10.1,10.2 Properties Of Gases And Pressure

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10.1,10.2 Properties Of Gases And Pressure

  1. 1. Chapter 10 Gases <ul><li>10.1 Properties of Gases </li></ul><ul><li>10.2 Gas Pressure </li></ul>
  2. 2. Kinetic Theory of Gases <ul><li>A gas consists of small particles that: </li></ul><ul><li>Move rapidly in straight lines </li></ul><ul><li>Have essentially no attractive (or repulsive) forces </li></ul><ul><li>Are very far apart </li></ul><ul><li>Have very small volumes compared to the volume of the container they occupy </li></ul><ul><li>Have kinetic energies that increase with an increase in temperature </li></ul>
  3. 3. Properties of Gases <ul><li>Gases are described in terms of four properties: pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), and amount (n). </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Gas pressure: </li></ul><ul><li>Is described as a force acting on a specific area </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure (P) = Force </li></ul><ul><li> Area </li></ul><ul><li>Has units of atm, mm Hg, torr, and pascals </li></ul><ul><li>1 atmosphere (1 atm) is 760 mm Hg </li></ul><ul><li>1 mm Hg = 1 torr </li></ul><ul><li> 1.00 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr </li></ul>Gas Pressure
  5. 5. Units of Pressure <ul><li>Gas pressure, </li></ul><ul><li>Is described as a force acting on a specific area </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>A. What is 475 mm Hg expressed in atm? </li></ul><ul><li>1) 475 atm </li></ul><ul><li> 2) 0.625 atm </li></ul><ul><li>3) 3.61 x 10 5 atm </li></ul><ul><li>B. The pressure in a tire is 2.00 atm. What is this pressure in mm Hg? </li></ul><ul><li> 1) 2.00 mm Hg </li></ul><ul><li> 2) 1520 mm Hg </li></ul><ul><li> 3) 22 300 mm Hg </li></ul>Learning Check
  7. 7. <ul><li>A. What is 475 mm Hg expressed in atm? </li></ul><ul><li>2) 0.625 atm </li></ul><ul><li>475 mm Hg x 1 atm = 0.625 atm </li></ul><ul><li> 760 mm Hg </li></ul><ul><li>B. The pressure of a tire is measured as 2.00 atm. What is this pressure in mm Hg? </li></ul><ul><li>2) 1520 mm Hg </li></ul><ul><li>2.00 atm x 760 mm Hg = 1520 mm Hg </li></ul><ul><li> 1 atm </li></ul>Solution
  8. 8. Atmospheric Pressure <ul><li>The atmospheric pressure: </li></ul><ul><li>Is the pressure exerted by a column of air from the top of the atmosphere to the surface of Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Is about 1 atmosphere or a little less at sea level </li></ul>
  9. 9. Altitude and Atmospheric Pressure <ul><li>Atmospheric pressure: </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on the altitude and the weather </li></ul><ul><li>Is lower at high altitudes where the density of air is less </li></ul><ul><li>Is higher on a rainy day than on a sunny day </li></ul>
  10. 10. Barometer <ul><li>A barometer: </li></ul><ul><li>Measures the pressure exerted by the gases in the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates atmospheric pressure as the height in mm of the mercury column </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>A. The downward pressure of the Hg in a barometer is _____ than (as) the pressure of the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li> 1) greater 2) less 3) the same </li></ul><ul><li>B. A water barometer is 13.6 times taller than a Hg barometer (D Hg = 13.6 g/mL) because: </li></ul><ul><li>1) H 2 O is less dense </li></ul><ul><li>2) H 2 O is heavier </li></ul><ul><li>3) air is more dense than H 2 O </li></ul>Learning Check
  12. 12. <ul><li>A.The downward pressure of the Hg in a barometer is 3) the same (as) the pressure of the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>B. A water barometer is 13.6 times taller than a Hg barometer (D Hg = 13.6 g/mL) because: </li></ul><ul><li>1) H 2 O is less dense </li></ul>Solution

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