Thirty Years War• “For one of [the peasants] they had taken they thrust into the baking oven and there they lit a fire under him…as for another, they put a cord around his head and twisted it so tight with a piece of wood that the blood gushed from his mouth and nose and ears. In a word each had his own device to torture the peasants.”• -Jacob von Grimmelshausen
BelligerentsProtestant States and Allies Roman Catholic States andSweden AlliesFranceBohemia Holy Roman EmpireDenmark-Norway(1625–1629)Saxony Catholic LeagueUnited Provinces AustriaElectoral Palatinate BavariaBrunswick-Lüneburg England Spain and its possessionsScotlandBrandenburg-Prussia Denmark-Norway (1643–1645)TransylvaniaHungarian Anti-HabsburgRebelsZaporozhian CossacksOttoman Empire
• Two great empires, Austria and Prussia, rose out of the ashes of the Thirty Years’ War• Between 1618 and 1648, the nations of Europe fought each other in the Thirty Year’s war.
What do you think?•How did Austria and Prussia emerge as great powers?
• One third of the population of the Germans states died.• When the Thirty Years’ War finally ended, France had won territory from both Germany and Spain. The Netherlands and Switzerland became independent states.• The war left Germany divided into more than 360 states, and the Hapsburgs, ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, lost land.
• Westphalia was the first modern peace conference. Why was such a conference needed?• How do nations try to settle disputes today?
AUSTRIA PRUSSIA Under the Hapsburgs Under the HohenzollernsWorks to build unified state Unites territory across GermanyAdds Bohemia, Hungary, and Establishes strong governmentparts of Poland and Italy Takes power away from theMaria Theresa is a powerful noblesruler Hohenzollerns rule absolutely Wins support of the people Creates one of the strongest Organizes the government armies in Europe Improves tax collection Fredrick II is a powerful Taxes the nobles and the clergy Attacks Austria and seizes Defends empire against Silesia Prussian invaders Fights wars and wins territory for Prussia
• By 1750, Austria, Prussia, France, Engla nd, and Russia were the strongest nations in Europe.• These nations tried to maintain the balance of power.• Two or more nations formed alliances to keep another nation from becoming too strong.• To maintain the balance of power, nation sometimes went to war.
What do you think•What ruling family began to unite the German states?
Quick write In 1-2 sentences1. What two empires emerged after the Thirty Year war?2. What are the similarities and differences between these two empires?
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.