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Shiksharth com java_topics

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This book is written to share experience and knowledge with beginners in simplified manner with good examples.

This book is written to share experience and knowledge with beginners in simplified manner with good examples.

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  • 1. CORE JAVA DEMO SESSION Rajesh Verma SHIKSHARTH.COM (an education venture of Sunvision Software Technologies) Objective : to give trial session on Java to students (for JCP program) Copyrights, Sunvision Software Technologies
  • 2. Demo Session - Outline ● What is JAVA? ● Do you know C/C++? ● Do you know JAVA? ● Difference between Java & C/C++ ● Lets write first Java program ● What you require ● Make your machine Java Ready ● Open a text file “HelloSHIKSHARTH.java” ● Compile ● Run ● Knowledge sharing on a topic (USP) ● What you will learn : course outline ● Why Java? (discuss job opportunities) ● Share few applications or portals ● Talk to me on Java
  • 3. Introduction to Java :HelloJava.java (simplest program) 1. Write Program : vi HelloJava.java or in Notepad class HelloJava { public static void main(String args[]) { System.out.prinln(“Hello Java!!”); } } 2. Compile : javac HelloJava.java (generates HelloJava.class) 3. Run : java HelloJava (without extension)
  • 4. CORE JAVA Rajesh Verma SHIKSHARTH.COM (an education venture of Sunvision Software Technologies) Objective : to cover programing aspect rather theoretical coverage Copyrights, Sunvision Software Technologies
  • 5. Core Java : Course Snapshot ● Chapter 1 : Introduction to Java 2 Days ➢ OOPS Concept ➢ Arrays and String ➢ Package ➢ Class and Object ➢ Exception Handling ● Chapter 2 : I/O 1 day ➢ File Handling ➢ Networking ● Chapter 3 : Collection 1 day ➢ Hashtable ➢ Arraylist ➢ Map ● Chapter 4 : Database Connectivity 1 day ● Open discussion and market trend last day
  • 6. Introduction to Java● Programing standards● Advantage over C/C++● Features of Java● Java development environment● JVM architecture● Introduction to class and object with sample program● Language Fundamental
  • 7. Introduction to Java : ProgramingStandards●Corporate expectation from a good developer ➢ Paper work before writing any program ➢ Proper programing comments ➢ Program alignment ➢ Variable naming convention ➢ Readability and Maintainability of program ➢ Use of package & function for modularity ➢ Optimization and low memory consumption ➢ Performance, robustness and error handling
  • 8. Introduction to Java : Advantage • Java advantage ➢ Similar to C++ ➢ Platform independent ➢ Can write mission critical application • Over C/C++ ➢ Excluding primitive data-types everything is object in Java ➢ Relief from C pointers ➢ Writing a bug-free code is easier in Java ➢ Automatic memory management using garbage collector
  • 9. Introduction to Java : Feature• Object oriented• Distributed• Robustness• Platform Independent• Portable
  • 10. Introduction to Java : Development ● Java development environment ➢ Java SDK : jdk 1.6.x ➢ Java is installed in <mydir>/jdk1.6.x ➢ $JAVA_HOME = <mydir>/jdk1.6.x ➢ export PATH=$PATH:$JAVA_HOME/bin ➢ Check version : java -version ➢ export CLASSPATH=$CLASSPATH:.... ➢ Compile command : javac myprg.java -classpath <...> -d <trg dir> ➢ Run command : java myprg -classpath <...> ➢ Main class name and physical file should be same ➢ public static void main(String[] args) in main method ➢ Redirect output : java myprg > myoutput.txt
  • 11. Introduction to Java :HelloJava.java (simplest program) 1. Write Program : vi HelloJava.java or in Notepad class HelloJava { public static void main(String args[]) { System.out.prinln(“Hello Java!!”); } } 2. Compile : javac HelloJava.java (generates HelloJava.class) 3. Run : java HelloJava (without extension)
  • 12. Introduction to Java : JVM Java source code ● JVM architecture ➢ It acts like mini OS. Java byte code ➢ An abstract computer on which Class loader all Java programs Byte code verification run. Execution engine (JIT, Adaptive Optimizer) Machine code
  • 13. Introduction to Java : Class &object● A class is a blueprint or prototype that defines the variables and methods common to all objects of a certain kind.● Object itself is called as instance, these variables and methods are called as instance variables and instance methods. methods● An Instance – An instance of a class is created using “new” operator. e.g. ClassName lClassName = new ClassName(); “new” operator allocate the required memory for instance. – Accessor (get) methods : Access instance field values. – Mutator (set, add) methods : change instance field values.
  • 14. Introduction to Java : Example of Class & object class date Instance 1 { private int dd; DOB private int mm; private int yy; void set_dd( int d ){dd =d;} dd mm yy void set_mm( int d ){mm =m;} void set_yy( int d ){yy =y;}Instance 4 Instance 2DOComp Set & get DOJoin int get_dd(){return dd;} methods int get_mm(){return mm;} int get_yy(){return yy;} } date => birth_day, marriage_day, ... Instance 3 DO Exp
  • 15. Introduction to Java : LanguageFundamental ● Language Fundamental ➢ Variables and constant identifiers ➢ Operators and assignment ➢ Flow control
  • 16. Introduction to Java : Language Fundamental : Variable & Constant ●variable-type var-name; ●final constant-name; System.out.println ●Type casting ("lVarInteger : "+lVarInteger); System.out.println ("lVarLong : "+lVarLong);public class VariableNConstant System.out.println{ ("lVarFloat : "+lVarFloat); public static void main(String[] args) System.out.println { ("lVarDouble : "+lVarDouble); int lVarInteger = 0; System.out.println long lVarLong = 0; ("lVarChar : "+lVarChar); float lVarFloat = (float)0.00; System.out.println double lVarDouble = (double)0.00; ("lVarBoolean : "+lVarBoolean); char lVarChar = Y; System.out.println boolean lVarBoolean = true; ("PIE_VALUE : "+PIE_VALUE); final float PIE_VALUE = (float)3.14; } }
  • 17. Introduction to Java : LanguageFundamental : Variable & ConstantCompilation without type castingfound : double OUTPUTrequired: float lVarInteger : 0 float lVarFloat = 0.00; ^ lVarLong : 0VariableNConstant.java:16: lVarFloat : 0.0possible loss of precisionfound : double lVarDouble : 0.0required: float lVarChar : Y final float PIE_VALUE = 3.14; lVarBoolean : true ^2 errors PIE_VALUE : 3.14
  • 18. Introduction to Java : LanguageFundamental : Primitive Data types ● 8 primitive data types are defined in Java. ● 4 Integer types ➢ byte memory space 1byte (+27 to -27) ➢ short memory space 2byte (+215 to -215) ➢ int memory space 4byte (+231 to -231) ➢ long memory space 8byte (+263 to -263) ● 2 Floating type ➢ float memory space 4byte (~6-7 decimals) ➢ double memory space 8byte (~15 decimals) ● 1 character type ➢ char memory space 2byte (due to Unicode) ● 1 boolean type ➢ boolean memory space 1byte ● Range formula : -2(bits-1) to +2(bits-1)-1
  • 19. Introduction to Java : Language Fundamental : Number Formatimport java.text.*;public class NumberFormat { System.out.println("---------------------"); df = new DecimalFormat("0.00000"); public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.println("lVarDouble (5 decimals) : " float lVarFloat = (float)12.345678; +(df.format(lVarDouble))); double lVarDouble df = new DecimalFormat("0.000000"); = (double)999.987654321; System.out.println("lVarDouble (6 decimals) : " System.out.println +(df.format(lVarDouble))); } } ("lVarFloat : "+lVarFloat); System.out.println ("lVarDouble : "+lVarDouble); System.out.println("---------------------"); lVarFloat : 12.345678 DecimalFormat df = lVarDouble : 999.987654321 new DecimalFormat("0.000"); -------------------------- System.out.println("lVarFloat (3 decimals) :" lVarFloat (3 decimals) : 12.346 +(df.format(lVarFloat))); lVarFloat (4 decimals) : 12.3457 df = new DecimalFormat("0.0000"); -------------------------- System.out.println("lVarFloat (4 decimals):" lVarDouble (5 decimals) : 999.98765 +(df.format(lVarFloat))); lVarDouble (6 decimals) : 999.987654
  • 20. Introduction to Java : LanguageFundamental : Operators●Arithmetic operators➢ +, -, *, /, %, ++, --, +=, -=, *=, /=●Relational operators➢ ==, !=, >, <, >=, <=●Boolean logical operators➢ &, |, ^, !, &=, ^=, ==, !=, ?=, ||, &&
  • 21. Introduction to Java : LanguageFundamental : Flow controls ● Loops and Branches ➢ if, else ➢ nested if ➢ switch ➢ while ➢ do while ➢ for
  • 22. Introduction to Java : LanguageFundamental : Calendar import java.util.*; public class CalendarExample { public static void main(String[] args) { OUTPUT YEAR: 2010 Calendar calendar = new GregorianCalendar(); MONTH: 6 Date trialTime = new Date(); WEEK_OF_YEAR: 27 WEEK_OF_MONTH: 1 calendar.setTime(trialTime); DATE: 3 // print out a bunch of interesting things DAY_OF_MONTH: 3 DAY_OF_YEAR: 184 System.out.println("YEAR: " DAY_OF_WEEK: 7 AM_PM: 1 + calendar.get(Calendar.YEAR)); HOUR: 9 System.out.println("MONTH: " HOUR_OF_DAY: 21 MINUTE: 53 + calendar.get(Calendar.MONTH)); SECOND: 34 System.out.println("WEEK_OF_YEAR: " MILLISECOND: 381 + calendar.get(Calendar.WEEK_OF_YEAR)); System.out.println("WEEK_OF_MONTH: " + calendar.get(Calendar.WEEK_OF_MONTH)); System.out.println("DATE: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DATE));
  • 23. Introduction to Java : LanguageFundamental : Calendar System.out.println("DAY_OF_MONTH: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_MONTH)); System.out.println("DAY_OF_YEAR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_YEAR)); OUTPUT System.out.println("DAY_OF_WEEK: " YEAR: 2010 + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK)); MONTH: 6 System.out.println("DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH: " WEEK_OF_YEAR: 27 WEEK_OF_MONTH: 1 + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH)); DATE: 3 System.out.println("AM_PM: " DAY_OF_MONTH: 3 DAY_OF_YEAR: 184 + calendar.get(Calendar.AM_PM)); DAY_OF_WEEK: 7 System.out.println("HOUR: " AM_PM: 1 HOUR: 9 + calendar.get(Calendar.HOUR)); HOUR_OF_DAY: 21 System.out.println("HOUR_OF_DAY: " MINUTE: 53 + calendar.get(Calendar.HOUR_OF_DAY)); SECOND: 34 MILLISECOND: 381 System.out.println("MINUTE: " + calendar.get(Calendar.MINUTE)); System.out.println("SECOND: " + calendar.get(Calendar.SECOND)); System.out.println("MILLISECOND: " + calendar.get(Calendar.MILLISECOND));
  • 24. OOPS Concept●Inheritance●Abstraction●Encapsulation●Polymorphism
  • 25. OOPS Concept : Inheritance● Process by which one object acquires the property of another object.● The class from which the properties are inherited is called Super Class.● The class which inherit the properties is called Sub Class.● e.g. class B extends A{ } A is super class and B is sub class.● Final keyword A final class cant be extended ie., final class may not be subclassed. A final method cant be overridden when its class is inherited. Final variable cant be changed its a constant.
  • 26. OOPS Concept : Inheritance class A{public class BinA{ int i,j = 1; public static void main(String args[]) void showij(){ { System.out.println A lA = new A(); ("i&j : " +i +” ”+j); B lB = new B(); lA.showij(); } lB.showk(); } lB.sum(); class B extends A{ } int k = 2;} void showk(){ System.out.println("k : " +k); } void sum(){ OUTPUT System.out.println i&j : 0 1 ("i+J+k : " +(i+j+k)); k:2 } i+J+k : 3 }
  • 27. OOPS Concept : Abstraction ● Abstraction : generalized form (dictionary meaning). ● A class is defined as ABSATRACT using abstract keyword. ● This abstract class must have at-least one abstract method, i.e. Just a signature of method no function body part. ● Subclasses must override all the methods of an abstract class. ● Syntax : abstract class class_name { ... abstract DATATYPE function_name(); .....} ● There can be no object of an abstract class i.e. An abstract class cannot be directly instantiated with a new operator. ● Also we cannot declare an abstract constructor. ● A subclass extended by abstract class ● We can leave all abstract method undefined, (must be tagged as “abstract”) [OR] ● Define all methods (then subclass is not abstract) ● Object variable of abstract can only be created referring to non-abstract class e.g. Person p = new Employee( .......... );● Abstract class must be extended/subclassed (to be useful). It serves as a template. A class that is abstract may not be instantiated (ie, you may not call its constructor), abstract class may contain static data. Any class with an abstract method is automatically abstract itself, and must be declared as such.● A class may be declared abstract even if it has no abstract methods. This prevents it from being instantiated.
  • 28. OOPS Concept : Abstraction class Employee extends Person {public class PersonTest { public Employee(String n, double s) { public static void main(String[] args) { // NAME | SALARY Person[] people = new Person[2]; // pass name to superclass constructor people[0] = new Employee super(n); ("Harry Hacker", 50000); salary = s; } people[1] = new Student public double getSalary() { return salary; } ("Maria Morris", "computer science"); public String getDescription() for (int i = 0; i < people.length; i++) { { return "salary " + salary; } Person p = people[i]; private double salary; System.out.println(p.getName() + ", " }//______________________+ p.getDescription()); class Student extends Person { } } }//_______________________ public Student(String n, String b) {abstract class Person { // NAME | BRANCH public Person(String n) { name = n; } // pass b to superclass constructor public abstract String getDescription(); super(n); public String getName() { return name; } branch = b; } private String name; public String getDescription() {} return "student branch " + branch; } private String branch; } Harry Hacker, salary 50000.0 Maria Morris, student branch computer science
  • 29. OOPS Concept : Encapsulation ● Data hiding | Data binding ● Mechanism that binds code and data together, keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse. ● 4 diff. access modifiers to access these types of methods & variables. ➢ auto : default modifier, available in sub-class. ➢ private : accessible within the class only ➢ public : accessible in all sub-classes ➢ protected : accessible only inside package. If inherited outside package all protected members become private for that class. ● In Example, name field cant be accessed directly
  • 30. OOPS Concept : Encapsulation ● public : Public class is visible in other packages, field is visible everywhere (class must be public too) ● private : Private variables or methods may be used only by an instance of the same class that declares the variable or method, A private feature may only be accessed by the class that owns the feature. ● protected : Is available to all classes in the same package and also available to all subclasses of the class that owns the protected feature.This access is provided even to subclasses that reside in a different package from the class that owns the protected feature. ● default :What you get by default ie, without any access modifier (ie, public private or protected).It means that it is visible to all within a particular package.
  • 31. OOPS Concept : STATIC ● static : Static means one per class, not one for each object no matter how many instance of a class might exist. This means that you can use them without creating an instance of a class. Static methods are implicitly final, because overriding is done based on the type of the object, and static methods are attached to a class, not an object. A static method in a superclass can be shadowed by another static method in a subclass, as long as the original method was not declared final. However, you cant override a static method with a nonstatic method. In other words, you cant change a static method into an instance method in a subclass. ● Figure 01 illustrates how to create a basic static class. Simply put the keyword static in the declaration of the methods in the class. The declaration of the class itself requires no special decoration. The class can contain static and non-static methods and properties simultaneously. ● Figure 02 contains a main() that references the static class. Note that the reference uses the class name, not an object (instance) name. An instance is not required. An instance can reference a static member, but be sure to have a thorough understanding of the side effects. ● Lets modify the static class. In Figure 03, the class has a new property, alpha, and a new method, SetAlpha(). SetAlpha() is public and alpha is private. The SetAlpha() method references the private property alpha. Note that alpha and SetAlpha() are not declared as static. All is well in the main(); it still builds and executes properly. No changes are necessary. ● In Figure 05 the main() is broken because its illegal to reference a non-static method using a class reference. The converse is permissible, but thats not the point of this exercise. ● OK, lets try to fix the error by declaring the SetAlpha( ) method static. Figure 05 illustrates the attempt. ● That fails. The SetAlpha( ) method cannot be declared static because it references a non-static variable, alpha. Figure 06 illustrates the only way to fix the problem. The declaration of alpha must be modified to include the keyword static. However, although the project now builds properly, we have created a situation in which only one instance of the variable alpha will be created when the program runs. ● Static classes are commonly used to create classes that do not need to be instantiated and will be shared as a single copy throughout the entire project. The static class is also a first step in creating a design pattern called a Singleton.
  • 32. OOPS Concept : STATIC
  • 33. OOPS Concept : STATIC
  • 34. OOPS Concept : Polymorphism● Greek word means “Many forms”.● Example Employee and Students Class inherited from Person Class● Decision to choose right method (getDescription) at runtime from both classes is DYNAMIC BINDING (also called function overloading)● Feature that allows one interface to be used for general class of actions.● It means it is possible to design a generic interface to a group of related activities this helps reduce complexity by allowing the same interface to be used to specify a general class of action, the specific action will be selected by compiler.
  • 35. Interface● A way to achieve multiple inheritance.● An interface is not a class but a set of requirements for classes that want to conform to the interfaces.● All methods and fields of an interface are automatically public● Methods are not implemented in interfaces.● An interface cannot be instantiated using new operator.● //Interface never has instance fields.● Instance fields or static methods are not allowed.● There are 2 steps to make class implement an interface – Declare that class that intends to implement the given interface. – Supply definition to all the methods in interface.
  • 36. Interface//declare an interfaceinterface IntExample { public void sayHello(); }public class JavaInterfaceExample implements IntExample{ public void sayHello() { System.out.println("Hello Visitor !"); } public static void main(String args[]) { //create object of the class JavaInterfaceExample javaInterfaceExample = new JavaInterfaceExample(); //invoke sayHello(), declared in IntExample interface. javaInterfaceExample.sayHello(); }}OUTPUT : Hello Visitor !
  • 37. Abstract Vs Interface● Both cant in instantiated● Both do not allow function definition in main class. (abstract class allows if method is not tagged as abstract)● Abstract provides single inheritance while interface multiple.● Applying keywords : abstract (extends) | Interface (implements)● An abstract class can have instance methods that implement a default behavior. An Interface can only declare constants and instance methods, but cannot implement default behavior and all methods are implicitly abstract. An interface has all public members and no implementation. An abstract class is a class which may have the usual flavors of class members (private, protected, etc.), but has some abstract methods.
  • 38. Inner Class● As obvious, inner class is defined inside a class● Inner classes can be hidden from other class in same package● Object of an inner class can access implementation of the object including data that would otherwise be private● Inner classes are useful in case of callbacks on the fly● Inner classes are useful in case event-driven programs
  • 39. class InnerEmployee { Inner Class public InnerEmployee ( String inName, double inSalary ) { name = inName;public class InnerClassTest { salary = inSalary; } public static void main(String[] args) { private String name; InnerEmployee lInnerEmployee = private double salary;new InnerEmployee private String dob;("Barak", (double)9898.9898); public void set_DOB( int d, int m, int y ) lInnerEmployee.set_DOB(1,1,1980); { DOB lDOB = new DOB ( d, m, y ); } System.out.println public String getEmployeeRec()(lInnerEmployee.getEmployeeRec()); { return name+" | "+salary+" | "+dob; } } //INNER CLASS} private class DOB { public DOB( int d, int m, int y ) { day=d; mon=m; year=y; dob=""+day+"-"+mon+"-"+year; } private int day; OUTPUT private int mon; Barak | 9898.9898 | 1-1-1980 private int year; } }
  • 40. Garbage Collection● When a reference to an object does not exist then the memory allocated to that object is reclaimed.● It runs automatically during program execution.● Object destruction & finalize methods – destruction not supported in java like C++ – finalize can be added to any method, which ensures to call garbage collector before method call – finalize is recommended not to use● Java has provided some APIs to deal with garbage collection● final is a keyword.its constant.it cant be changed from its initiated value.● finally() {} is java block of code, used in exception handling after try{} catch(){} block. finally(){} block will execute whether or not try block can be execute. Its used to close a file.● finalize() is a method, is used when an object is just before deleted,it can be used in garbage collection.
  • 41. Wrapper Class● To perform operation on primitive data types, java has provided Wrapper class – Byte – Short – Integer – Long – Float – Double● Most common method : wc.parse....() and wc.toString()
  • 42. Package, Import and AccessModifier● Packages are containers for classes that are used to keep the class name space compartmentalized. – package pkg;● Stored in a hierarchical manner.● More than one file can include the same package statement.● A hierarchy of packages can be created. – package pkg1.pkg2.pkg3;
  • 43. Package, Import and AccessModifier● Package add another dimension to access control.● Packages and classes are both means of encapsulation and containing the namespace and scope of variables and methods.● Packages act as container for classes and other packages.● Import statement is used for including the packages. Syntax is – import package.class-name; – import package.*;
  • 44. Exception Handling● What is Exception Handling● Java Support ➢ Try-catch block ➢ Throw ➢ Throws ➢ Finally
  • 45. Exception Handling● Some typical causes of errors ➢ Memory errors(i.e memory incorrectly allocated,memory leaks,”null pointer” ➢ File system errors (i.e. disk is full, disk has been removed) ➢ Network errors (i.e. network is down, URL does not exist) ➢ Calculation errors (i.e. divide by 0)● More typical causes of errors: ➢ Array errors (i.e. accessing element –1) ➢ Conversion errors (i.e. convert ‘q’ to a number) ➢ Can you think of some others?
  • 46. Exception Handling● ExampleString readDataFromFile ( File inFile ) throws IOException{ try { ... normal program code ... throw new IOException(); } catch(Exception e) { ... exception handling code } catch(IOException e) { ... IO exception handling code } finally { ... close all files }}
  • 47. Arrays and String● Array declaration and initialization.● String constructors.● String conversion● Character extraction● String comparison● Searching string
  • 48. Arrays and StringArrays● Group of like type variables● Can be declared in two ways var-type var-name[]; var-name = new var-type[size];or var-type var-name[] = new var-type[size];Ex. Int arr[] = new int[10];
  • 49. Arrays and String● Sequence of characters rather than array of characters.● Java implements string as object of type string.● Support several constructors ➢ String str = new String(); ➢ String str = “abc”; ➢ String(char ch[ ]) -> String initialized by an array of characters.● Common String function ➢ substring | equals | charAt | split | startsWith | endsWith | indexOf | lastIndexOf |
  • 50. File Handling ● Java I/O(Input/Output) ● Input/Output Stream ● File Input/Output Stream ● Buffered Input/Output Stream ● Data Input/Output Stream ● Reader/Writer ● FileReader/FileWriter
  • 51. Networking ● Networking ● Sockets ● Sockets for connection oriented protocol ● Sockets for connection less protocol ● Sample program of socket programming to talk between C and Java.
  • 52. Collection ● Collections ● List ● Array list ● Linked list ● Set ● Map ● Hash map ● Hash table ● Properties | Enumeration | StringTokenizer ● A Set is a collection that has no duplicate elements. ● A List is a collection that has an order assoicated with its elements. ● A map is a way of storing key/value pairs. The way of storing a Map is similar to two- column table.
  • 53. Collection ● Collection interface is the root interface of collection hierarchy.List interface is most commonly used collection type.LinkedList and ArrayList are its well known implementing classes.Lists can store objects only and not primitive types like int but one can create Integer objects.All objects in List are indexed from 0 to (size of list-1) ● ● Set is very much like list but with added constraint of not storing duplicate values.Sets do not impose a 0..size-1 indexing of the elements (thats what Lists do), so List methods like get(int index) are not available for sets. ● ● HashSet is mostly used set which only works with elements, like String and Integer, which have a hashCode() defined. The TreeSet is an alternative which has performance issues, but keeps the set in sorted order, so iteration will yield the values in sorted order. ● ● java.util.Collection <-----------java.util.Map ● ● A Map is altogether different from List and Set.It stores key-value pairs and any value can quickly be searched on the basis of a key.A map cannot contain duplicate keys; each key can map to at most one value.Map is a basic interface being implemented by classes HashMap and TreeMap.HashMap is most commonly used which can store objects in unordered fashion while TreeMap can store in ordered fashion.Some implementations of Map prohibit null keys and values and some have restrictions on type of their keys.You may get NullPointerException or ClassCastException when trying to insert or retrieve invalid keys or values.
  • 54. Diff in Hashmap & Hashtable ● Hashtable is synchronized, whereas HashMap is not. This makes HashMap better for non-threaded applications, as unsynchronized Objects typically perform better than synchronized ones. ● Hashtable does not allow null keys or values. HashMap allows one null key and any number of null values. ● One of HashMaps subclasses is LinkedHashMap, so in the event that youd want predictable iteration order (which is insertion order by default), you could easily swap out the HashMap for a LinkedHashMap. This wouldnt be as easy if you were using Hashtable. ● Hashtable is similar to the HashMap and has a similar interface. It is recommended that you use HashMap unless yoou require support for legacy applications or you need synchronisation - as the Hashtables methods are synchronised. So in your case as you are not multi-threading, HashMaps are your best bet.
  • 55. Database Connectivity ● JDBC(Java Database Connectivity) ● JDBC Design ● Structured Query Language ● Installing JDBC ● Basic JDBC programming concept ● Query execution ● Connection Pooling ● JDBC(Java Database Connectivity) ● Scrollable and Updatable result set ● Metadata ● How to fetch Table into ArrayList and Hashtable. ● How to populate Table from ArrayList, Hashtable, record object
  • 56. Thank you SHIKSHARTH.COM
  • 57. Language Fundamental (skip)●Operators and assignment●Declaration and flow controls●Variables and constant identifiers
  • 58. Thread (Skip)●Threads●Overview●Creation●Synchronization●Synchronization in respect to multithreading. With respect to multithreading, synchronization is the capability tocontrol the access of multiple threads to shared resources. Withoutsynchonization, it is possible for one thread to modify a shared variablewhile another thread is in the process of using or updating same sharedvariable. This usually leads to significant errors.
  • 59. Package, Import and AccessModifier Private No Modifier Protected PublicSame Class Yes Yes Yes YesSame pkg. No Yes Yes YessubclassSame pkg. No Yes Yes Yesnon subclassDifferent No No Yes Yespkg. SubclassDifferent No No No Yespkg. Nonsubclass