Professional Article Critiques and Summaries

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Professional Article Critiques and Summaries

  1. 1. Koblitz,
N.
(1996).
The
Case
Against
Computers
in
K‐13
math
EducaCon
(Kindergarten
through
Calculus).
The
Mathema)cal
Intelligencer,
18(1),
56‐60.Research
ArCcleSummary:
 This
arCcle
was
wriLen
from
a
very
different
perspecCve
and
about
a
different
country.

In
the
country
of
Peru,
the
public
school
system
is
in
major
crisis
and
the
President
is
wanCng
to
"modernize"
the
educaConal
systems.

In
order
to
do
this,
he
is
pushing
to
put
computers
into
every
school.

But
like
most
countries,
the
funding
is
just
not
there.

The
teachers
pay
is
low,
the
schools
are
falling
apart,
and
there
is
no
money
for
school
supplies.
 The
author
believes
that
the
United
States
has
an
interest
in
creaCng
new
markets
for
their
computers,
because
then
more
and
more
funds
will
flow
back
to
us
and
countries
like
Peru
will
become
dependent
on
U.S.
technology.

For
about
a
decade,
pressure
has
been
mounCng
to
import
computer
learning
from
the
wealthy
countries
into
the
poorer
ones.

The
author
believes 
that
resources
could
be
beLer
spent
in
other
ways‐‐to
raise
teachers
salaries,
purchase
classroom
supplies
and
expand
libraries.

He
believes
that
there
has
been
too
much
hype
about
technology
in
math
educaCon,
and
it
is
Cme
to
consider
the
downside.

He
states
that
the
downside
can
be
divided
into
four
areas:

drain
on
resources,
bad
pedagogy,
anC‐intellectual
appeal,
and
corrupCon
of
educators.

He
feels
that
the
children
of
today
are
becoming
too
accustomed
to
large
doses
of
passive,
visual
entertainment.

They
tend
to
develop
a
short
aLenCon
span,
and
expect
immediate
graCficaCon.

They
are
usually
ill
equipped
to
study
mathemaCcs,
because
they
lack
paCence,
self‐discipline,
and
the
ability
to
concentrate
for
long
periods.

CriCcal
EvaluaCon:
 This
paper
really
made
me
think.

Even
though
this
paper
was
wriLen
in
1996,
it
feels
as
though
these
issues
are
sCll
around.

We,
as
teachers,
are
taking
pay
cuts,
buying
supplies
with
our
own
money,
having
an
allotment
for
copies,
and
not
receiving
new
consumables.

If
money
is
scarce,
then
how
are
we
affording
to
purchase
new
so_ware
for
our
enCre
system?


  2. 2. Braznzburg,
J.,
(2008).

InteracCve
Math
Classroom
Adds
Up
to
Success.
Teaching
and
Learning
Magazine
Online.Professional
PracCceSummary:
 Kate
Beal
of
St.
Joes
Academy,
an
all
girls
secondary
school
in
Baton
Rouge,
was
looking
for
a
way
to
generate
more
excitement
about
math.

She
came
up
with
the
idea
of
adding
a
computer
monitoring
system
and
tablet
PCs.

Not
only
did
her
students
get
excited
about
the
new
technology,
but
her
test
scores
improved.

She
was
able
to
monitor,
control
and
share
all
from
her
tablet
PC.

She
is
also
able
to
poll
students
to
make
sure
they
understand
the
math
concepts
being
reviewed.

Ms.
Beal
is
also
able
to
create
interacCve
lessons
that
she
can
have
one‐on‐one
interacCon
with
through
her
computer.

There
is
the
capability
of
having
all
of
the
students
working
on
their
personal
tablet
and
showing
up
on
everybody
elses
tablet.

The
students
are
able
to
watch,
interact,
and
learn
from
the
rest
of
the
class
in
real
Cme.

This
in
turn
promotes
cooperaCve
learning.

One
of
the
most
appealing
aspects
of
this
type
teaching
is
the
fact
that
students
can
view
any
of
the
teachers
lessons
whenever
they
need
too,
because
the
lessons
are
saved
as
a
Powerpoint
presentaCon.

If
a
student
needs
extra
help
or
was
absent,
then
all
they
have
to
do
is
upload
the
appropriate
lesson.CriCcal
EvaluaCon:
 I
feel
as
though
this
arCcle
provides
us
with
a
wonderful
example
of
how
computer
technology,
if
implemented
correctly,
can
greatly
impact
student
learning
and
bring
them
into
the
21st
century.

As
a
teacher
of
second
grade,
we
are
constantly
fighCng
the
baLle
of
keeping
our
students
engaged
in
a
lesson.

With
computers
and
handheld
electronic
devices
becoming
more
available
to
everyone,
kids
are
looking
for
visual
sCmulaCon
and
immediate
graCficaCon.

It
is
becoming
very
hard
to
produce
a
"meaningful"
or
"engaging"
lesson
on
a
daily
basis.

Using
only
paper
and
pencil
is
rapidly
becoming
a
thing
of
the
past.
  3. 3. Haugland,
S.

(2007).

Computers
in
the
Early
Childhood
Classroom.

Earlychildhood
News,
hLp://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/arCcle_print.aspx?ArCcleId=239.Theory‐into‐PracCceSummary:
 Teachers
play
a
very
important
role
in
young
childrens
lives
concerning
the
use
computers.

In
1994,
President
Clinton
signed
the
Goals
2000
educate
America
Act
and
in
1996,
NAEYC
adopted
a
PosiCon
Statement
on
Technology
and
Young
Children:
Ages
Three
to
eight.

Since
computers
are
going
to
be
used
in
early
childhood
classrooms,
it
is
important
that
they
be
used
in
developmentally
appropriate
ways.

In
order
to
do
this,
Ms.
Haugland
suggests
that
there
are
five
components
that
are
important:
computer
placement,
so_ware
selecCon,
teacher
interacCon,
supporCng
acCviCes,
and
teacher
training/support.
 Where
we
place
our
computers
can
have
a
dramaCc
impact
on
when
and
how
effecCvely
students
will
use
the
computers.

Ms.
Hauglands
research
(1989)
has
shown
that
when
computers
are
secConed
off
with
dividers
and
placed
in
a
quiet,
isolated
locaCon,
children
do
not
experience
the
gains
that
they
do
when
computers
are
integrated
into
the
classroom.


She
suggests
that
the
computer
should
be
placed
in
a
central
locaCon
and
arranged
so
that
the
monitors
can
be
seen
by
most
of
the
classroom.

This
way,
children
can
determine
when
a
computer
is
available
for
use
and
the
rest
of
the
class
can
interact
with
those
who
are
using
the
computer.
 The
most
important
decision
a
teacher
makes
regarding
computers
is
selecCng
developmentally
appropriate
so_ware.

When
children
use
developmentally
appropriate
so_ware,
it
has
been
shown
that
the
learning
outcomes
are
significantly
beLer
than
when
not
developmentally
appropriate.

Those
children
that
used
the
developmental
so_ware
had
significantly
higher
gains
in
intelligence,
non‐verbal
skills,
structural
knowledge,
long‐term
memory,
and
complex
manual
dexterity.


 The
first
step
with
teacher
interacCon
and
the
computers
is
to
appropriately
introduce
the
children
to
the
computers
in
their
classroom.

Providing
children
with
posiCve
computer
direcCon
ensures
that
all
children
will
have
a
posiCve
beginning
experience.

This
assistance
does
not
have
to
always

  4. 4. come
from
adults,
peers
can
provide
valuable
assistance
a
well.

Children
should
be
encouraged
to
use
the
computer,
not
forced.



 AcCviCes
in
the
classroom
should
provide
important
support
to
computer
experiences.

In
the
Haugland
(1992)
research,
only
when
supplemental
acCviCes
were
available
to
reinforce
the
major
objecCves
of
so_ware
did
children
show
significant
gains
in
conceptual
skills,
verbal
skills,
problem
solving
and
abstracCon.


 For
all
of
this
work,
training
the
teachers
is
very
important.

A
lot
of
teachers
have
tried
to
self
teach
themselves
through
trial
and
error,
but
this
is
very
Cme
consuming
and
frustraCng.

Workshops,
seminars,
on‐site
training
and
networking
with
other
teachers
are
very
valuable
resources.

CriCcal
EvaluaCon:Experiences
with
computers,
like
all
other
new
materials,
equipment,
and
resources
we
provide
young
children,
need
to
be
developmentally
appropriate.

When
computer
experiences
match
children’s
developmental
needs,
they
provide
a
valuable,
unique
learning
resource.

Developmentally
appropriate
so_ware
provides
children
a
world
they
are
eager
to
manipulate,
experiment
with,
and
discover.

As
we
integrate
computers
into
our
classrooms,
we
begin
a
new
journey
with
our
students.

  5. 5. Criss, K. (2006). Disadvantages of Computers in the Classroom. http://www.articlesbase.com/education-articles/disadvantages-of-computers-in-the-classroom.Research ArticleSummary: The author begins this article by saying “I found it hard to find researchthat had been done on this topic because not only is the research on theeffectiveness of computers in the classroom scarce but the research that isthere is there often done by software companies and therefore may be biased(Emmans 2001).” As stated in a previous article, Ms. Criss believes that muchof the software that is designed for children is appealing to them, because itcan hold their attention. She compares some computer software to television.“Just because a television show holds your attention, does it necessarily educateyou? The answer, as Ms. Criss believes, is that maybe so some do, but notcertainly not all do. If there is no educational value in the program, then whatgood is it doing for the teachers or the students? According to Cindy C. Emmans (2001), a professor of EducationalTechnology at Central Washington University, “Often feedback is the key tolearning, and computers are appealing because the feedback can be immediate,which is of course a very effective learning tool. Unfortunately, this feedback isnot often effective as it might be, perhaps because it is not easy to return to theoriginal question to try again, so a student must begin at the beginning toreview the original content rather than backing up a step or two. In somecases, the feedback for the wrong answers is more appealing than that for theright answer, causing students to try and get the wrong answer simply for theentertainment value.”
  6. 6. Another reason that computers in the classroom would prove to be adisadvantage is the availability of the computers in the classroom to eachindividual student. Scheduling time for each individual student to use thecomputers then becomes a problem. Teacher training is also a concern. Most teachers have not adequatelybeen trained. They would have to be trained on both the hardware and thesoftware of the computer. Things can happen to computers while they arebeing used. Having access to the Internet can be dangerous. The children can beexposed to Internet content that is not appropriate for their age level. They canalso be exposed to child predators.Critical Evaluation: I am not sure that I agree with this article. I can tell that this article waswritten several years ago. There are not very many homes that do not own acomputer, so teachers and students have become more computer literate ontheir own. I do agree that there are some software programs out there that are“all fluff” as we call it and it may be hard to decide on which software programsto purchase. Most companies now, try to align their programs with thestandards of each state. I know that our system has recently purchased aprogram for math that is wonderful. I try to use it, as a whole class, atleasttwice a week. Scheduling student usage is a problem at our school. Eachclassroom has two computers in them and we are allowed to go to thecomputer lab once a week for 45 minutes. As far as students visitinginappropriate web-sites, we do not have to worry as much as before. Thecomputer technicitions are able to block inappropriate web-sites.
  7. 7. McCarrick, K. (2008). Computers and Young Children. Pediatrics for Parents,21(10), 11.Research ArticleSummary: Since nearly every student owns a computer, and many of the schoolshouses computers, we need to ask ourselves how does this effect our children.Do they accomplish the educational objectives that they set out to? Manystudies say yes, but only when used correctly. Children with access tocomputers as a young age perform better on school readiness tasks and havebetter cognitive development. These children also have increased verbal andlanguage skills. It is important to note, that a young child who sits at acomputer by himself may not reap the full benefits of the computer. It is morebeneficial when the teacher or an adult is available to assist the child. It is alsoimportant to keep in mind that children are much more likely to learn if theytruly enjoy the computer program. The programs usually include lots of sightsand sounds and are designed to help young children with pre-literacy, pre-math, or pre-science skills. Look for programs that make children laugh andchallenge the child. Research has shown over and over that computersplaced in a classroom can create more social interaction than social isolation.When playing on the computer, children will invite their friends over to play onthe computer with them. One child may be working the mouse or keyboardwhile the other watches. They may also take turns or work together. This inturn creates an atmosphere of cooperation. While computers can provide children with numerous benefits, it is alsovery important that they are used properly. Computers should not monopolizea child’s time at home or at school.
  8. 8. Critical Evaluation: I feel as though Ms. McCarrick really hits a homerun with her article. Istrongly agree with the many points that she made. I teach only math, science,and social studies and I use my classroom computer daily. With propersupervision and appropriate software, my students benefit greatly from ourcomputers. We have programs that I will show on my Interwrite Board and weuse together as a class. We will divide into teams and play against one another.This enables the children to work together cooperatively in a fun controlledatmosphere. They really enjoy it and sometimes they need to get away fromthe paper and pencil assignments.
  9. 9. Brogan, P. (2008). Educating the Digital Generation. Association forSupervision and Curriculum Development, 57-59.Research ArticleSummary: Many children today are entering the classroom with computer skills andexpectations that challenge their teachers and peers. Children that have beenexposed to computers since birth and have mastered the digital world in waysthat their parents still struggle to comprehend. More than half of the UnitedStates households today have a computer, and many children have masteredthe keyboard and mouse before they can recite the alphabet. How do we prepare computer-savvy youngsters for tomorrow’s world ofknowledge workers and information-technology jobs? Many young childrentoday have keyboarding skills that are superior to their handwriting skills. Mostchildren don’t understand why they need to practice penmanship when theyhave a computer. Children with language barriers can greatly benefit fromprogram interventions that are capable of changing the way that child’s brainprocesses language. Dyslexic students can use visual and auditory supportmechanisms offered by computers. Students with remedial reading skills canfind text-to-speech programs to help them improve their word-recognitionskills. Some may argue that classroom computers take up time that could bespent more valuably on developing academic and social skills miss the point.Guided use of the Internet for research develops a child’s critical thinking skills.Children learn to collaborate, consider multiple points of view, and evaluatevarious forms of information. Children who have advanced computer skillsdevelop social and academic skills by sharing their knowledge with their peersand elders.
  10. 10. In June 2000, the International Society for Technology in Educationstandards were released. They recommend that 2nd graders use a mouse anddigital camera in school and that 5th graders participate in online discussionsand create multimedia reports. In order to accomplish these goals, teachersneed some unique skills for the digital age. The following are some approachesthat make sense. Encourage computer-literate children in your classes to helpteach the other children. Encourage computer-literate children to share theirknowledge with you. Take advantage of educational software and trainingprograms that help you acquire computer skills, and pass these skills along toyour students.Critical Evaluation: I agree that computers can play a very important role in teaching thechildren of today. Since our students are very computer-literate already, I don’tfeel as though this task will be as hard as some want to believe it will be. At myschool, we use computers very often. This year we are implementing a newprogram that will test our students, recognize their weaknesses, and then giveus lessons that they can practice on the computer. I am very curious to see howmy class does. I know that I have some students who do not have computers athome, and the only time they get to use them is at school. I am sure that theywill need more guidance than the majority of my students. This very wellcould be a good time to volunteer some of the more computer-literate studentsto help the less computer-literate.
  11. 11. Cradler, J, McNabb, M, Freeman, M, & Burchett, R. (2002).How Does Technology Influence Student Learning?.Learning and Teaching with Technology, 29 (8), 46-50.Research ArticleSummary: Evidence is clearly mounting to support technologyadvocates’ claims that 21st-century information andcommunication tools as well as more traditional computer-assisted instructional applications can positively influencestudent learning processes and outcomes. The Center forApplied Research in Educational Technology (CARET) hasgathered compelling research and evaluation findings toanswer frequently asked questions about how technologyinfluences student achievement and academic performancein relation to three primary curricular goals. Achievementin content area learning. Higher-order thinking andproblem-solving skill development. Workforce preparation.The research findings also emphasize the importance ofusing technology in conjunction with collaborative learningmethods and leadership aimed at technology planning forschool improvement purposes. From the research we were reminded that technologygenerally improves performance when the applicationdirectly supports the curriculum standards being assessed.A review of studies conducted by the CEO Forum (2001)emphasizes:”technology can have the greatest impact whenintegrated into the curriculum to achieve clear, measurable
  12. 12. educational objectives.” A recent study illustrates how thealignment between content-area learning standards andcarefully selected technology uses can significantlyincrease test scores. In an eight-year longitudinal study ofSAT-I performance at New Hampshires’s Brewster Academy(Bain & /Ross, 1999), students participating in thetechnology-integrated school reform efforts (School DesignModel) demonstrated average increases of 94 points incombined SAT I performance over students who participatedin the traditional school experience. A West Virginia study shows an increase in test scoresresulting from integrating curriculum objectives for basicskills development in reading and math with instructionalsoftware (Mann, Shakeshaft, Becker, & Kottkamp, 1999)This curriculum was reinforced with teacher instruction andstudent achievement tests. Gains in student test scores onthe SAT-9 (for 950 fifth graders in 18 schools) appearedattributable to the alignment of the targeted curriculumstandards with the software, teacher instruction and tests. Higher order thinking and problem solving skillsenable learners to apply their content knowledge in avariety of ways leading to innovation and deeperunderstanding of content domains. Though some technologyapplications are designed for use in specific content areas, educators have alsofound valuable thinking tools among the technology applications available foreducational purposes. Research and evaluation shows that technology tools forconstructing artifacts and electronic information and communication resourcessupport the development of higher-order thinking skills. The findings hold true
  13. 13. when students are taught to apply the processes of problem solving and thenare allowed opportunities to apply technology tools to develop solutions. In a landmark study analyzing a national database of student test scores,Wenglinsky (1998) determined that technology can have a positive effect onstudents’ mathematics scores. His study used data of fourth- and eighth-gradestudents who took the math section of the 1996 National Assessment of Edu-cational Progress (NAEP). That NAEP included questions about how computersare used in mathematics instruction. After adjusting for class size, teacherqualifications, and socioeconomics, Wenglinsky found that technology hadmore of an impact in middle schools than it did in elementary schools (Valdezet al., 1999). In eighth grade, where computers were used for simulations andapplications to enhance higher-order thinking skills, the students performedbetter on the NAEP than did students whose teachers used the technology fordrill and practice. “He found that fourth-grade students who used computersprimarily for ‘math/learning games’ scored higher than students who didnot. ... fourth graders did not show differences in test score gains for eithersimulations and applications or drill and practice” (Valdez et al. 1999, p. 24). Using technology tools to build thinking skills is not just for the best andbrightest students. The Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) pull-out program,developed in the early 1980s to build the thinking skills of students, combinedtechnology with drama and Socratic dialogue. Through this combination,disadvantaged students in Grades 4 –7 achieved twice the national averagegains on reading and math test scores. Ten to 15% of the students alsoachieved honor roll status in 1994, suggesting a transfer of the students’cognitive development to learning specific content. The students who usedHOTS also increased performance on measures of reading comprehension,metacognition, writing, components of IQ, transfer to novel tasks, and gradepoint average (Coley et al., 1997; Pogrow, 1996).
  14. 14. Preparing students for the workforce is a third area where technology playsa pivotal role in helping school communities reach their educational goals. Re-search shows that when students learn to use and apply applications used inthe world of work, such as word processors, spreadsheets, computer-aideddrawing, Web site development pro- grams, and the Internet, they acquiresome of the prerequisite skills for workforce preparedness. When content andproblem-solving strategies meet accepted education standards, technologyincreases mastery of vocational and workforce skills and helps prepare studentsfor work (Cradler, 1994). Research is providing more and more clarity about how to use technologyeffectively within our school communities to support and enhance the academicperformance of today’s youth. Collaborative activities and formativeResearch Windows feedback are key components of instructional strategies thataccompany effective technology implementation. Leadership also is pivotal inaligning available technology resources with systemic school improvementgoals. The research indicates the need for understanding the combined effortsnecessary for technology to positively influence students’ academicperformance.Critical Evaluation: I really enjoyed reading this article. I found the research findings to beextremely enlightening. It has definitely made me stop and think of how I canbetter utilize the computers that I have in my classroom. Our system isconstantly talking about our math and reading scores and how we need to getthose higher. Maybe if they would invest some money into appropriatecomputer software then we would see an increase in our scores.

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