Busines case - BPM and Data management presentation - May 2007

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  • Talking Note Some of the distinctive features of BPM include: Processes as first class citizens : It is necessary to move behind current EAI and custom application development and to treat process and not data or application as first class entities . Processes are meant as discrete, distributed, transactional, computational and collaborative units of work. Focus on end to end business processes: IT efforts will need to target end to end business process . These typically transcend the boundaries of the company and include outsourcers and independent partners. It is important not only to have the ability to interact with other organizations but also to measure real time the overall business performance of the value chain. Ability to coordinate basic elements: To make points 1 and 2 happen, the company must have the ability to coordinate basic elements like activities, exception, messages and choices belonging to heterogeneous IT solutions . Managing processes includes the possibility to deal with rules, roles, renewal procedures and restriction conditions. It is also necessary to be able to sequence, synchronize and schedule. Incremental (R)evolution: Rather than substituting existing systems, adding extra layer of complexity, it is necessary to create a framework to coordinate the evolution of existing processes and creation of new processes . It is advisable to leverage existing assets and investments rather than adopt a big bang approach. Existing IT solutions are reused, adapted, monitored and changed for improvement.
  • Ideas from PDF: http://www.idealliance.org/papers/dx_xml03/papers/04-06-01/04-06-01.pdf WSO and BPEL apply the lessons learned from integrating proprietary EAI solutions and reflect the current movements within the IT industry. They acknowledge that Web services are emerging as the standard integration technology and take next logical step. They provide a standardized integration interface and a standardized language for integration and process automation. BPEL, in effect, has the potential to commoditize the capabilities provided by proprietary EAI and BPM solutions. As it often occurs in a commodity market, the resulting prices for product and services will fall, which is one of the most important business cases for adopting BPEL. Business processes exported to BPEL will be able to execute in a variety of standards-compliant execution engines, offering customers more choice and the ability to mix and match best-of-breed tools. Development, maintenance and support costs are another reason to choose WSO and BPEL. If your organization has the capability to integrate Web services, then you will also be able to create and invoke BPEL processes by leveraging existing Web services infrastructure and know-how. This will ultimately enable a broader group of developers to perform business integration and process automation tasks that previously required highly specialized skills.
  • Talking Notes: --------------------------------------------------------------- Source: Mainly adapted from “Business Integration Journal: 2004 BPMS Reference Architecture” and http://bijonline.com/ April and October 2004 issues. http://processdriven.org/business_process_mgmt.html Gartner aXway Process Manager Overview Delphi Group: BPM-S http://www.kmworld.com/publications/magazine/index.cfm?action=readarticle&Article_ID=1342&Publication_ID=76 Analysis: The business logic and grounding that must be done to feed into the modeling process. Provide utilities for up-front analysis of e.g. critical paths, bottlenecks, dead ends, loops, cost, etc Modeling: Process modeling is the use of information representing processes in a diagrammatic or graphical way. E.g. Flow charts, swim lanes and BPMN or UML diagrams, WSDL authoring (model your interfaces), Schema authoring (model your messages), Process modeling (model your orchestration). Allow the definition of resources: individuals, groups, roles, external participants, skills. Allow the definition of work item routing within a process, e.g. serial, parallel, conditional, nested, iterative, etc. It also provides support for Simulation Execution: Is focused on the execution of individual activities autonomously. These are centrally co-coordinated through the process execution engine. It includes Process Automation, Systems Interfacing and Exception handling Managing: Is focused on the automation on the packaging and deployment of the processes. It includes services like versioning and repositories which consist of management and storage of multiple versions of a process, import and export facilities, deployment to production. Provide support for change management and documentation: descriptions of processes, activities and work items.
  • Talking Note The introduction of BPM must always be driven by the creation or change of a Business Process. From Accenture’s experience a BPM tool has mainly be identified to implement 2 different business needs . To obtain a competitive edge of processes over competitors, BPM competencies were required to provide agility and flexibility to the Enterprise Business Architecture. Top-down strategy Specific process integration needs had been identified by the Business and a BPM tool was the most effective way to implement quickly a solution and providing in the same way a long term value to the Business Architecture by enabling flexibility. Bottom-up strategy
  • Busines case - BPM and Data management presentation - May 2007

    1. 1. AXA Investment Managers BPM – Business Process ManagementStrategy & ArchitectureArchitecture and BPM: IT principlesMay 2007 1
    2. 2. Agenda Pre s e nta tio n o f the a rc hite c tura l a p p ro a c h a nd1 Architectural approach the m a in p ro g ra m m e s A o ng the m a in a rc hite c tura l p ro g ra m m e s , fo c us m2 Focus on S P OA rogram e m o n the SO Ap ro g ra m m e I d uc tio n to BPMc o nc e p ts a nd p rinc ip le s – ntro3 B Mconcepts P d iffe re nc e be twe e n BPMa nd Wo rkflo w - BPM S The p o s s ible ne x t s te p s a nd the link with o the r initia tive s4 Possible next steps A d itio na l m a te ria l d5 Appendices 2
    3. 3. Architectural drivers Common agreed architectural approach Today, a common architectural approach for implementing systems is widely agreed integration Production Systems Production or operational systems are in Media Channel Business Hub charge of storing and producing data Distribution Multi-channel Multi-producer support support Production Data are then enriched and processed by an integration layer to become Front-office Process Components Resource Components system information. The integration layer uses Internal extensively SOA and BPM concepts Portfolio Fund system Production creation database The information are distributed to end- users, systems or clients via channels and B2B system Risk mgmt Client Group media system Production database This model promotes multi-channels and … Product … multi-factory systems and speed-up the Distribution External system time to market Client system database Production database Enterprise Service Bus & BPM 3
    4. 4. AXA IM’s Architecture enablers The three main programmes Based on the previous general approach, BPM, SOA and DM are the 3 main enablers of AXA IM’s IS architecture Process repository Data Master Files Process reporting Information management Orchestration Business reporting BPM : Business Process Management DM : Data Management Steps: Process 1/ Process modelling integration Production Systems 2/ Process monitoring 3/ Process automation Media Channel Business HubDistribution Multi-channel Multi-producer Production support support Pro cess Reso urce Front-office Compo nents Compo nents system Internal system Portfolio Production Fund creation database B2B Client Group system Risk mgmt system Production database … Product … Steps: External Distribution system database Production Client database system SOA : Service Oriented Architecture Enterprise Service Bus & BPM 1/ Master Data Data Steps: Management Service 1/ Standardized exchanges 2/ Business Activity Monitoring 2/ ESB 3/ Orchestration Global connectivity Service enablement Service registry Technical monitoring 4
    5. 5. AXA IM’s view on Enterprise Architecture Frameworks These frameworks are used as IT enablers for Ambition 2012 in AXA IM Target Reference Architecture DomainsBusiness applications information Process Repository (Mega) Process & Data Vendors IDB BAM Capco Markit Bloomberg Q DB BPM Presentation Financial 3 rd Party MIRH Integration Clients Professionals CSRs Providers Employees Shareholders Public Layer Business Interface Channels (Frontplane) HTTP:// @ B2B Constraint Phone/IVR/VRU Wireless Web Mail Email Fax Server DMT Technical applications Portal Enterprise Content Management Business BAM Allocation Engine EQ Reporting Rules management Business Reporting Choreography Business Process Management Layer ODS – DWH – BI – DataMarts FI Service BPM Service & data (Crossplane) Process Repository (Mega) Decalog Repository eMail MM Enterprise Counterparty Integration Enterprise Integration Bus ESB Risk & VAR Layer BAL Enterprise (Backplane) Adapters Adapters Adapters ESB Directory Cash Mgt SF Corporate Core Shared Constraint Counterparty Services Server Risk & VAR Perf Attrib Point solutions Services Business (Back Office) Services Allocation Cash Mgt Stock lending & FHF management Repository DALI’S Security Back-O ffice (SSC) Legacy* Stock lending & Repository CTP SMF P&P NAV T&H Struct P Perf Attrib Batch management CTP SMF P&P NAV T&H PE Enterprise Data TFM es IDB Q DB MIRH ipl nc Security pri - IT Enterprise eMail ESB Directory Data Vendors ft IT Infrastructure Dra Batch TFM management Back-O ffice Capco Markit (SSC) IT Capabilities and Management Bloomberg Architecture view on LTO M 5
    6. 6. AXA IM’s Architecture enablers The three main programmes along with the framework les nc ip pri - IT aftDr Business applications BPM, SOA and DM are strongly information Process Repository (Mega) Process & IDB linked and consistent BAM QDB BPM MIRH BPM Programme Constraint Server ion DMT Technical applications Business Allocation trat engine management rules Fee EQ Reporting ble hes d Ena Or c Decalog FI Service & data BA Service Repository eMail M Counterparty MM Risk & VAR Provide data BAL Enterprise Cash Mgt ESB Directory SOA Programme DM Programme SF*Decalog for instance Stock lending Distribution & Repository FHF DALI’S Security CTP SMF P&P NAV T&H BPM : Business Process Management DM : Data Management Perf Attrib Struct P Steps: Batch Process 1/ Process modelling TFM PE management 2/ Process monitoring 3/ Process automation ESB Data Vendors SO A : Service O riented Architecture Steps: Back-Office 1/ Master Data Data Management Capco Markit Steps: Service (SSC) 1/ Standardized exchanges 2/ Business Activity Monitoring 2/ ESB Bloomberg 3/ Orchestration 6
    7. 7. Appendices Convergence between Process, Service and Data Process Service Data ss re ss gre rog ss pr o Process Modelling p Standard Based Exchanges gre In In pro Master Data Management Model business processes in a Allows standardized point-to-point In Allows the management of the standard way and help generate communication between systems quality and the consistency of the standard process description through widely accepted open data located in various databases languages standards and enterprise systems. Further ss enables governance and clearSteps Process Monitoring gre pro Enterprise Service Bus ownership over data Check that processes are adapted, In Allows a network of disparate robust and efficient systems to interact as one unified enterprise system by resolving differences in system HW, SW, networks, and location Touch point Process Execution Orchestration Business Activity Monitoring Execute process automatically and Allows automated integration of Provides End-to-End process enable workflows using a workflow separate services to create performance monitoring (Real-time) engine integrated enterprise level business insight and control of business processes 7
    8. 8. Agenda Pre s e nta tio n o f the a rc hite c tura l a p p ro a c h a nd1 Architectural approach the m a in p ro g ra m m e s A o ng the m a in a rc hite c tura l p ro g ra m m e s , fo c us m2 Focus on S P OA rogram e m o n the SO Ap ro g ra m m e I d uc tio n to BPMc o nc e p ts a nd p rinc ip le s – ntro3 B Mconcepts P d iffe re nc e be twe e n BPMa nd Wo rkflo w - BPM S The p o s s ible ne x t s te p s a nd the link with o the r initia tive s4 Possible next steps A d itio na l m a te ria l d5 Appendices 8
    9. 9. SOA reminder Definition Service Oriented Architecture is an approach to distributed computing that thinks of software resources as services available on the network. SOA encompasses both a design and development technology as well as an approach to addressing business problems. Solutions A Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is an architecture that defines how separate business functions implemented byGet Broker Get Product Get Client Get NAV Get SMF Services autonomous systems interoperate to execute a business process.DALI’s Data Minerva Decalog Other Data TFM Operational Systems  Common business-level services are deployed and  Services are developed once, reuse is enforced, and reused across the enterprise costly “code proliferation” is reduced  Process orchestration is used to assemble  Future applications “plug-in” to existing services using business services into a business process standard technology; integration and connectivity efforts are reduced. 9
    10. 10. SOA roadmap in AXA IMSOA implementation in AXA IMThe 4 major technology enablers behind SOA and their business value : Level of sophistication and S enablem OA ent SOA Foundation Process Excellence Standard-based ESB BPO BAM Communication Enterprise Service Bus Business Process Orchestration Business Activity Monitoring Web Services XML, SOAP, MQ… Allows automated integration Provides End-to-End process Allows a network of disparate Allows standardized systems to interact as one of separate services to performance monitoring unified enterprise system create integrated enterprise (Real-time) insight and control point-to-point communication level business processes. of business. between systems through by resolving differences in widely accepted open standards. system HW, SW, networks, and location. 006 Multi-year BPM MDM Ac hieved in 2 programme Business Process Management Master Data Management 06 Started in 20 Multi-year pro g selected in Appian BPMS 07 20 10 April
    11. 11. BL : Business Logic DB : Database SR : Service RepositorySOA enablement scenario (1/ 4) BP : Business Process SC : Service Component S : Service 1 IS Initial state 2 Standard-based communications Fat Client Thin Client Front End Application 1 Front End Application 2 Fat Client Thin Client Frond End 1 Front End 2 BL BL BL BL Application 1 .Net Application 2 remoting MQ Series App 1 App 2 BL BL BL BL BL BL Service BL BL Flat File BL BL BL BL Bus Flat File RMI BL BL (local) BL BL DB Wrapper4 Full SOA - Orchestration and BAM - 3 ESB enablement Service Oriented Business Application Structure BP SC SCProcess Management BP SC S BP D SC D Business Portal S BP BP BP Rules S S S S S S Engine BAM S Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) ESB Messaging, Transformation, Repository S S S SR Enterprise Data Model 11
    12. 12. Agenda Pre s e nta tio n o f the a rc hite c tura l a p p ro a c h a nd1 Architectural approach the m a in p ro g ra m m e s A o ng the m a in a rc hite c tura l p ro g ra m m e s , fo c us m2 Focus on S P OA rogram e m o n the SO Ap ro g ra m m e I d uc tio n to BPMc o nc e p ts a nd p rinc ip le s – ntro3 B Mconcepts P d iffe re nc e be twe e n BPMa nd Wo rkflo w - BPM S The p o s s ible ne x t s te p s a nd the link with o the r initia tive s4 Possible next steps A d itio na l m a te ria l d5 Appendices 12
    13. 13. BPM introductionDefinitions  “A business process is the complete and dynamically coordinated set of collaborative and transactional activities that deliver value to customers”  Business Process Management (BPM) defines, enables and manages the exchanges of business information on a basis of a process view that incorporates employees, customers, partners, applications and databases  Business Process Management is a set of services, tools and methodologies that provide for the explicit analysis, design, execution and monitoring and adm inistration of automated business processes, including support for human- and application-level interaction Definitions adapted from : -“Bus ine s s Pro c e s s M na g e m e nt – The 3 rd Wa ve ” : By Ho wa rd Sm ith a nd Pe te r Fing a r. a - Da rc y Fo wke s , Re s e a rc h Pra c tic e Dire c to r, A rd e e n G ro up be - G a rtne r: “Bus ine s s Pro c e s s M na g e m e nt Pre lim ina ry M rke t S iz e a nd Fo re c a s t” a a 13
    14. 14. BPM introductionBPM drivers  Business Process Management is related to Business activities, and for basic needs can be managed without any IT systems  To leverage full benefits of the BPM, dedicated IT systems are needed I want to automate my processes Needs and objectivesIT Involvement (level of automation) I want to I want to promote a rationalize the IS service I want to align using processes approach my IS with my processes I want to manage I want to pilot my my projects using processes in real- processes time I want to do I want to use processes city planning I want to monitor for conducting the my processes on change a regular basis I want to optimize I want to my Business I want to manage analyse my efficiency my operational processes risks I want to do I want to certify process modelling my processes Maturity of BPM 14
    15. 15. BPM introduction Technical solutions to enable BPM  BPM can be enabled using various solutions: Solution Definition Limitations A BPR is useful to centralize and make accessibleBusiness Process A BPR allow the modelling and the processes through portal for example but does notRepository consultation of processes (e.g. make any advanced process management activity. MEGA) A workflow product allow automatic The process participants are mainly humans. TheW orkflow product coordination of tasks realized by integration of the Workflow product to the IS is usually(standalone) humans (e.g. Advantys complex and limited to documents and tasks handling WorkflowGen) A workflow framework allow the A workflow framework has the same limitations of aWorkflow framework implementation of workflow Workflow product, in addition to the need for re- features in a system (e.g. Microsoft inventing the wheel through programming WF) Good answer to integration issues but the process The EAI allow the collaboration management is often proprietary and disconnectedEAI (Enterprise between applications to implement from the integration capabilities. The processes areApplication Integration) business objectives designed at a technical level. The human users can not be part of the process (thus a Workflow-type approach is very complex) IM tools are very powerful for document-basedInformation Management IM tools are dedicated to handle interaction between human or systems, but are verytools documents and digital assets limited to handle other elements like services BRE are dedicated to design BRE are mandatory to automate Business ProcessesBRE (Business Rules complex business rules in order but are totally unable to handle processes. TheyEngines) to automate them (e.g. must be coupled with a solution to handle Business OpenRules) Processes BPMS is a set of tools allowing If used properly (i.e. not as a Workflow solution)BPMS (BPM Suite) complete management of BPMS are heavy solutions having impacts on Business Processes: modelling, Architecture and organization monitoring, execution, 15 administration, analysis…
    16. 16. BPM introduction BPMS – Business Process Management SuiteBPMS allow to unify under only one tool all the previous visions. The objective is to allow the decisionmakers, analysts, functional teams and technical teams to collaborate for the definition and theevolution of the Business Processes via only one tool aggregating the various visions. Work End user Business Activity Monitoring management interaction Metrics Business rules BPMS engine modeller execution Process Process Process design & Process execution & Process monitoring Administration simulation modelling coordination Process Process Repository analysis (Appian view on BPMS) 16
    17. 17. BPM benefitsGeneral and technical benefits  The BPM bring Business benefits:  Control over our Business through shared and reusable Processes  Ability to simulate new processes before implementing them  Technical and Business reporting (real-time or not) over the activity  Improvement of the quality of service through bottlenecks reduction  Improved efficiency due to a more structured activity  Improved agility, due to reduced delay in implementing new processes  Cost reduction via re-usability  Meet our legal constraints (traceability…)  User satisfaction due to the automation of basic activities  The BPM brings IT benefits as well:  Opening of the IT systems to business analysts  The BPM draw a link between Services, Data and Processes  The BPM allow the centralization of the processes in one environment, instead of having fragmented processes in applications  The BPM allow orchestration of services and thus enable the next step of our SOA programme  The BPM allow a better control over flows, operations and processing, and thus improve the Information Security 17
    18. 18. BPM benefitsCentralization of the Business Process BPM Suite solve the problem of embedded process logic by abstracting the integration and process automation logic into a new layer of software tools. These software products liberate integration and process tasks from the underlying functional IT applications so they can be more effectively changed, managed and optimized 18
    19. 19. BPM benefits Link between service, data and process BPMS draw a link between services (SOA), data (DALI’s) and processes (BPM) and can be used to enable full benefits for these 3 programmes. Process BPM : Business Process Management DM : Data Management Process Steps: 1/ Process modelling Feed Manage 2/ Process monitoring 3/ Process automation BPMS BPMS Steps: SO A : Service O riented Architecture 1/ Master DataOrchestrate Data Management Feed Steps: Service Enable 1/ Standardized exchanges 2/ Business Activity Monitoring Provide 2/ ESB Indicators 3/ Orchestration Service Data 19
    20. 20. BPM in AXA IMintegrating BPMS and ESBIntegration principles: A process is made up of activities Each activity call one (or more) technical or business service through the ESB/BSB and identify the service with a Service Repository Data Each service produces data to feed business or technical reports The reports are then used to improve process efficiency and meet SLA The BPM engine is also used to orchestrate services and to enable BAM Process Activity Process Business Reports data Start End BPM engine (Orchestration) BAM engine Service Business & Technical data Message handling Service repository ESB DALI’S referential Technical or business services providers / consumers 20
    21. 21. Agenda Pre s e nta tio n o f the a rc hite c tura l a p p ro a c h a nd1 Architectural approach the m a in p ro g ra m m e s A o ng the m a in a rc hite c tura l p ro g ra m m e s , fo c us m2 Focus on S P OA rogram e m o n the SO Ap ro g ra m m e I d uc tio n to BPMc o nc e p ts a nd p rinc ip le s – ntro3 B Mconcepts P d iffe re nc e be twe e n BPMa nd Wo rkflo w - BPM S The p o s s ible ne x t s te p s a nd the link with o the r initia tive s4 Possible next steps A d itio na l m a te ria l d5 Appendices 21
    22. 22. BPM Next stepsAs Is and (possible) To Be I want to automate my processes Needs and objectivesIT Involvement (level of automation) I want to I want to promote a rationalize the IS service I want to align using processes approach my IS with my processes I want to manage I want to pilot my my projects using processes in real- processes time I want to do I want to use processes city planning I want to monitor for conducting the my processes on a change I want to optimize regular basis I want to my Business I want to manage analyse my efficiency my operational processes risks I want to do I want to certify process modelling my processes Maturity of BPM Already achieved as of May 2007 Planned in 2007 (C&TP and Sesame) Possible achievements in 2008+ 22
    23. 23. Agenda Pre s e nta tio n o f the a rc hite c tura l a p p ro a c h a nd1 Architectural approach the m a in p ro g ra m m e s A o ng the m a in a rc hite c tura l p ro g ra m m e s , fo c us m2 Focus on S P OA rogram e m o n the SO Ap ro g ra m m e I d uc tio n to BPMc o nc e p ts a nd p rinc ip le s – ntro3 B Mconcepts P d iffe re nc e be twe e n BPMa nd Wo rkflo w - BPM S The p o s s ible ne x t s te p s a nd the link with o the r initia tive s4 Possible next steps A d itio na l m a te ria l d5 Appendices 23
    24. 24. SOA enablement scenario (2/ 4)1 IS Initial state Fat Client Thin Client  Historically grown application environment with many Front End Application 1 Front End Application 2 point-to-point connections BL BL  Interfaces are based on different technologies and Application 1 .Net Application 2 services expose application functionality with different remoting levels of granularity MQ Series BL BL BL BL Flat File BL BL BL BL  Every/most application has its own front end which very RMI often are based on different technologies as well DB2 Standard-based communications  Standards for connecting applications are defined (SOAP, Fat Client Thin Client XML, MQ…) Frond End 1 Front End 2 BL BL  Interfaces based on those standards are implemented without changing the internal application structures (by using App 1 App 2 wrappers and proxies) BL BL Service BL BL Bus  The business logic is exposed through services with the level Flat File BL BL (local) BL BL of granularity required for reuse Wrapper  Introduction of a service bus (ESB) as a central communication platform replacing point-to-point interfaces 24
    25. 25. SOA enablement scenario (3/ 4)3 ESB enablement  Setup of a strong and reliable ESB infrastructure Service Oriented (active – active on Disaster Recovery Site). Application Structure BP SC SC BP S D S S S  Virtualisation of technical resources. Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)  New applications are structured internally with “service orientation in mind“ so functionality can be exposed as services without large wrapper/proxy implementations and reused4 Full SOA - Orchestration and BAM  The top layer of services of each type (process, BusinessProcess Management BP SC S logic, data) representing business processes, business logic and business data are being cut SC D Business Portal BP BP BP Rules S S S Engine BAM out of existing applications and moved to S ESB Messaging, Transformation, Repository S S S SR applications which allow for easy/fast changes Enterprise Data Model  The same is done for technical services which are moved to the ESB  Front ends are consolidated in a portal application. 25
    26. 26. BPM introductionBPMS – Business Process Management SuiteBPMS is transversal to all departments and provide direct access to Business users.Ideally, a common governance structure must be set between IT and Business Business Users Business Users Technical Users Technical Users Process Users Process Users Administrators Administrators Business Users Business Users Process Analysis and Modeling Workbench Runtim E e nvironment Activity Monitoring and Administration Facility Business Technical Process Execution Engine BAM Business Process Technical Process Process Modeler Process Modeler Modeler Modeler Flow Rules Scheduler Process Flow Control Rules Engine Scheduler Process Administration Dashboard Control Engine Administration Dashboard Business Technical Business Metrics Technical Metrics Metrics Modeler Metrics Mapper Modeler Mapper Analytics Analytics Engine Dashboard Engine Dashboard Designer Repository Designer Repository Simulations Distributed Interface Event Simulations Distributed BPM Interface Event Engine BPM Coordinator Manager Management Engine Coordinator Manager Management Technology Infrastructure Integrated Development Environment Enterprise Service Bus or other Transport Layer capabilities Integrated Development Environment Enterprise Service Bus or other Transport Layer capabilities 26
    27. 27. AppendicesBPM and SOA The move towards BPM supported by a Service Oriented Architecture can be driven by different business needs and follow different implementation strategies but will always focus on the process.Discover and Design of a process before moving on to manage it. Integrate systems in order to implement, execute and refine a process. Top-down strategy Bottom-up strategy  Design and model end-to-end  Refine end-to-end process by process orchestrating sub-processes  Simulate and optimize model  Model and analyse end-to-end  Design and build interactions with process process participants (humans,  Execute and refine sub-processes applications and external businesses)  Design and build sub-processes to orchestrate built services  Build services to support process Interactions  Expose application’s business functions by building services  Operate and monitor process 27

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