The goal of mankind is knowledge, which is is inherent in man. No knowledge comes from outside: it is all inside. What man 'learns' is really what he “ discovers ” by taking the cover off his own soul. Swami Vivekananda “ Education” - Eduse (latin) to bring out..
Depressed Injury – skull fracture contusion but no entry to brain.
Penetrating Injury – enters but not exit. Infection.
Perforating injury – Missile enters and exits. Large exit wound, extensive haemorrhage, risk of infection & epilepsy.
Missile Injury: The “blast effect” of a high-velocity projectile causes an immediate increase in supratentorial pressure and results in death because of impaction of the cerebellum and medulla into the foramen magnum. A low-velocity projectile increases the pressure at a more gradual rate through hemorrhage and edema.
Axonal Injury: A, Hypoxic/ischemic injury in cerebral cortex - "red neurons." shrunken cell B, Axonal spheroids at points of axonal disruption C, Swollen cell body and peripheral dispersion of Nissl substance (chromatolysis) H&E Stain.
extensive blunt force trauma to the head in a vehicular accident. Mainly the gyri are affected with hemorrhage from contusions and lacerations.
The greatest religion is to be true to your own nature. Swami Vivekananda
Intracranial hematoma: Pathological Mechanisms & clinical manifestations No special features Increased intracranial pressure with focal deficits; usually fatal Profound coma , usually rapidly fatal Cortical contusions Rupture of small intrinsic vessels with intracerebral haematoma 'Burst lobe' with intracerebral haematoma contusions and subdural haematoma Cerebral hemisphere Meningeal irritation with a rapid increase in intracranial pressure Arterial rupture Subarachnoid space Acute presentation with a rapid increase in intracranial pressure Chronic presentation with personality change, memory loss and confusion, particularly in the elderly Rupture of venous sinuses or small bridging veins due to torsion forces Subdural space Lucid interval followed by a rapid increase in intracranial pressure Skull fracture with arterial rupture, e.g. middle meningeal artery Epidural /Extradural Clinical manifestations Mechanism Site
Subdural Hematoma: With head trauma, the dura moves with the skull, and the arachnoid moves with the cerebrum, . As a result, the bridging veins are sheared causing hematoma in the expansile subdural space.
bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (brown). Since the bleeding is venous, subdurals can form more slowly and insidiously than arterial hemorrhages. Subdurals are most common in the very young and the elderly.