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  • 1. B.F. Skinner Operant Conditioning By: Jenifer Flores Patricia Guardado Vicky Mendel
  • 2. Burrhuss Frederic (B.F.) Skinner
    • Personal info
    • Born on March 20, 1904 in Susquenhanna, Pennsylvania.
    • At age 32, he married Yvonne Blue
    • and the couple moved to Minnesota
    • where Skinner had his first teaching job.
    • Died of leukemia on August 18, 1990.
  • 3. B.F. Skinner cont’d
    • Education
    • Majored in Literature at Hamilton College in New York and became a writer.
    • In 1928 he started graduate school in the Psychology department of Harvard University.
    • He received his PhD in 1931.
  • 4. B.F. Skinner Foundation
    • “ Better behavioral science for a more humane world”.
  • 5. Theory Introduction
      • Skinner’s Theory is based on the idea that learning is a function of change in overt Behavior
      • Skinner’s Theory is known as Operant Conditioning
        • Operant Conditioning is distinct in that the organism can emit responses, instead of eliciting a response due to an external stimulus.
  • 6. Operant Conditioning
      • Skinner is regarded as the father of Operant Conditioning, but his work was based on Thorndike’s law of effect.
      • Skinner introduced a new term into the Law of Effect - Reinforcement. Behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated (i.e. strengthened); behavior which is not reinforced tends to die out-or be extinguished (i.e. weakened).
  • 7. Operant Conditioning Continued
      • Based on the work of Edward Thorndike.
        • Studied learning in animals (cats) by using a puzzle box to propose the theory ‘Law of Effect’
        • Law of Effect stated that any behavior that is followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated, and any behavior followed by unpleasant consequences is likely to be stopped.
        • Law of Effect lead to the development of operant conditioning, within behaviorism.
  • 8. Distinctive Aspect of Skinner’s Theory
      • Skinner’s Theory attempted to provide Behavioral explanations for a range of cognitive phenomena, such as drive (motivation), in terms of deprivation.
  • 9. Operant Conditioning
      • Skinner believed that we do have such a thing as a mind, but that it is simply more productive to study observable behavior rather than internal mental events.
      • Skinner believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the cause of an action and its consequences. (operant conditioning)
  • 10. Terminology in Operant Conditioning
      • Organism in this presentation will refer to animals in experiments.
      • External Stimulus: A signal that originates from outside and organism.
      • Stimulus Response: Anything that strengthens a desired response, is reinforcement, such as verbal praise.
  • 11. Terminology Cont’d
      • Negative Reinforcement:
      • -Any stimulus that promotes increased frequency of a response. It is not
      • punishment.
      • . Example: The removal of an unpleasant re-inforcer can also strengthen behavior. This is known as Negative Reinforcement because it is the removal of an adverse stimulus which is ‘rewarding’ . Negative reinforcement strengthens behavior because it stops or removes an unpleasant experience
  • 12. Skinner’s Three Type of Responses That Can Follow Behavior
      • Neutral Operants
        • Neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behavior being repeated.
      • Re-inforcers:
        • Responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behavior being repeated
      • Punishers
        • Response from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment weakens behavior.
  • 13. Reinforcers
    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • B.F. Skinner's schedules of reinforcement
      • a) Variable Interval
      • b) Variable Ratio
      • c) Fixed Interval
      • d) Fixed Ratio
  • 14. Summary of Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
      • Behaviorism is primarily concerned with observable behavior, as opposed to internal events like thinking and emotion.
      • The major influence on human behavior is learning from our environment.
  • 15. Perspective and Implications for Instructional Technology Based on Skinner’s Operant Conditioning.
      • Article: Direct Instruction Revisited: A Key Model for Instructional Technology, by Susan G. Magliaro, Barbara B. Lockee & John K. Burton
      • Rooted in behavioral theory, particularly the
    • radical or selectivist behaviorism of B.F.
    • Skinner (1953, 1954, 1966, 1968, 1974), the
    • direct instruction (DI) approach to teaching
    • is now well into its third decade of
    • influencing curriculum, instruction, and
    • research.
  • 16. Perspective and Implications for Instructional Technology Based on Skinner’s Operant Conditioning cont’d
    • In 1968 Skinner published The Technology of Teaching , that has influenced today’s instructional technology in the classroom.
    • The perfect machine that Skinner lacked is now available with the coming of the computer and internet.
  • 17. Perspective and Implications cont’d
    • The articles intent is to show how Direct Instruction, which has foundational components in Skinner’s Operant Theory, has evolved in practice and describe how it is being used in instructional technology
  • 18. Perspective and Implications cont’d
    • ) Direct Instruction has evolved in response to new understanding.
    • Direct Instruction is a behavioral based model, in which is assumed that learners must be active (behaving) to learn.
  • 19. Perspective and Implications cont’d
    • In The Technology of Teaching, Skinner (1968) stated, It is important to emphasize that a student does not passively absorb knowledge from the world around him but must play an active role, and also that action is not simply talking. To know is to act effectively, both verbally and nonverbally.
  • 20. Skinner’s Implications for Instruction
    • Has influenced Direct Instruction, in which all phases can be executed utilizing computer based instruction.
    • Can be executed in an individulized and self paced manner.
    • Network systems, such and Asynchronous course template systems such as Blackboard can add increased flexibility in instruction and possess the ability to conduct pre-assessments and present information in a variety of formats, using post-assessment and corrective feedback to instruction
  • 21. Operant Conditioning
    •  
  • 22. Questions
  • 23. Question #1
    • What is a formal definition of "operant"?
    • a) a contingent or noncontingent stimulus-induced response
    • b) a behavior
    • c) a discriminative stimulus
    • d) a behavior under the control of a stimulus
    • e) a class of behaviors with an equivalent effect on the environment
  • 24. Question #2
    • Negative reinforcement...
    • a) increases the rate of behavior
    • b) involves following a behavior with a noxious or aversive stimulus
    • c) is a form of punishment
    • d) is also called DRL
    • e) requires an extinction period
  • 25.  
  • 26. Question #3
    • What is a punishment?
    • a) An unpleasant event or stimulus.
    • b) Any undesired event or stimulus that weakens or decreases a behavior.
    • c) A disagreeable consequence.d) Something the individual dislikes.
  • 27. Question #4
    • Which of the following is true of learning?
    • a) Learning is relatively permanent.
    • b) Learning involves a change in behavior.
    • c) Learning occurs through experience.
    • d) All of the above
  • 28. Question #5
    • Negative reinforcement increases the strength or frequency of a response by __________ an aversive stimulus.
      • a) Increasing
      • b) Decreasing
      • c) Removing
      • d) Ignoring
  • 29. Sources
    • L.D., Smith, & W.R., Woodard. (1996). B.f. Skinner and behaviorism in American culture . Bethlehem , London; Cranbury, NJ: Lehigh University Press.
    • R.A., Reiser, & J.V., Dempsey. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology . Upper Saddle River, NJ; Columbus, OH: Prentice Hall.
    • http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/Operant%20Conditioning.pdf
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_ctJqjlrHA
    • http.//www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/Edward-thorndike.html
    • http://medicalchronicle.co.za/can-punishment-modify-behaviour/
  • 30. Sources cont’d
    • http://www.bfskinner.org
    • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bhskin.html
    • http://www.psychology.org/cgi-bin/links2/search.cgi?query=Skinner
    • http://tip.psychology.org/skinner.html
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B._F._Skinner
    • http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=112&sid=9eb4bfa7-0ae6-4af8-a11e-4f716120d37f%40sessionmgr112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d
    • http://fordham.academia.edu/MitchellRabinowitz/Papers/124361/Rabinowitz_M._and_Shaw_E._J._2005_._Psychology_instructional_design_and_the_use_of_technology_Behavioral_cognitive_and_affordances_perspectives._Educational_Technology_45_49-53._invited_paper_
  • 31. The End