Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Skinner
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Skinner

5,978
views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology

0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
5,978
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
262
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. B.F. SkinnerB.F. Skinner Operant ConditioningOperant Conditioning By:By: Jenifer FloresJenifer Flores Patricia GuardadoPatricia Guardado Vicky MedelVicky Medel
  • 2. Burrhuss Frederic (B.F.) SkinnerBurrhuss Frederic (B.F.) Skinner Personal infoPersonal info  Born on March 20, 1904 in Susquenhanna,Born on March 20, 1904 in Susquenhanna, Pennsylvania.Pennsylvania.  At age 32, he married Yvonne BlueAt age 32, he married Yvonne Blue and the couple moved to Minnesotaand the couple moved to Minnesota where Skinner had his first teaching job.where Skinner had his first teaching job.  Died of leukemia on August 18, 1990.Died of leukemia on August 18, 1990.
  • 3. B.F. Skinner cont’dB.F. Skinner cont’d EducationEducation  Majored in Literature at Hamilton College inMajored in Literature at Hamilton College in New York and became a writer.New York and became a writer.  In 1928 he started graduate school in theIn 1928 he started graduate school in the Psychology department of HarvardPsychology department of Harvard University.University.  He received his PhD in 1931.He received his PhD in 1931.
  • 4. B.F. Skinner FoundationB.F. Skinner Foundation  ““Better behavioral science for a moreBetter behavioral science for a more humane world”.humane world”.
  • 5. Theory IntroductionTheory Introduction • Skinner’s Theory is based on the ideaSkinner’s Theory is based on the idea that learning is a function of change inthat learning is a function of change in overt Behaviorovert Behavior • Skinner’s Theory is known as OperantSkinner’s Theory is known as Operant ConditioningConditioning o Operant Conditioning is distinct in that theOperant Conditioning is distinct in that the organism can emit responses, instead oforganism can emit responses, instead of eliciting a response due to an externaleliciting a response due to an external stimulus.stimulus.
  • 6. Operant ConditioningOperant Conditioning • Skinner is regarded as the father ofSkinner is regarded as the father of Operant Conditioning, but his work wasOperant Conditioning, but his work was based on Thorndike’s law of effect.based on Thorndike’s law of effect. • Skinner introduced a new term into the LawSkinner introduced a new term into the Law of Effectof Effect - Reinforcement. Behavior which is- Reinforcement. Behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated (i.e.reinforced tends to be repeated (i.e. strengthened); behavior which is notstrengthened); behavior which is not reinforced tends to die out-or bereinforced tends to die out-or be extinguished (i.e. weakened).extinguished (i.e. weakened).
  • 7. Operant Conditioning ContinuedOperant Conditioning Continued • Based on the work of Edward Thorndike.Based on the work of Edward Thorndike. o Studied learning in animals (cats) by using aStudied learning in animals (cats) by using a puzzle box to propose the theory ‘Law of Effect’puzzle box to propose the theory ‘Law of Effect’ o Law of Effect stated that any behavior that isLaw of Effect stated that any behavior that is followed by pleasant consequences is likely tofollowed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated, and any behavior followed bybe repeated, and any behavior followed by unpleasant consequences is likely to beunpleasant consequences is likely to be stopped.stopped. o Law of Effect lead to the development ofLaw of Effect lead to the development of operant conditioning, within behaviorism.operant conditioning, within behaviorism.
  • 8. Distinctive Aspect of Skinner’sDistinctive Aspect of Skinner’s TheoryTheory • Skinner’s Theory attempted toSkinner’s Theory attempted to provide Behavioral explanations for aprovide Behavioral explanations for a range of cognitive phenomena, suchrange of cognitive phenomena, such as drive (motivation), in terms ofas drive (motivation), in terms of deprivation.deprivation.
  • 9. Operant ConditioningOperant Conditioning • Skinner believedSkinner believed that we do have such athat we do have such a thing as a mind, but that it is simply morething as a mind, but that it is simply more productive to study observable behaviorproductive to study observable behavior rather than internal mental events.rather than internal mental events. • Skinner believed that the best way toSkinner believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causeunderstand behavior is to look at the cause of an action and its consequences. (operantof an action and its consequences. (operant conditioning)conditioning)
  • 10. Terminology in Operant ConditioningTerminology in Operant Conditioning • Organism in this presentation will refer toOrganism in this presentation will refer to animals in experiments.animals in experiments. • External Stimulus: A signal thatExternal Stimulus: A signal that originates from outside and organism.originates from outside and organism. • Stimulus Response: Anything thatStimulus Response: Anything that strengthens a desired response, isstrengthens a desired response, is reinforcement, such as verbal praise.reinforcement, such as verbal praise.
  • 11. Terminology Cont’dTerminology Cont’d • Negative Reinforcement:Negative Reinforcement: -Any stimulus that promotes increased-Any stimulus that promotes increased frequency of a response. It is notfrequency of a response. It is not punishment.punishment. . Example: The removal of an unpleasant re-. Example: The removal of an unpleasant re- inforcer can also strengthen behavior. This isinforcer can also strengthen behavior. This is known asknown as Negative ReinforcementNegative Reinforcement because itbecause it is theis the removal of an adverse stimulusremoval of an adverse stimulus whichwhich is ‘rewarding’ . Negative reinforcementis ‘rewarding’ . Negative reinforcement strengthens behavior because it stops orstrengthens behavior because it stops or removes an unpleasant experienceremoves an unpleasant experience
  • 12. Skinner’s Three Type of Responses ThatSkinner’s Three Type of Responses That Can Follow BehaviorCan Follow Behavior • Neutral OperantsNeutral Operants o Neither increase nor decrease the probability ofNeither increase nor decrease the probability of a behavior being repeated.a behavior being repeated. • Re-inforcers:Re-inforcers: o Responses from the environment that increaseResponses from the environment that increase the probability of a behavior being repeatedthe probability of a behavior being repeated • PunishersPunishers o Response from the environment that decreaseResponse from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated.the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment weakens behavior.Punishment weakens behavior.
  • 13. ReinforcersReinforcers  PrimaryPrimary  SecondarySecondary  B.F. Skinner's schedules of reinforcementB.F. Skinner's schedules of reinforcement  a) Variable Intervala) Variable Interval  b) Variable Ratiob) Variable Ratio  c) Fixed Intervalc) Fixed Interval  d) Fixed Ratiod) Fixed Ratio
  • 14. Summary of Skinner’s OperantSummary of Skinner’s Operant ConditioningConditioning • Behaviorism is primarily concerned withBehaviorism is primarily concerned with observable behavior, as opposed toobservable behavior, as opposed to internal events like thinking and emotion.internal events like thinking and emotion. • The major influence on human behavior isThe major influence on human behavior is learning from our environment.learning from our environment.
  • 15. Perspective and Implications forPerspective and Implications for Instructional Technology Based onInstructional Technology Based on Skinner’s OperantSkinner’s Operant Conditioning.Conditioning. • Article: Direct Instruction Revisited: A Key ModelArticle: Direct Instruction Revisited: A Key Model for Instructional Technology, by Susan G.for Instructional Technology, by Susan G. Magliaro, Barbara B. Lockee & John K. BurtonMagliaro, Barbara B. Lockee & John K. Burton • Rooted in behavioral theory, particularly theRooted in behavioral theory, particularly the radical or selectivist behaviorism of B.F.radical or selectivist behaviorism of B.F. Skinner (1953, 1954, 1966, 1968, 1974), theSkinner (1953, 1954, 1966, 1968, 1974), the direct instruction (DI) approach to teachingdirect instruction (DI) approach to teaching is now well into its third decade ofis now well into its third decade of influencing curriculum, instruction, andinfluencing curriculum, instruction, and research.research.
  • 16. Perspective and Implications forPerspective and Implications for Instructional Technology Based onInstructional Technology Based on Skinner’s Operant ConditioningSkinner’s Operant Conditioning cont’dcont’d  In 1968 Skinner publishedIn 1968 Skinner published TheThe Technology of TeachingTechnology of Teaching, that has, that has influenced today’s instructional technologyinfluenced today’s instructional technology in the classroom.in the classroom.  The perfect machine that Skinner lackedThe perfect machine that Skinner lacked is now available with the coming of theis now available with the coming of the computer and internet.computer and internet.
  • 17. Perspective and Implications cont’dPerspective and Implications cont’d  The articles intent is to show how DirectThe articles intent is to show how Direct Instruction, which has foundationalInstruction, which has foundational components in Skinner’s Operant Theory, hascomponents in Skinner’s Operant Theory, has evolved in practice and describe how it is beingevolved in practice and describe how it is being used in instructional technologyused in instructional technology
  • 18. Perspective and Implications cont’dPerspective and Implications cont’d  Direct InstructionDirect Instruction has evolved in responsehas evolved in response to new understanding.to new understanding.  Direct Instruction is a behavioral basedDirect Instruction is a behavioral based model, in which is assumed that learnersmodel, in which is assumed that learners must be active (behaving) to learn.must be active (behaving) to learn.
  • 19. Perspective and Implications cont’dPerspective and Implications cont’d  In The Technology of Teaching, SkinnerIn The Technology of Teaching, Skinner (1968) stated, It is important to emphasize(1968) stated, It is important to emphasize that a student does not passively absorbthat a student does not passively absorb knowledge from the world around him butknowledge from the world around him but must play an active role, and also thatmust play an active role, and also that action is not simply talking. To know is toaction is not simply talking. To know is to act effectively, both verbally andact effectively, both verbally and nonverbally.nonverbally.
  • 20. Skinner’s Implications forSkinner’s Implications for InstructionInstruction  Has influenced Direct Instruction, in which allHas influenced Direct Instruction, in which all phases can be executed utilizing computerphases can be executed utilizing computer based instruction.based instruction.  Can be executed in an individualized and selfCan be executed in an individualized and self paced manner.paced manner.  Network systems, such and AsynchronousNetwork systems, such and Asynchronous course template systems such as Blackboardcourse template systems such as Blackboard can add increased flexibility in instruction andcan add increased flexibility in instruction and possess the ability to conduct pre-assessmentspossess the ability to conduct pre-assessments and present information in a variety of formats,and present information in a variety of formats, using post-assessment and corrective feedbackusing post-assessment and corrective feedback to instruction
  • 21. Operant ConditioningOperant Conditioning
  • 22. QuestionsQuestions
  • 23. Question #1Question #1  What is a formal definition of "operant"?What is a formal definition of "operant"?  a contingent or noncontingent stimulus-a contingent or noncontingent stimulus- induced responseinduced response  a behaviora behavior  a discriminative stimulusa discriminative stimulus  a behavior under the control of a stimulusa behavior under the control of a stimulus  a class of behaviors with an equivalenta class of behaviors with an equivalent effect on the environmenteffect on the environment
  • 24. Question #2Question #2  Negative reinforcement...Negative reinforcement...  increases the rate of behaviorincreases the rate of behavior  involves following a behavior with ainvolves following a behavior with a noxious or aversive stimulusnoxious or aversive stimulus  is a form of punishmentis a form of punishment  is also called DRLis also called DRL  requires an extinction periodrequires an extinction period
  • 25. Question #3Question #3  What is a punishment?What is a punishment?  a) An unpleasant event or stimulus.a) An unpleasant event or stimulus.  b) Any undesired event or stimulus thatb) Any undesired event or stimulus that weakens or decreases a behavior.weakens or decreases a behavior.  c) A disagreeable consequence.c) A disagreeable consequence.  d) Something the individual dislikes.d) Something the individual dislikes.
  • 26. Question #4Question #4  Which of the following is true of learning?Which of the following is true of learning?  a) Learning is relatively permanent.a) Learning is relatively permanent.  b) Learning involves a change inb) Learning involves a change in behavior.behavior.  c) Learning occurs through experience.c) Learning occurs through experience.  d) All of the aboved) All of the above
  • 27. Question #5Question #5  Negative reinforcement increases theNegative reinforcement increases the strength or frequency of a response bystrength or frequency of a response by __________ an aversive stimulus.__________ an aversive stimulus.  a) Increasinga) Increasing  b) Decreasingb) Decreasing  c) Removingc) Removing  d) Ignoringd) Ignoring
  • 28. SourcesSources  L.D., Smith, & W.R., Woodard. (1996).L.D., Smith, & W.R., Woodard. (1996). B.f. Skinner and behaviorism inB.f. Skinner and behaviorism in American cultureAmerican culture. Bethlehem , London; Cranbury, NJ: Lehigh University. Bethlehem , London; Cranbury, NJ: Lehigh University Press.Press.  R.A., Reiser, & J.V., Dempsey. (2007).R.A., Reiser, & J.V., Dempsey. (2007). Trends and issues in instructionalTrends and issues in instructional design and technologydesign and technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ; Columbus, OH: Prentice. Upper Saddle River, NJ; Columbus, OH: Prentice Hall.Hall.  http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/Operanthttp://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/Operant %20Conditioning.pdf%20Conditioning.pdf  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_ctJqjlrHAhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_ctJqjlrHA  http.//www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/Edward-thorndike.htmlhttp.//www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/Edward-thorndike.html  http://medicalchronicle.co.za/can-punishment-modify-behaviour/http://medicalchronicle.co.za/can-punishment-modify-behaviour/
  • 29. Sources cont’dSources cont’d  http://www.bfskinner.orghttp://www.bfskinner.org  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bhskin.htmlhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bhskin.html  http://www.psychology.org/cgi-bin/links2/search.cgi?query=Skinnerhttp://www.psychology.org/cgi-bin/links2/search.cgi?query=Skinner  http://tip.psychology.org/skinner.htmlhttp://tip.psychology.org/skinner.html  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B._F._Skinnerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B._F._Skinner  http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=112&sid=9eb4bfa7-0ae6-http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=112&sid=9eb4bfa7-0ae6- 4af8-a11e-4f716120d37f4af8-a11e-4f716120d37f %40sessionmgr112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d%40sessionmgr112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d  http://fordham.academia.edu/MitchellRabinowitz/Papers/124361/Rabinowitzhttp://fordham.academia.edu/MitchellRabinowitz/Papers/124361/Rabinowitz _M._and_Shaw_E._J._2005_._Psychology_instructional_design_and_the_us_M._and_Shaw_E._J._2005_._Psychology_instructional_design_and_the_us e_of_technology_Behavioral_cognitive_and_affordances_perspectives._Edue_of_technology_Behavioral_cognitive_and_affordances_perspectives._Edu cational_Technology_45_49-53._invited_paper_cational_Technology_45_49-53._invited_paper_
  • 30. The EndThe End