Causes of ww1


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Causes of ww1

  1. 1. Causes
  2. 2. World War 1: Overview <ul><li>First total war in history (soldiers & civilians) </li></ul><ul><li>In August 1914 it involved only 7 European countries but by November 1918 there were over 30 countries fighting </li></ul><ul><li>Battles were fought in Europe, Asia, Africa, & on/under the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in revolutions, changes of govts., loss of empires, the rise of great new powers, & millions of dead </li></ul>
  3. 3. World War I: Causes <ul><li>While the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the immediate cause of the war, there were four underlying causes of WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>They are: </li></ul><ul><li>a). M ilitarism </li></ul><ul><li>b). A lliances </li></ul><ul><li>c). I mperialism </li></ul><ul><li>d). N ationalism </li></ul>
  4. 4. Militarism <ul><li>The belief in the power of strong armies or navies to decide issues. </li></ul><ul><li>It was thought that the only way to guarantee peace was to prepare for war. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the idea that if a nation is strong, then no enemy would dare to attack it. </li></ul><ul><li>If war does break out, the militarized nation is able to defend itself. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Militarism <ul><li>Militarism led to an arms race before 1914 as each country tried to build a larger & more deadly war machine than its rivals. </li></ul><ul><li>The size of armies & navies would determine who was more powerful. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany contained Europe’s strongest armies while Great Britain was the world’s strongest naval power. </li></ul><ul><li>Gr. Britain felt threatened when Germany began to construct a large navy. </li></ul><ul><li>European nations were becoming increasingly suspicious & alarmed by the others’ military power. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Products of Militarism
  7. 7. Alliances <ul><li>Alliances are formed when countries band together against a common threat. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1914 we had two alliances: </li></ul><ul><li>1.The Triple Alliance (“The Central Powers”) consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, & Italy </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Triple Entente (“The Allies”) consisting of Great Britain, France, and Russia </li></ul>
  8. 8. European Alliances 1914
  9. 9. Imperialism <ul><li>Imperialism is the policy of establishing colonies away from the homeland & building an empire </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies provided raw materials, markets for goods, & military strength for many European countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany, the United States all wanted to build a colonial empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism led to frequent quarrels among the great powers of Europe in all parts of the globe. </li></ul><ul><li>Arguments over colonies & trade constantly threatened peace. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Imperialism in Asia
  11. 14. Nationalism 1914-1918 <ul><li>Nationalism is a feeling of deep loyalty to one’s people & homeland </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme nationalism was causing problems in the early 20th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people seemed willing to take any action to support their nation, regardless of the effect on others </li></ul><ul><li>They were even ready to go to war to promote the interests of their homelands </li></ul>
  12. 15. Nationalism <ul><li>Nationalism was very strong in Serbia where people resented living under Austrian control. </li></ul><ul><li>The Black Hand was a Serbian-Bosnian terrorists group that thought Bosnia should break away from Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Franz Ferdinand was killed by a Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip , who belonged to the Black Hand, while visiting Sarajevo. </li></ul>
  13. 17. Ultimatum......July 1914 <ul><li>The Austro-Hungarian (A-H) govt blamed Serbia for the archduke’s death & attempted to crush Serb nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>With the support of Germany, A-H sent the Serbian govt an ultimatum (A ultimatum is a demand by one govt that another govt accept its terms or face war) to Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>a). put down all Serb nationalism against A-H </li></ul><ul><li>b). Punish those involved in the assassination </li></ul><ul><li>c). Allow A-H into Serbia to help destroy the Black Hand </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia accepted all except the last request </li></ul>
  14. 18. Outbreak <ul><li>Austria declared war on Serbia when Serbia rejected the Austrian ultimatum. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia, Serbia’s ally, along with France, mobilized their armies. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany declared war on both Russia & France when both countries refused to demobilize. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany planned to attack France through neutral Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Britain declared war on Germany when Belgium was invaded </li></ul>
  15. 19. Causes of WWI Review <ul><li>Name the two alliances that existed in Europe in 1914? </li></ul><ul><li>What countries belonged to these alliances? </li></ul><ul><li>What is nationalism? What role did it play in the outbreak of war? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the Black Hand? What role did it play in the assassination of Franz Ferdinand? </li></ul><ul><li>How did imperialism causes problems between nations in the years leading to outbreak of war in 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>What is militarism? </li></ul>