Skinner is regarded as the father of Operant Conditioning, but his work was based on Thorndike’s law of effect.
Skinner introduced a new term into the Law of Effect - Reinforcement. Behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated (i.e. strengthened); behavior which is not reinforced tends to die out-or be extinguished (i.e. weakened).
-Any stimulus that promotes increased frequency of a response. It is not
. Example: The removal of an unpleasant re-inforcer can also strengthen behavior. This is known as Negative Reinforcement because it is the removal of an adverse stimulus which is ‘rewarding’ . Negative reinforcement strengthens behavior because it stops or removes an unpleasant experience
Skinner’s Three Type of Responses That Can Follow Behavior
Neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behavior being repeated.
Responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behavior being repeated
Response from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment weakens behavior.
The articles intent is to show how Direct Instruction, which has foundational components in Skinner’s Operant Theory, has evolved in practice and describe how it is being used in instructional technology
In The Technology of Teaching, Skinner (1968) stated, It is important to emphasize that a student does not passively absorb knowledge from the world around him but must play an active role, and also that action is not simply talking. To know is to act effectively, both verbally and nonverbally.
Has influenced Direct Instruction, in which all phases can be executed utilizing computer based instruction.
Can be executed in an individulized and self paced manner.
Network systems, such and Asynchronous course template systems such as Blackboard can add increased flexibility in instruction and possess the ability to conduct pre-assessments and present information in a variety of formats, using post-assessment and corrective feedback to instruction