies for 2008, with 272 vulnerabilities classified as such. 26 26
  • 27. Vulnerability Trends Unpatched vulnerabilities by vendor • In 2008, there were 112 unpatched vulnerabilities affecting enterprise-class vendors compared to 144 in 2007. • Microsoft had the most, with a total of 46 unpatched vulnerabilities. • Of the 112 unpatched enterprise vulnerabilities, 37 were low severity, 71 were medium severity, and 4 were high severity. 27 27
  • 28. Malicious Code Trends Types • Trojans made up 68 percent of the volume of the top 50 malicious code samples reported in 2008, a minor decrease from 69 percent in 2007. • Worms increased slightly from 26% in 2007 to 29% in 2008. • The percentage of back doors decreased from 21% to 15% in the current period. 28 28
  • 29. Malicious Code Trends Propagation mechanisms • 66% of potential malicious code infections propagated as shared executable files, up significantly from 44% in 2007. • Malicious code using P2P file sharing protocols declined from 17% in 2007 to 10% in 2008. 29 29
  • 30. Spam Country of Origin • Over the past year, Symantec observed a 192 percent increase in spam detected across the Internet as a whole, from 119.6 billion messages in 2007 to 349.6 billion in 2008. • In 2008, bot networks were responsible for the distribution of approximately 90 percent of all spam email. • Russia, Turkey, and Brazil experienced significant increases in spam volume this year. 30 30
  • 31. Spam Categories • Internet-related spam was the top category with 24% followed by commercial product spam with 19% • Financial spam relatively constant at 16%. 31 31
  • 32. An example how to exploit a users Phisher Cashier Spammer Fraud Website Egg Drop (+ Trojan horse) Server Bot -Herder Phishing Messages Victims
  • 33. Anatomy of a security breach Presentation Identifier Goes Here 33
  • 34. Anatomy of a breach Disruption of operations Large-scale Defacing DDoS attacks websites Organized Well Meaning Malicious Criminal Insider Insider Malware outbreaks within Stealthy ex-filtration or unintended protected perimeter loss of confidential data 34
  • 35. Well‐Meaning Insider Hacker “Well-Meaning Insider” Breach Sources 1. Data on servers & desktops Desktop Firewall 2. Lost/stolen laptops, mobile devices 3. Email, Web mail, removable devices Server 4. Third‐party data loss incidents Employee 5. Business processes  35
  • 36. Targeted Attacks 1 2 3 4 INCURSION DISCOVERY CAPTURE EXFILTRATION Attacker breaks in via  Map organization’s  Access data on  Confidential data sent to  targeted malware,  systems unprotected systems hacker team in the clear,  improper credentials or  wrapped in encrypted  SQL injection Automatically find  Install root kits to  packets or  in zipped  confidential data capture network data files with passwords 36
  • 37. Malicious Insiders Home Computer IM Firewall Malicious Insider: Four Types Unhappy Webmail Employee 1. White collar criminals Email 2. Terminated employees Mobile 3. Career builders Device 4. Industrial spies Unhappy CD/DVD Employee USB 37
  • 38. Operationalising security…… Presentation Identifier Goes Here 38
  • 39. Establishing In‐depth Defense Future government Interconnected networks Traditional ‘Bastion’ require in-depth, capabilities are built on security models do not proactive & agile defense interconnected systems effectively support such at the periphery and the and effective information agile, interconnected endpoint of infrastructure sharing networks and information 39
  • 40. Collecting intelligence – Real time  situation awareness what enables the wise sovereign and  the  good  general  to  strike  and  conquer,  and  achieve  things  beyond the reach of ordinary men,  is foreknowledge  SUN TZU – on the Art of War 40
  • 41. Conficker/Downadup – Cumlative Source – Conficker Working Group and Shadowserver
  • 42. How to Stop Security Breaches Protect Automate review Identify threats in information of entitlements real time proactively Integrate security Prevent data Stop targeted operations exfiltration attacks 42
  • 43. Thank you! Ilias_chantzos@symantec.com Copyright © 2010 Symantec Corporation. All rights reserved. Symantec and the Symantec Logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Symantec Corporation or its affiliates in  the U.S. and other countries. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. This document is provided for informational purposes only and is not intended as advertising. All warranties relating to the information in this document, either express or implied,  are disclaimed to the maximum extent allowed by law. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Presentation Identifier Goes Here 43