Throughout the Cultural Revolution, China continued
to play a part in the international politics of the Cold
At a time when Mao was stressing Communist purity
in China, his foreign policy with the USSR moved from
an alliance to bitter hostility.
This led China to eventually forge ties with its former
enemy, the United States.
Tensions between the Soviet and
Chinese Communists dated back to
the 1930s, when Russia supported
Chiang Kai-shek over Mao.
In the beginning the People's
Republic, Russia and China appeared
to stand together.
In 1950 Mao signed a Treaty of
Friendship with the Soviet Union, it
offered China a sense of security
against American attack.
But almost immediately the Sino-
Soviet alliance began to show signs
In the mid-1950s a growing
ideological divide emerged between
Russia and China over the definition
of Communism and how best to
deal with the West.
While China favored continued
aggression towards "imperialist"
nations, the USSR began to consider
"peaceful coexistence" with the
Soon the ideological differences
took on national dimensions, as
both the Chinese and Soviets fought
for territory and control of
Communist satellite states.
One result of the split
China was forced to
find its own way in
China’s first atomic
bomb developed in
What was/were the key issue(s) that divided The USSR
and The People’s Republic of China?
If you were President Nixon witnessing this divide,
how could you take advantage of the situation?
The United States watched
the split with satisfaction
The US tried to establish
links to China
“The enemy of my enemy is
The US lifted trade
restrictions on China in 1969
Richard Nixon agreed to allow China to the UN
This opened the door to warmer US/China relations
Mao dies September
Successor Deng Xiaoping
A cautious reformer
Wanted to lead China
down a less dramatic
Introduced the Four
-Deng’s belief that
and boost its
economy it needed
to welcome foreign
- US gave China “most
trading status in 1992
China’s population reached
over one billion in 1977.
In 1981 Deng launched a
campaign to restrict families
to just one child except under
Would be punished with fines
and withdrawal of some health
and education benefits.
Modernization program transformed life in China’s costal
The amount of exported goods multiplied five times over
Economic growth rates grew 10% per year.
GDP (measure of all goods produced) increased four times.
Hong Kong originally seized by the British after the first
Opium War in 1842
Hong Kong had been a reminder of China’s 19th century
weakness and was a center of wealth and prosperity for
Was handed back to the Chinese in 1997 after a 99 year lease.
1986 waves of student protests and demonstrations for
human rights, loss of jobs and rising crime rates.
Citizens gathered in Tiananmen Square for over a month in
the face of news cameras and the government.
June 23, 1986 As students became more outspoken the
government responded with tanks and troops. Soldiers
had orders to fire
The students had been removed from the square and/or
China continues to be accused of UN Human Rights
• Educated citizens growing
1% per year
• Citizens increasingly
better educated and
• Average living conditions
• Greater consumer goods
• Stronger relations with
•Population growth slowed, but most
populous with 1.2 billion
• Populations live on 1/6 of land area
• High pollution
• Authoritarian government
• religious intolerance
• Restrictions on free speech and
• Lack of judicial process
• Torture in prisons
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