Memory                Processor                    output    Input            Powerwww.vlsisystemdesign.com
Intro slide                                               {Speed, Functionality (touch screen,                            ...
{Speed, Functionality (touch screen,                                            Internet, chatting, etc), Battery         ...
{Speed, Functionality (touch screen,                                            Internet, chatting, etc), Battery         ...
{Speed, Functionality (touch screen,                                              Internet, chatting, etc), Battery       ...
We will explore the Physical Aspects of Chip Design                www.vlsisystemdesign.com
We will explore the Physical Aspects of Chip DesignThe first step to understand the physical aspects of a chip is         ...
We will explore the Physical Aspects of Chip DesignThe first step to understand the physical aspects of a chip is         ...
We will explore the Physical Aspects of Chip DesignThe first step to understand the physical aspects of a chip is         ...
Let’s Begin with a netlist       www.vlsisystemdesign.com
Let’s Begin with a netlist                              a                                A1 y            D        Q       ...
Let’s Begin with a netlist                              a                                A1 y            D        Q       ...
a                                A1 y            D        Q        b                             D        Q               ...
Now, lets convert the highlighted symbols into physical dimension                           a                             ...
Now, lets convert the highlighted symbols into physical dimension                           a                             ...
Now, lets convert the highlighted symbols into physical dimension                          a                            A1...
Let’s group combinational gates together into standard cells                       a                         A1      y    ...
Let’s group combinational gates together into standard cells                        a                          A1      y  ...
Let the length and breadth of std cell be 1 unit                           a                             A1      y        ...
Let the length and breadth of std cell be 1 unit                           a                             A1      y        ...
Thus, the area of 1 std cell = 1 sq.unit                             a                               A1         y         ...
Thus, the area of 1 std cell = 1 sq.unit                             a                               A1         y         ...
Similarly, let’s group flops together, assign dimensions, and calculate area                             a                ...
Similarly, let’s group flops together, assign dimensions, and calculate area                             a                ...
Let us understand                 The area occupied by the below netlist on a Silicon Wafer                               ...
D            Q                 FF                               a                                 A1         y            ...
D            Q D          Q                 FF            FF                                    a                         ...
D            Q D          Q                 FF            FF          a            A1          y          b               ...
D            Q D          Q                 FF            FF          a                 a a            A1          y      ...
D            Q D              Q                 FF              FF              1 unit                                    ...
D        Q D         Q    FF          FF             Now, lets understand,                               What is ‘core’ an...
D        Q D         Q    FF          FF                                           What is ‘core’ and ‘die’ Section of a c...
D        Q D         Q    FF          FF                                            What is ‘core’ and ‘die’ Section of a ...
How to arrive on its dimensions?           D          Q D             Q                FF              FF                 ...
As shown below, the logical cells occupies          the complete area of the core, the core is          said to be 100% ut...
(Area Occupied by Netlist)                      Utilization Factor = -------------------------------------                ...
Now, let us understand                 The impact on “Utilization factor” and                 “Aspect Ratio”, by varying ‘...
As shown below, the logical cells occupies                  ‘half’ the area of the core, the core is said                 ...
(Area Occupied by Netlist)                       Utilization Factor = -------------------------------------               ...
Now, let us understand                                                The impact on “Utilization factor” and              ...
As shown below, the logical cells                                             occupies ‘one-fourth’ the area of the       ...
(Area Occupied by Netlist)                                               Utilization Factor = ----------------------------...
D        Q D        Q    FF         FF                                                   Diea          a a  A1     y     O...
Therefore, what is utilization factor?D        Q D        Q    FF         FF                                              ...
Therefore, what is utilization factor?                                                                      (Area Occupied...
Therefore, what is utilization factor?                                                                    (Area Occupied b...
Therefore, what is utilization factor?                                                                    (Area Occupied b...
Therefore, what is utilization factor?                                                                    (Area Occupied b...
With above netlist area (4 sq. unit), and, varying Width and height of the core,we will observe the variations happening i...
UF                    Netlist                   AR• Chip specification  will define UF, AR              Area of  and Netli...
Thus we can define Width and Height of Core and Die.H                                                           Die       ...
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Define Width and Height of Core and Die (http://www.vlsisystemdesign.com/PD-Flow.php)

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The very first step in chip design is floorplanning, in which the width and height of the chip, basically the area of the chip, is defined. A chip consists of two parts, 'core' and 'die'.

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Define Width and Height of Core and Die (http://www.vlsisystemdesign.com/PD-Flow.php)

  1. 1. Memory Processor output Input Powerwww.vlsisystemdesign.com
  2. 2. Intro slide {Speed, Functionality (touch screen, Internet, chatting, etc), Battery Power, Size, etc …… “ …………. …………. Specifications To RTL module 8085 (clk, rst1, rst2, en, …. ) …. …. ….. End module www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  3. 3. {Speed, Functionality (touch screen, Internet, chatting, etc), Battery Power, Size, etc …… “ …………. ………….Specifications To RTL module 8085 (clk, rst1, rst2, en, …. ) …. …. ….. End module RTL To GDS www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  4. 4. {Speed, Functionality (touch screen, Internet, chatting, etc), Battery Power, Size, etc …… “ …………. ………….Specifications To RTL module 8085 (clk, rst1, rst2, en, …. ) …. …. ….. End module RTL To GDS GDS To Fabrication www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  5. 5. {Speed, Functionality (touch screen, Internet, chatting, etc), Battery Power, Size, etc …… “ …………. …………. Specifications To RTL module 8085 (clk, rst1, rst2, en, …. ) …. …. ….. End module RTL To GDS GDS To FabricationWe will explore the Physical Aspects of Chip Design www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  6. 6. We will explore the Physical Aspects of Chip Design www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  7. 7. We will explore the Physical Aspects of Chip DesignThe first step to understand the physical aspects of a chip is www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  8. 8. We will explore the Physical Aspects of Chip DesignThe first step to understand the physical aspects of a chip is Area of Core and Die of Chip www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  9. 9. We will explore the Physical Aspects of Chip DesignThe first step to understand the physical aspects of a chip is Area of Core and Die of Chip Die Core www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  10. 10. Let’s Begin with a netlist www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  11. 11. Let’s Begin with a netlist a A1 y D Q b D Q a FF O1 y FF bClk FF = FlipFlops/Latches/Registers A1, O1 = Standard Cells (AND, OR, INVERTER) www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  12. 12. Let’s Begin with a netlist a A1 y D Q b D Q a FF O1 y FF bClk FF = FlipFlops/Latches/Registers A1, O1 = Standard Cells (AND, OR, INVERTER)Consider, a netlist with 2 flops and 2 gates, with above shown connectionsNote : A "netlist" describes the connectivity of an electronic design. www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  13. 13. a A1 y D Q b D Q a FF O1 y FF bClk FF = FlipFlops/Latches/Registers A1, O1 = Standard Cells (AND, OR, INVERTER) www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  14. 14. Now, lets convert the highlighted symbols into physical dimension a A1 y D Q b D Q a FF O1 y FF bClk www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  15. 15. Now, lets convert the highlighted symbols into physical dimension a A1 y D Q b D Q a FF O1 y FF bClk a A1 y D Q b D Q a a FF O1 yy FF b bClk www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  16. 16. Now, lets convert the highlighted symbols into physical dimension a A1 y D Q b D Q a a FF O1 yy FF b bClk www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  17. 17. Let’s group combinational gates together into standard cells a A1 y D Q b D Q a a FF O1 yy FF b bClk www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  18. 18. Let’s group combinational gates together into standard cells a A1 y D Q b D Q a a FF O1 yy FF b bClka Std. yb Cells www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  19. 19. Let the length and breadth of std cell be 1 unit a A1 y D Q b D Q a a FF O1 yy FF b bClka Std. yb Cells 1 unit www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  20. 20. Let the length and breadth of std cell be 1 unit a A1 y D Q b D Q a a FF O1 yy FF b bClka Std. 1 unit yb Cells 1 unit www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  21. 21. Thus, the area of 1 std cell = 1 sq.unit a A1 y D Q b D Q a a FF O1 yy FF b bClk Areaa Std. 1 unit yb Cells 1 unit www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  22. 22. Thus, the area of 1 std cell = 1 sq.unit a A1 y D Q b D Q a a FF O1 yy FF b bClk Areaa Std. 1 unit 1 sq. unit yb Cells 1 unit www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  23. 23. Similarly, let’s group flops together, assign dimensions, and calculate area a A1 y D Q b D Q a a FF O1 yy FF b bClk Areaa Std. 1 unit 1 sq. unit yb Cells 1 unitD Q FF www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  24. 24. Similarly, let’s group flops together, assign dimensions, and calculate area a A1 y D Q b D Q a a FF O1 yy FF b bClk Areaa Std. 1 unit 1 sq. unit yb Cells 1 unit AreaD Q 1 unit 1 sq. unit FF www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  25. 25. Let us understand The area occupied by the below netlist on a Silicon Wafer a A1 y D Q b D Q a a FF O1 yy FF b bClk Areaa Std. 1 unit 1 sq. unit yb Cells 1 unit AreaD Q 1 unit 1 sq. unit FF www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  26. 26. D Q FF a A1 y b D Q a a O1 yy FF b b Areaa Std. 1 unit 1 sq. unit yb Cells 1 unit AreaD Q 1 unit 1 sq. unit FF www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  27. 27. D Q D Q FF FF a A1 y b a a O1 yy b b Areaa Std. 1 unit 1 sq. unit yb Cells 1 unit AreaD Q 1 unit 1 sq. unit FF www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  28. 28. D Q D Q FF FF a A1 y b a a O1 yy b b Areaa Std. 1 unit 1 sq. unit yb Cells 1 unit AreaD Q 1 unit 1 sq. unit FF www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  29. 29. D Q D Q FF FF a a a A1 y O1 yy b b bLet’s group flops and std cells together, assign dimensions, and calculate area Areaa Std. 1 unit 1 sq. unit yb Cells 1 unit AreaD Q 1 unit 1 sq. unit FF www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  30. 30. D Q D Q FF FF 1 unit Area 4 sq. unit a a a A1 y O1 yy 1 unit b b b 1 unit 1 unitLet’s group flops and std cells together, assign dimensions, and calculate area Areaa Std. 1 unit 1 sq. unit yb Cells 1 unit AreaD Q 1 unit 1 sq. unit FF www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  31. 31. D Q D Q FF FF Now, lets understand, What is ‘core’ and ‘die’ Section of a chip ? anda a a How to arrive on its dimensions? A1 y O1 yyb b b www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  32. 32. D Q D Q FF FF What is ‘core’ and ‘die’ Section of a chip ?a a a A1 y O1 yyb b b Core A core is the section of the chip where the fundamental logic of the design is placed. www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  33. 33. D Q D Q FF FF What is ‘core’ and ‘die’ Section of a chip ?a a a A1 y O1 yyb b b Die Core A ‘die’, which consists of core, is small semiconductor material specimen on which the fundamental circuit is fabricated. www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  34. 34. How to arrive on its dimensions? D Q D Q FF FF Die a a a A1 y O1 yy b b b CorePlace all logical cells inside the ‘core’ www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  35. 35. As shown below, the logical cells occupies the complete area of the core, the core is said to be 100% utilized.D Q D Q FF FF Diea a a A1 y O1 yyb b b Core 100 % Utilization www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  36. 36. (Area Occupied by Netlist) Utilization Factor = ------------------------------------- (Total Area of the Core) D Q D Q FF FF Die a a a A1 y O1 yy b b b Core 100 % Utilization Therefore in above case, Utilization factor = 4 sq. unit/4 sq. unit = 1 www.vlsisystemdesign.comAspect Ratio = Height / Width = 2 unit / 2 unit = 1
  37. 37. Now, let us understand The impact on “Utilization factor” and “Aspect Ratio”, by varying ‘core width’D Q D Q FF FF Diea a a A1 y O1 yyb b b Core www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  38. 38. As shown below, the logical cells occupies ‘half’ the area of the core, the core is said to be 50% utilized.D Q D Q FF FF Diea a a A1 y O1 yyb b b Core 50 % Utilization www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  39. 39. (Area Occupied by Netlist) Utilization Factor = ------------------------------------- (Total Area of the Core) D Q D Q FF FF Die a a a A1 y O1 yy b b b Core 50 % Utilization Therefore in above case, Utilization factor = 4 sq. unit/8 sq. unit = 0.5 www.vlsisystemdesign.comAspect Ratio = Height / Width = 2 unit / 4 unit = 0.5
  40. 40. Now, let us understand The impact on “Utilization factor” and “Aspect Ratio”, by varying ‘core width’ and ‘core height’D Q D Q FF FF Diea a a A1 y O1 yyb b b Core Core and dei relation www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  41. 41. As shown below, the logical cells occupies ‘one-fourth’ the area of the core, the core is said to be 25% utilized.D Q D Q FF FF Diea a a A1 y O1 yyb b b Core 25 % Utilization www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  42. 42. (Area Occupied by Netlist) Utilization Factor = ------------------------------------- (Total Area of the Core)D Q D Q FF FF Diea a a A1 y O1 yyb b b Core 25 % Utilization Therefore in above case, Utilization factor = 4 sq. unit/16 sq. unit = 0.25 www.vlsisystemdesign.com Aspect Ratio = Height / Width = 4 unit / 4 unit = 1
  43. 43. D Q D Q FF FF Diea a a A1 y O1 yyb b b Core www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  44. 44. Therefore, what is utilization factor?D Q D Q FF FF Diea a a A1 y O1 yyb b b Core www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  45. 45. Therefore, what is utilization factor? (Area Occupied by Netlist) Utilization Factor =D Q D Q FF FF Diea a a A1 y O1 yyb b b Core www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  46. 46. Therefore, what is utilization factor? (Area Occupied by Netlist) Utilization Factor = -------------------------D Q D Q FF FF Diea a a A1 y O1 yyb b b Core www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  47. 47. Therefore, what is utilization factor? (Area Occupied by Netlist) Utilization Factor = ------------------------- (Total Area of the Core)D Q D Q FF FF Diea a a A1 y O1 yyb b b Core www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  48. 48. Therefore, what is utilization factor? (Area Occupied by Netlist) Utilization Factor = ------------------------- (Total Area of the Core)D Q D Q FF FF Diea a a A1 y O1 yyb b b Core www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  49. 49. With above netlist area (4 sq. unit), and, varying Width and height of the core,we will observe the variations happening in UF (utilization factor) and AR (aspect ratio) Sr. No. Width Height Area of Core UF AR 1) 5 3.2 16 0.25 0.64 2) 3.2 5 16 0.25 1.5625 3) 2 8 16 0.25 4 4) 4 4 16 0.25 1 5) 8 2 16 0.25 0.25 In the above table, in spite of varying width and height of the core, UF and Area of core remains the same, but Aspect Ratio varies.Thus, it is observed, AR decides the shape of the chip.In above table, option 4) will give a square chip, and others will form a rectangular chip. www.vlsisystemdesign.com
  50. 50. UF Netlist AR• Chip specification will define UF, AR Area of and Netlist. Core• UF and netlist will decide the ‘Area’ of the core.• ‘Area’ of the core and AR will decide the Shape, Width H and Height of the core. www.vlsisystemdesign.com W
  51. 51. Thus we can define Width and Height of Core and Die.H Die Core W www.vlsisystemdesign.com

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