The Greek Poet Sappho (7th century BCE) Our Poetic History
Meeting Poetry Our words poem and poetry are derived from the Greek poiein, “to create or make,” a structure that is created from the human imagination and that is expressed rhythmically in words. The word poet originally referred to the writer of any kind of literature, although it now means someone who writes poetry (642).
History of English Poetry • Earliest poems in English date to the Old English period (450-1100 CE) • Many reflected the influence of Christianity • From the Middle Ages (1100-1500) poets wrote about manyBeowulf, the anonymous epic poem is the most subjects, including famous poem religious themes
Don’t be intimidated by poetry. Remember, each of us brings our own ideas, interpretations, history, and knowledge to the reading of a poem – it, like all literature, is never really finished until it is read. First Steps: Read straight through to get a general sense of the poem Ask questions – about the title, speaker, words, descriptions, sounds, setting, f orm, structure Read aloud and listen for the rhythm of the words Develop theories about the particular elements of the poem – create a paraphrase or brief explication
―Here a Pretty Baby Lies‖ (1648) Robert Herrick (1594-1664)Here a pretty baby liesSung asleep with lullabies:Pray be silent, and not stirTh’easy earth that covers her.
Diction (Choice of Words)Specific & Concrete General & Abstract Specific language: General language: refers to objects or signifies broad classes of conditions that can be persons, objects, and perceived or imagined phenomena Concrete diction: Abstract diction: refers to describes conditions or qualities that are rarefied qualities that are exact and theoretical and particular Poems tend to be Poems tend to be detached and visual, familiar, and cerebral, deal with compelling universal questions or emotions
Levels of Diction • Elevated & ElaborateHigh or Formal • Follows exact rules of syntax • Stresses Simplicity • Avoids elevated tones Middle or Neutral • Also avoids slang, colloquialisms, contractions, jargon, fads of speech • Language of common, everyday useLow or Informal • Uses slang, contractions, swearwords, grammatical errors
Special Types of Diction Idiom Dialect Unique forms of Regional anddiction and word group usage and order pronunciation Slang Jargon Informal and Special language substandard and terminology ofvocabulary / idiom groups
―Loveliest of Trees, the Cherry Now‖(1896) A.E. Housman (1859-1936) Loveliest of trees, the cherry now Is hung with bloom along the bough, And stands about the woodland ride Wearing white for Eastertide. Now, of my threescore years and ten, Twenty will not come again, And take from seventy springs a score, It only leaves me fifty more. And since to look at things in bloom Fifty springs are little room, About the woodland I will go To see the cherry hung with snow.
Syntax (Word Order &Sentence Structure) Parallelism = most often considered repetition produces lines or portions of lines that make strong impressions because of the repetition of certain words or phrases also the repetition of verb endings packing of words to add multiple meaningsSo on we worked, and waited for the light,And went without the meat, and cursed the bread ~ ―Richard Cory‖ (Robinson)
Antithesis = a contrasting situation or idea that brings out surprise, shock, or climax works with parallelism So on we worked, and waited for the light, And went without the meat, and cursed the bread; And Richard Cory, one calm summer night, Went home and put a bullet through his head. ~ ―Richard Cory‖ (Robinson)
Denotation & Connotation Denotation = the actual, literal, dictionary meaning of a word Connotation = the cultural, emotional, psychological, social, and historical overtones of a word
Decorum Decorum = beautiful, appropriate Words and subjects should be in perfect accord Formal words for serious subjects Informal words for low subjects and comedy William Wordsworth transformed poetry in the 19th century, opening the door for topics and language of people from all classes, with special stress on common folk. (1770-1850) William Wordsworth
―Daffodils (I Wandered Lonely asa Cloud)‖ 1807 William Wordsworth (1770-1850) And then my heart with pleasure fills, And dances with the daffodils.
―Still I Rise‖ (1987) Maya Angelou (b. 1928) “Still I Rise”You may write me down in historyWith your bitter, twisted lies,You may trod me in the very dirtBut still, like dust, I rise. Maya Angelou
―Hazel Tells Laverne‖ last night Katharyn Machan im cleanin out my howard johnsons ladies room when all of a sudden up pops this frog musta come from the sewer swimmin aroun an tryin ta climb up the sida the bowl so i goes ta flushm down but sohelpmegod he starts talkin bout a golden ball an how i can be a princess me a princess well my mouth drops all the way to the floor an he says kiss me just kiss me once on the nose “The Princess and the Frog” well i screams ya little green pervert am i hitsm with my mop an has ta flush the toilet down three times me a princess
The Passionate Shepherd to His LoveCharacters & SettingWho, What, Where & When in Poetry
Characters Setting Speaker or persona Setting reflects Most significant Time character in a poem Place (1) Inside Speaker – Thought uses the first-person Social Conventions voice and is involved in the poem’s actions General circumstances of the Outside Speaker – third- characters’ lives person perspective Religion (2) Listener – imagined person, not the Economic reader, whom the circumstances speaker is addressing Condition of the (3) Major & Minor natural world Participants – can be human or nonhuman
―On the Amtrak from Boston to New York City‖ Sherman Alexie somebody from the enemy thought I was one of their own.
―The Ruined Maid‖ (1866) Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) “O didn’t you know I’d been ruined,” said she. Thomas Hardy
―The Passionate Shepherd to HisLove‖ (1599)Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593)Come live with me andbe my love,And we will all thepleasures prove “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love”
―The Nymph‘s Reply to theShepherd‖ (1600) Sir Walter Raleigh (1522- 1618)If all the world and love wereyoung,And truth in every shepherd’stongue,These pretty pleasures mightme moveTo live with thee and be thy Sir Walter Raleighlove.
Sensory ImagesImageryThe Poem‘s Link to the Senses
Types of Imagery Sensory Imagery. Visual = Sight Auditory = Sound Olfactory, Gustatory, and Tactile = Smell, Taste, and Touch Kinetic and Kinesthetic = Motion and Activity
―Channel Firing‖(1914) Thomas Hardy (1840-1928)That night your great guns, unawares,Shook all our coffins as we lay,And broke the chancel window-squares,We thought it was the Judgment DayAnd sat upright.
―Seven Horizons‖ (2006) Stephen Stepanchev (b. 1915)Here in Flushing I let the rainWash away my rotting selves,The rubble of what I was, the thickDeeps of silence among the ruins,The seven layers of abandonmentNo archeologist will ever read.
―It‘s Only Rock and Roll, but I LikeIt‖: The Fall of Saigon (1975, 1990) David Wojahn (b. 1953)…An ice-cream suitedSaigonese drops his briefcase; both handsNow cling to the airborne skis. The camera getsIt all: the marine leaning out the copter bay,His fists beating time. Then the hands giving way.
Metaphorical LanguageThe Source of Depth and Range in Poetry
Metaphor A metaphor equates known objects or actions with something that is unknown or to be explained. A metaphor not only explains and illuminates the thing being described – but also offers distinctive, original, and often startling ways of seeing it and thinking about it.“All the world’s a stage / and all the men andwomen merely players.” ~ As You Like It, Shakespeare
―Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer‘s Day?‖ (1609) William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Shall I compare thee to a summer‘s day? Thou are more lovely and more temperate
SimileA simile illustrates the similarity or comparability of the known to something unknown or to be explained by using the words “like” or “as” /“as if”/“as though” She walks in beauty, like the night Of cloudless climes and starry skies; ~ “She Walks in Beauty,” Lord Byron
―Bright Star‖ (1819, 1838) John Keats (1795-1822)Bright star! would I were steadfast as thou art – Not in lone splendor hung aloft the night,And watching, with eternal lids apart, Like Nature‘s patient, sleepless eremite,
Paradox A paradox is a figurative device through which something apparently wrong or contradictory is shown to be truthful and non-contradictory. We look before and after, And pine for what is not: Our sincerest laughter With some pain is fraught; Our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thought. ~ “To a Skylark,” Percy Bysshe Shelley
―On Monsieur‘s Departure (c. 1560) Elizabeth Tudor, Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603)I grieve and dare not show my discontent,I love and yet am forced to seem to hate,I do, yet dare not say I every meant,I seem stark mute but inwardly do prate. I am and not, I freeze and yet am burned, Since from myself another self I turned.
Anaphora Anaphora = the repetition of the same word or phrase throughout a work in order to lend weight and emphasis Yes, we had laughed often day and night Yes, we fought violence and knew violence Yes, we hated the inner and outer oppression ~ “Looking at Each Other,” Muriel Rukeyser
Apostrophe In an apostrophe a speaker addresses a real or imagined listener who is not present in the work. Creates the drama of a speaker addressing an audience.“I almost wish we were butterflies and livd but threesummer days - three suchdays with you I could fill withmore delight than fiftycommon years could evercontain.” ~ John Keats Bright Star film clip
―London, 1802‖ (1802) William Wordsworth (1770-1850)Milton! thou should‘st be living at this hour:England hath need of thee: she is a fenOf stagnant waters: altar, sword, and pen,
Personification Personification= the attribution of human traits to abstractions or to nonhuman objectsRemember the sky that you were born under,know each of the star’s stories.Remember the moon, know who she is. I met herin a bar once in Iowa City. ~ “Remember,” Joy Harjo
Synecdoche & Metonymy Synecdoche = a part stands for the whole, or the whole stands for a part Indiana won the championship – meaning that the basketball team, not the entire university or the entire state, won the game Christian Watford won the championship – meaning he made a great play that won the game for the Indiana basketball team Metonymy = substitutes one thing for another with which it is closely identified The silver screen or Hollywood used to refer to the movie industry
Pun or Paronomasia Pun or Paronomasia = wordplay stemming from the fact that words with different meanings have surprisingly similar or even identical sounds The portrait tumbled from the wall And hit the young man’s head. “A striking likeness!” That was all The rueful punster said. ~Author Unknown
Synesthesia Synesthesia = a description of feelings or perceptions using words or images that are typically used for other feelings or perceptions, or for the exact opposite things O for a beaker full of the warm South ~”Ode to a Nightingale,” Keats
Overstatement/Understatement Overstatement / Hyperbole = exaggeration used for effect Understatement = deliberate underplaying or undervaluing of a thing
Symbolism Symbolism in poetry can be found in… actions setting and scenes characters situations and in the automatic symbolism of certain words – shepherd, cross, flood, winter
―Snow‖ (1977) Virginia Scott (b. 1938) A doe stands at the roadside, spirit of those who have lived here and passed known through our memory. The doe stands at the edge of the icy road, then darts back into the woods.
Allusion An allusion carries the entire context of the work from which it is drawn Use to add depth of meaning to poetry Allusions can be drawn from a single word or from an entire passage that is reminiscent of another famous text, idea, or image
―To His Coy Mistress‖ (c. 1650) Andrew Marvell (1621-1678) *a carpe diem poem Had we but world enough, and time, This coyness, Lady, were no crime. Andrew Marvell
―Marvell Noir‖ (2005) Ann LauingerSweetheart, if we had the time,A week in bed would be no crime. Humphrey Bogart as a Guy Noir
Tone, Choice, & Response Tone is derived from the phrase tone of voice Describes the shaping of attitudes in poetry The poet’s choice of language and tone is designed to evoke a response from the reader Common Grounds of Assent An appeal to a bond of commonly held interests, concerns, and assumptions is essential to maintaining an effective tone In a poem with well-controlled tone… Details and situations should be factually correct Observations should be logical and fair
―Dulce et Decorum Est‖ (1920) Wilfred Owen (1893-1918)If you could hear at every jolt, the bloodCome gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cudOf vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues. –My friend, you would not tell with such high zestTo children ardent for some desperate glory,The old Lie: Dulce et decorum estPro patria mori. Wilfred Owen: Greatest English War Poet
Tone & Irony Irony is a mode of indirection, a way of making a point by emphasizing a discrepancy or opposite. Verbal Irony indicates the irony achieved through the subtleties of language. Situational Irony is derived from the discrepancies between the ideal and the actual in a poem. Dramatic Irony is at work when the reader knows more about a situation than the characters do. Satire uses humor and irony to expose human follies and vices.
―The Workbox‖ (1914) Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) Yet still her lips were limp and wan, Her face still held aside, As if she had known not only John, But known of what he died.
―homage to my hips‖ (1987) Lucille Clifton (1936-2010)these hips are big hipsthey need space tomove around in.they don’t fit into littlepetty places, these hipsare free hips.they don’t like to be held back.these hips have never been enslaved.they go where they want to go.they do what they want to do. Lucille Cliftonthese hips are mighty hips.these hips are magic hips.i have known themto put a spell on a man and Lucille Clifton, “Walnut Grove”spin him like a top!
Prosody Prosody describes the study of poetic sounds and rhythms. Prosodic technique cannot be separated from a poem’s content. The study of prosody aims to determine how poets control their words so that the sound of a poem complements its expression of emotions and ideas. Prosody examines vowel sounds, consonant sounds, syllables, and rhyme.
Scansion Scansion = the systematic study of poetic rhythm Scansion examines accented and unaccented syllables Accented / Primary Stress / Heavy Stress Signified by a prime mark (΄) or by capitalization of stressed syllables: to BE or NOT to BE Unaccented / Light Stress Indicated by a breve (˘) or by lowercase letters When I con-SID-er HOW my LIGHT is SPENT
Meter and Metrical Feet Metrical verse follows a set rhythmical pattern. Free verse does not. The meter of a poem is its rhythmical pattern, measured by the number of feet in its lines. English verse is made up of rhythmical units called feet. A foot is made up of weakly stressed (˘) and strongly stressed (΄) syllables. Virgules or slashes (/) are used to separate metric feet. WA – ter / WA – ter / Ev – ery WHERE
―Annabel Lee‖ (1849) Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849)And so all the night-tide, I lie down by the sideOf my darling, my darling, my life and my bride In her sepulchre there by the sea – In her tomb by the side of the sea.
Determining MeterMetric Term Number of Feet ExampleMonometer One foot And I Shall fly awayDimeter Two feet After autumn Comes the winterTrimeter Three feet In the midst of morningTetrameter Four feet O saddle up my milk white steedPentameter Five feet That time of year thou may’st in me beholdHexameter Six feet A perfect knight he was, that all could plainly see.Heptameter Seven feetOctameter Eight feet
The Major Metrical FeetType of Foot Stress Pattern ExampleIamb, or iambic foot ˘΄ afraidTrochee, or trochaic foot ΄˘ freedomAnapest, or anapestic foot ˘˘΄ in a flashDactyl, or dactylic foot ΄˘˘ feverishSpondee, or spondaic foot ΄΄ baseballPyrrhee or pyrrhic foot ˘˘ UnbelievableAmphibrach ˘΄˘ Ah FEED meAmphimacer ΄˘΄ LOVE is BESTImperfect foot or catalectic ˘ ΄ a single stressed orfoot or unstressed syllable by itself
―When I was One-and-Twenty‖(1896) A.E. Housman (1859-1936) When I was one-and-twenty I heard a wise man say, “Give crowns and pounds and guineas But not your heart away; Give pearls away and rubies But keep your fancy free.” But I was one-and-twenty, No use to talk to me. A.E. Housman
The Caesura (Pause) Pauses or caesurae are used to indicate the natural rhythm of speech Indicated by commas, semi-colons, and periods (or other forms of punctuation)! Two virgules are used in indicate a caesura Caesura create end-stopped lines and run-on lines: A thing of beauty is a joy forever. Its loveliness increases; // it will never Pass into nothingness; // but still will keep A bower quiet for us, // and a sleep Full of sweet dreams, // … ―Endymion‖ ~ John Keats
Segmented Poetic Devices Used to create emphasis or echo sounds Assonance = the repetition of identical vowel sounds in different words “swift Camilla skims” Consonance = the repetition of identical consonant sounds typically in the middle of words Alliteration = the repetition of identical consonant sounds falling at the beginning of each word “brazen brainless brothers” Onomatopoeia = verbal imitation of real sounds crack, buzz, bump, thump Euphony = pleasing sounds Cachophony = harsh sounds
―We Real Cool‖ (1959) Gwendolyn Brooks (1917-2000)The Pool Players.Seven at the Golden Shovel.We real cool. WeLeft school. WeLurk late. WeStrike straight. WeSing sin. WeThin gin. WeJazz June. We Gwendolyn BrooksDie soon.
Rhyme and Meter Exact Rhyme = words with identical rhyming sounds: ache, bake, break, opaque Inexact Rhyme / Slant Rhyme / Near Rhyme = words with nearly identical rhyming sounds: could, solitude Eye Rhyme / Sight Rhyme = identical in spelling but different in pronunciation: cough, dough, through Identical Rhyme = the same word is used in different lines to formulate the rhyming pattern Internal Rhyme = rhyming patterns which fall within the line of poetry rather than at the end of the line
―At a Summer Hotel‖ (1979) Isabella Gardner (1915-1981)I am here with my bountiful womanful childto be soothed by the sea not roused by these roses roving wild.My girl is gold in the sun and bold in the dazzling water,She drowses on the blond sand and in the daisy fields my daughterdreams. Uneasy in the drafty shade I rock on the verandareminded of Europa Persephone Miranda.
Rhyme Scheme Rhyme Scheme refers to a poem’s pattern of rhyming sounds, designated by alphabetical letters The rhyming pattern is determined by the final word in the line The rhyming pattern is broken into stanzas Iambic pentameter (the form of a Shakespearean Sonnet) follows this rhyme scheme: abab cdcd efef gg
―The Road Not Taken‖ (1920) Robert Frost (1874-1963)I shall be telling this with a sighSomewhere ages and ages hence:Two roads diverged in a wood, and I—I took the one less traveled by,And that has made all the difference.
―The Lover Not Taken‖ (1984) Blanche FarleyOh, she turned with a sigh.Somewhere ages and ages hence,She might be telling this. “And I” –She would say, “stood faithfully by.”But by then who would know the difference?With that in mind, she took the fast way home,The road by the pond, and phoned the blond.
Closed-Form Poetry Closed-Form Poetry refers to poetry written in specific and traditional patterns of lines produced through line length, meter, rhyme, and line groupings. Walt Whitman
Blank Verse Blank Verse = unrhymed iambic pentameter One of the most common closed forms in English Consists of five unrhymed iambic lines Resembles normal speech patterns in English Shakespeare is the master of blank verse (in his plays) ̆ ʹ ̆ ʹ ̆ ʹ ̆ ʹ ̆ ʹ Like a / good child,/ and a / true gen- / tle - man. That I / am guilt- / less of/ your fa- / ther‘s death. And am / most sen- / si-bly / in grief / for it, It shall / as le- / vel to / your judg- / ment ‗pear ~ The King, Hamlet, Shakespeare
The Couplet The Couplet = contains two rhyming lines and is the shortest distinct closed form Lines are usually identical in length and meter Heroic Couplet = iambic pentameter couplet considered appropriate for epic, or heroic, poetry Falls at the end of Shakespearian Sonnets Expresses a complete idea and is grammatically self- sufficient My garden is unfolding before my startled eyes. Each blossom as it opens is a welcome, glad surprise. The daffodils are blooming and spread sunshiny cheer, While the tulips are struggling to hold up their heads this year. ~ ―My Garden,‖ Joyce Johnson
Tercet or Triplet A Tercet or Triplet is a three line stanza Typically ryhmes aaa, bbb, ccc, and so on But, there are two variations on the tercetHe clasps the crag with crooked hands;Close to the sun in lonely lands,Ring‘d with the azure world, he stands.The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls;He watches from his mountain walls,And like a thunderbolt he falls. ~‖The Eagle,‖ Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Terza Rima In a Terza Rima, the stanzas are interlocked through a pattern that requires the center rhyme in one tercet to be rhymed twice in the next: aba, bcb, cdc, ded, and so onO wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn‘s being, (a)Thou, from whose unseen presence the leaves dead (b)Are driven, like ghosts from an enchanter fleeing, (a)Yellow, and black, and pale, and hectic red, (b)Pestilence-stricken multitudes: O Thou, (c)Who chariotest to their dark wintry bed (b) ~ ―Ode to the West Wind,‖ Percy Bysshe Shelley
VillanelleA Villanelle = the most complex form of tercet pattern Nineteen lines containing six tercets, rhymed aba and concluded by four lines First and third lines of the first tercet are repeated alternately in subsequent tercets as a refrain, also in the concluding four lines Dylan Thomas’ “Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night” is an excellent example of the Villanelle form.
―Do Not Go Gentle into That GoodNight‖ (1951) Dylan Thomas (1914-1953)Do not go gentle into that good night,Old age should burn and rave at close of day;Rage, rage against the dying of the light.Though wise men at their end know dark is right,Because their words had forked no lightening theyDo not go gentle into that good night.Good men, the last wave by, crying how brightTheir frail deeds might have danced in a green bay,Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
Quatrain A Quatrain = a four line stanza The most common stanzaic form Very popular in poetry Determining factor is rhyme scheme, but that can vary in pattern A Quatrain is the basic component of ballads, lyrics, common measure or hymnal stanza, and is significant in many religious hymns: Amazing Grace! How sweet the sound, That saved a wretch like me. I once was lost, but now am found, Was blind but now I see. ~ ―Amazing Grace,‖ John Newton
Ballad of Birmingham (1966)(On the bombing of a church inBirmingham, Alabama, 1963) Dudley Randall (1914-2000) The mother smiled to know her child Was in the sacred place, But that smile was the last smile To come upon her face. For when she heard the explosion, Her eyes grew wet and wild. She raced through the streets of Birmingham Calling for her child.
How Many Lines Per Stanza? Number of Stanzaic Lines Poetic Form 2 lines Couplet 3 lines Tercet or Triplet 4 lines Quatrain 5 lines Cinquain 6 lines Sestet 7 lines Heptastich 8 lines Octave 14 lines Sonnet
Italian / Petrarchan Sonnet Sonnets = consist of 14 lines Initially an Italian form of poetry made famous by the Italian poet Petrarch (1304-1374) In iambic pentameter Include two quatrains (the octave) and two tercets (the sestet) The octave presents a problem or situation that is resolved in the sestet Fixed rhyme scheme abba, abba, cdc, cdc or abba, abba, cde, cde
Poem 292 Francesco Petrarcha (1304-1374) *Written on Laura’s deathThe eyes I spoke of with such warmth,The arms and hands and feet and faceWhich took me away from myselfAnd marked me out from other people;The waving hair of pure shining gold,And the flash of her angelic smile,Which used to make a paradise on earth,Are a little dust, that feels nothing.And yet I live, for which I grieve and despise myself,Left without the light I loved so much,In a great storm on an unprotected raft.Here let there be an end to my loving song:The vein of my accustomed invention has run dry,And my lyre is turned to tears.
English / Shakespearian Sonnet Sonnets = consist of 14 lines Shakespeare transformed the Italian sonnet into English Recognized that there are fewer rhyming words in English Modified the rhyme scheme: abab, cdcd, efef, gg Added a heroic couplet to the end of the sonnet Each quatrain (first 12 lines) contains a separate development of the sonnet’s central idea or problem The couplet provides the resolution to the problem
Sonnet 130 William Shakespeare (1564-1616)My mistress eyes are nothing like the sun;Coral is far more red than her lips red;If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.I have seen roses damasked, red and white,But no such roses see I in her cheeks;And in some perfumes is there more delightThan in the breath that from my mistress reeks.I love to hear her speak, yet well I knowThat music hath a far more pleasing sound;I grant I never saw a goddess go;My mistress when she walks treads on the ground. And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare As any she belied with false compare.
Haiku Haiku = a complete poem of 17 syllables Originated in Japan Follows strict guidelines: (1) Must be a tercet (three lines) (2) Must include five, seven, and five syllables per line (3) the poem should embody a unique observation or insight. Spun in high, dark clouds, Snow forms vast webs of white flakes And drifts lightly down. ~ ―Spun in High, Dark Clouds,‖ Anonymous
Epigram, Epitaph, Limerick Epigram= short, witty poem that usually makes a humorous or satiric point Epitaph = brief poems composed to mark the death of someone, humorous or sometimes irreverent Limerick = a five-line poem that is humorous, sometimes bawdy
Elegy & Ode Elegy = a poem about death and its meaning for the living A poem of lamentation Subject is typically the death of a particular person, but can also be death in general, mortality, or grief Ode = a complex and extensive stanzaic poem Varying line lengths and intricate rhyme schemes Meditative and philosophical topics, but a broad range of topics Closest closed-form pattern to open-form poetry
Open-Form Poetry Open-Form Poetry = also known as free verse, eliminates the restrictions of the closed form. Free in form and variable in contentWord over all, beautiful as the sky,Beautiful that war and all its deeds of carnage must in time be utterly lost,That the hands of the sisters of Death and Night incessantly softly wash again, and ever again, this soiled world;For my enemy is dead, a man divine as myself is dead,I look where he lies white-faced and still in the coffin – I draw near,Bend down and touch lightly with my lips the white face in the coffin. ~ ―Reconciliation,‖ Walt Whitman