Chapter 9 Presentation -Veronica Martinez


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Chapter 9 Presentation -Veronica Martinez

  1. 1. Chapter 9 PresentationUrinary System Abbreviations<br />By: Veronica Martinez<br />
  2. 2. Urinary System Abbreviations<br />KUD – kidney, uterus, bladder<br />cath – catheter/catheterization<br />UTI – urinary tract infection<br />ARF – acute renal failure<br />H20– water<br />
  3. 3. KUB – kidney, uterus, bladder<br />The kidneys are paired organs with several functions. They are an essential part of the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid-base balance, and regulation of blood pressure. <br />They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, and remove wastes which are diverted to the urinary bladder. In producing urine, the kidneys excrete wastes such as urea and ammonium; the kidneys also are responsible for the reabsorption of water, glucose, and amino acids.<br />Located at the rear of the abdominal cavity, the kidneys receive blood from the paired renal arteries, and drain into the paired renal veins. Each kidney excretes urine into a ureter, itself a paired structure that empties into the urinary bladder.<br />
  4. 4. KUB – kidney, uterus, bladder<br />The uterus provides structural integrity and support to the bladder, bowel, pelvic bones and organs. The uterus helps separate and keep the bladder in its natural position above the pubic bone and the bowel in its natural configuration behind the uterus.<br />The uterus is continuous with the cervix, which is continuous with the vagina, much in the way that the head is continuous with the neck, which is continuous with the shoulders. It is attached to bundles of nerves, and networks of arteries and veins, and broad bands of ligaments such as round ligaments, cardinal ligaments, broad ligaments, and uterosacral ligaments.<br />The uterus is essential in sexual response by directing blood flow to the pelvis and to the external genitalia, including the ovaries, vagina, labia, and clitoris. <br />
  5. 5. KUB – kidney, uterus, bladder<br />The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. A hollow muscular, and distensible organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor. <br />Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra.<br />
  6. 6. KUB – kidney, uterus, bladder<br />uterus<br />bladder<br />Kidneys<br />
  7. 7. cath – catheter/catheterization<br />A catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct, or vessel. <br />Catheters thereby allow drainage, injection of fluids, or access by surgical instruments. The process of inserting a catheter is catheterization. <br />In most uses, a catheter is a thin, flexible tube ("soft" catheter), though in some uses, it is a larger, solid ("hard") catheter. <br />A catheter left inside the body, either temporarily or permanently, may be referred to as an indwelling catheter. A permanently inserted catheter may be referred to as a permcath.<br />
  8. 8. cath – catheter/catheterization<br />
  9. 9. UTI – urinary tract infection<br />A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. The main etiologic agent is Escherichia coli. Although urine contains a variety of fluids, salts, and waste products, it does not usually have bacteria in it.When bacteria gets into the bladder or kidney and multiply in the urine, they may cause a UTI.<br />The most common type of UTI is acute cystitis often referred to as a bladder infection. An infection of the upper urinary tract or kidney is known as pyelonephritis, and is potentially more serious.<br />Although they cause discomfort, urinary tract infections can usually be easily treated with a short course of antibiotics. Symptoms include frequent feeling and/or need to urinate, pain during urination, and cloudy urine.<br />
  10. 10. Urinary tract<br />
  11. 11. ARF – acute renal failure<br />Acute renal failure (ARF), is a rapid loss of kidney function. Its causes are numerous and include low blood volume, exposure to toxins, and prostate enlargement. <br />ARF is diagnosed on the basis of clinical history, such as decreased urine production, and characteristic laboratory findings, such as elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. <br />Depending on its severity, ARF may lead to a number of complications, including metabolic acidosis, high potassium levels, changes in body fluid balance, and effects to other organ systems. Management includes supportive care, such as renal replacement therapy, as well as treatment of the underlying disorder.<br />
  12. 12. H20 - Water<br />Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. Its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. <br />Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state, water vapor or steam.<br />Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface<br />
  13. 13. THE END<br />