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Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction
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Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy: an Introduction

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Presentation introducing the World Bank virtual economy report, which is available at http://www.infodev.org/en/Document.1076.pd. …

Presentation introducing the World Bank virtual economy report, which is available at http://www.infodev.org/en/Document.1076.pd.

Delivered at the FPD Forum, 7 April 2011, Washington D.C.

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  • Employs 400,000 people in China, Vietnam and a number of other developing countries
  • Outsourcing aimed at individualsRemote work, distance between customer and worker, facilitated by mobile technologyYouth employmentAdditional income
  • Transcript

    • 1. Knowledge Map of theVirtual Economy
      Dr. Vili Lehdonvirta, University of Tokyo / HIIT FPD Forum, 7 Apr 2011, Washington DC
    • 2. Contents
      Introducing the Knowledge Map of the Virtual Economy
      What do we mean by “Virtual Economy”?
      What are some of the industries in the VE?
      What is the development potential of the VE?
      Mobile Microwork Challenge
      Preview of an upcoming infoDev competition
      2
    • 3. KMVE: Research process
      Assignment: “Development potential of the Virtual Economy”
      August 2010 –> January 2011
      Two researchers + research assistants
      Literature review (academic, market studies)
      13 interviews, one survey, data from a corporate database
      Workshop at ICTD 2010
      Peer review
      3
    • 4. The Demand
      Users desire goods and currencies in online games, social networks, etc.
      Brands are after Facebook likes, Twitter followers, Digg votes, etc.
      E-commerce sites need digital microwork, such as tags on images, transcriptions of scanned forms, de-duplication, etc.
      = “Virtual assets” that are valuable to someone, yet scarce
      4
    • 5. The Supply
      For each of these virtual assets, there is an emerging industry that supplies it
      The production, exchange and use of scarce virtual assets = the virtual economy
      5
    • 6. Sectors of the Virtual Economy
    • 7. Sectors of the Virtual Economy
    • 8.
    • 9.
    • 10. Professional gaming studio outside Beijing, China. Photo: Jared Psigoda
    • 11. Third-party gaming services
      Total revenues: $3.0 billion (2009)
      Approx. 100,000 full-time equivalent workers
      Involves negative externalities
      Net social value can be negative
      Legal status contentious
      Game operator
      Producer
      Customer
      Retailer
    • 12. Sectors of the Virtual Economy
    • 13. 13
    • 14. 14
    • 15. Sectors of the Virtual Economy
    • 16. 16
      Microtask Ltd
    • 17. Microwork
      Samasource workers in rural Kenya. Photo: Samasource
    • 18. Microwork industry
      Infrastruct. provider
      Client
      Microworker
      Work aggregator
      Work transformer
      Emerging industry; some benchmarks for potential market size:
      Paid crowdsourcing: $500 million (2009)
      IT and business process offshoring: $92-$96 billion (2009)
      No negative externalities: 100% positive contribution to society
    • 19. Microwork vs. crowdsourcing
    • 20. Current development impact
      20
      Third-party gaming services value chain
      Infrastruct. provider
      <30%
      Client
      Microworker
      0-70%
      Aggregator
      10-30%
      Transformer
      20-60%
      Game operator
      <1%
      Producer
      70%
      Customer
      Retailer
      30%
      Microwork value chain
      Compared to e.g. the global coffee industry ($70 Bn in 2002), the amount of real money circulating in the virtual economy is modest
      But most earnings in the VE are captured by the producers -> significant development impact
      in the coffee industry, producing countries capture less than 10% of total revenues
    • 21. Future development potential
      21
      Third-party gaming services value chain
      Infrastruct. provider
      <30%
      Client
      Microworker
      0-70%
      Aggregator
      10-30%
      Transformer
      20-60%
      Game operator
      <1%
      Producer
      70%
      Customer
      Retailer
      30%
      Microwork value chain
      In the future, wage competition is likely to limit producers’ income (low entry barriers)
      In the gaming services industry, developing countries have been able to move up the value chain towards customer-facing functions
      Can developing countries achieve the same in the microwork industry?
    • 22. Potential upgrading strategies
      22
      Important enabler in least-developed countries: mobile technology
    • 23. 23
      Converting the Virtual Economy into Development Potential: Phase 2
      MobileMicroworkChallenge
      Photo (CC) by whiteafrican
    • 24. Mobile Microwork Challenge
      Online competition organized by infoDev to speed up the development impact of microwork in least-developed countries
      Challenge: develop new concepts for mobile microwork
      What problem is addressed, who is the customer?
      How is the problem addressed by microworkers using mobile (feature/smart)phones?
      Winning concepts awarded support for implementation and piloting
      Accepting submissions opens in fall 2011
      24
    • 25. 25

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