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  • 1. No+ N + auxiliary + S+ Verb (inf) Not (any) + N + auxiliary + S + verb(inf) E.g.: No money shall I lend you from now on. Not a word did she say to me.
  • 2. Never/ Rarely/ Seldom /Little/ Hardly ever+ auxiliary+ S+ V Little did he understand the situation. Rarely in mid-summer does it snow. Hardly ever does he speak in the public. Never have I been more insulted! Seldom has he seen anything stranger.
  • 3. Only once: Only once did I meet him. Only later/then/(after + N): Only later did he recognize her face. Only then was I allowed to meet the author. only in this/that way: Only in this way, can we recover from the crisis.
  • 4. Only by + V_ing: Only by studying harder can you pass the exam. Only when+ clause: Only when I took the test did I realize how little I knew Only with+ N: Only with a sharper knife, can you cut the meat. Only if+ clause: Only if he promised to help would she tell him where he had left his keys. Only in adverbs of time/place: Only at night can you see the stars.
  • 5. At no time: At no time have I come there.. On no condition: On no condition will I give you the password. On no account + auxiliary+ S+ N: On no account can you treat her as badly. Under/ in no circumstances: In no circumstances will I leave you alone. For no reason: For no reason did he visit us. In no way: In no way can you refuse to answer my question. - -
  • 6. No sooner had I arrived home than it started to rain heavily. Hardly had the train left the station, when there was an explosion. Scarcely had I entered the room, when the phone rang.
  • 7. Not only + auxiliary + S + V but.... also.......... Not only is he good at English but he also draws very well. Not only is it one of the oldest cities on Earth, it is also one of the most beautiful.
  • 8. So+ adj/ adv + auxiliary + S+V+ that clause: Such + N + auxiliary + S+V+ that clause: So difficult was the exam that few student pass it. Such was the force of the storm that trees were uprooted. Such is the popularity of the play that the theatre is likely to be full every night.
  • 9. I’m going home: So am I. I don’t like meat. Neither do I. The council never wanted the new supermarket to be built, nor did local residents.
  • 10. Not until +clause: Not until I have got all the information, can I comment further. Not until +noun phrase: Not until the last minute, could we know the match result.
  • 11. No where+ Au+ S+V: Nowhere does it say that we cannot have guests in our rooms. Nowhere would you find a better job than the one we offer.
  • 12. Type 1: If clause = should+S+V: Should you miss the train, call me immediately. Type 2: If clause= Were + to V/ Were + S: If I were a doctor, I could help you. => Were I a doctor, I could help you. If I knew her I would invite her to the party.  Were I to know her I would invite her to the party.
  • 13. Type 3: If clause = Had + S + PII: If my parents hadn't encouraged me, I would not have passed exam. => Had my parents not encouraged me, I would not have passed exam.
  • 14. Here, there…: Here comes the bus! Let's go! Up, down, off…: Down comes the rain and up go umbrellas. Away he goes. On the mountain stands small house.