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From Confusion to Conclusion. How to Write a First-Class Essay
 

From Confusion to Conclusion. How to Write a First-Class Essay

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    From Confusion to Conclusion. How to Write a First-Class Essay From Confusion to Conclusion. How to Write a First-Class Essay Presentation Transcript

    • From Confusion to Conclusion How to Write a First-Class Essay Vlad Mackevic 23rd October 2012 Aston University
    • www.TheLectureRoom.co.uk
    • www.FirstYearCounts.com
    • Objectives How to answer essay and exam questions? How to come up with an essay topic? How to be critical? How to structure your essay? How to research efficiently? How to become a better writer?
    • School  University
    • Overwhelmed!
    • What Earns You Points? Answering the Question (!) Structure Style and language Research and Analysis References Formatting and Presentation
    • Set Topic vs. Free Topic !!! ???
    • Set Topic
    • The Assignment Question1. The Object of the Study2. The Context of the Study3. The Method of the Study
    • Modern organisations oftenreplace the traditionalhierarchical structure with amore ‘horizontal’ team structure.Select two motivation theoriesfrom the field of organisationalpsychology and discuss how theycan be applied in a team-basedorganisation.
    • Action VerbsModern organisations often replacethe traditional hierarchical structurewith a more ‘horizontal’ teamstructure. Select two motivationtheories from the field oforganisational psychology anddiscuss how they can be applied in ateam-based organisation.
    • ObjectModern organisations often replacethe traditional hierarchical structurewith a more ‘horizontal’ teamstructure. Select two motivationtheories from the field oforganisational psychology anddiscuss how they can be applied in ateam-based organisation.
    • ContextModern organisations often replacethe traditional hierarchical structurewith a more ‘horizontal’ teamstructure. Select two motivationtheories from the field oforganisational psychology anddiscuss how they can be applied in ateam-based organisation.
    • MethodModern organisations often replacethe traditional hierarchical structurewith a more ‘horizontal’ teamstructure. Select two motivationtheories from the field oforganisational psychology anddiscuss how they can be applied in ateam-based organisation.
    • Discuss 1. It is the case because Reason A Reason B Reason C 2. On the other hand, it is not the case because Reason A Reason B Reason C
    • Do you agree with Hedley Bull’scomment that the notion of‘international society has alwaysbeen present’ in the worldpolitical system?
    • ObjectDo you agree with Hedley Bull’scomment that the notion of‘international society has alwaysbeen present’ in the worldpolitical system?
    • ContextDo you agree with Hedley Bull’scomment that the notion of‘international society has alwaysbeen present’ in the worldpolitical system?
    • MethodDo you agree with Hedley Bull’scomment that the notion of‘international society has alwaysbeen present’ in the worldpolitical system?
    • What were the reasons for theeconomic miracle of South Koreain the second half of the twentiethcentury?
    • ObjectWhat were the reasons for theeconomic miracle of South Koreain the second half of the twentiethcentury?
    • ContextWhat were the reasons for theeconomic miracle of South Koreain the second half of the twentiethcentury?
    • MethodWhat were the reasons for theeconomic miracle of South Koreain the second half of the twentiethcentury?
    • Reasons Internal vs. External Levels: individual, organisation, society, country Not universal, but a good start
    • Other ‘Action Words’ Compare and contrast (similarities and differences) Advantages and disadvantages (‘Evaluate’) Outline (describe the main features) Enumerate (‘number’, list something)
    • Always define the object of your study.Show your understanding of the key termsSometimes also define the context
    • What about Exams?
    • Exams are just likeessays, but you’ve got much less time
    • Exam Tips Research Practise Object, Context, Method Prepare an outline Manage your time
    • Creating a Free Topic Research report Essay (2nd year onwards) Dissertation
    • Keep It Simple and NarrowThe rise of the Asian Tigers(economic power in the East)
    • Taiwan Reasons Impact Singapore The rise of the Asian Tigers (economic power in the East) International relations Hong KongSouth Korea Consequences Economic performance
    • What were the reasons for theeconomic miracle of South Koreain the second half of the twentiethcentury?
    • What were the reasons for the economic miracle of South Korea in the second half of the twentieth century?• Not consequences
    • What were the reasons for the economic miracle of South Korea in the second half of the twentieth century?• Not consequences• Not Taiwan, Singapore or Hong Kong
    • What were the reasons for the economic miracle of South Korea in the second half of the twentieth century?• Not consequences;• Not Taiwan, Singapore or Hong Kong• Not any other time
    • StructureIntroduction (10-15%) Main Body (70-80%) Conclusion (10-15%)
    • Structure1. Say what you’re going to say;2. Say it;3. Say what you’ve just said.
    • Set Topic vs. Free Topic Introduction Main Body Conclusion References
    • Set Topic vs. Free Topic Introduction  Introduction Main Body  Literature Conclusion Review References  Methodology  Analysis and Discussion  Conclusion  References
    • Introduction
    • Introduction Explain what you are writing about Guide your reader Mention the Object, the Context and the Method
    • Write YourIntroduction at the End
    • Why? It’s hard You don’t have all the information yet  Theory  Applications of the theory  Arguments of the essay  Outline and structure Write about your most recent actions
    • Main Body Main arguments Evidence Reading/knowledge References
    • The Funnel and the Hourglass
    • Set Topic Free Topic
    • Broad to Narrow
    • The Funnel Principle
    • Link all yourarguments back to the essay question!
    • Broad to Narrow and Back to Broad
    • TheHourglassPrinciple
    • Copy from one, it’s plagiarism; copy from two, it’s research. Wilson Mizner US screenwriter (1876 - 1933)
    • AssignmentsResearch-Based vs. Library-Based
    • ResearchPrimary Secondary
    • Research Wikipedia (ONLY for general knowledge) Not to be included in the list of references References on Wikipedia
    • Research Textbooks and their chapters (theory) Research articles and conference papers (application of theory in practice)
    • http://scholar.google.com
    • Aston Library Smart Search
    • Research Websites Serious journalism Email correspondence
    • Research Tips Relevant – answer the question Research ethics Make notes while you’re reading Carefully note down full references BACK IT UP!
    • Literature Review
    • Literature Review A critical summary of mainresearch you have found on the subject
    • Why? Done your reading Know your topicAware of the weaknesses
    • ‘Passable’ Literature Review Main theories How they were applied Research methods used by others Research design used by others
    • First-Class Literature Review Why did you choose these theories? How did others obtain their results? Similarities/differences in study design Predict your results An original contribution
    • Analysis and DiscussionInsanity: doing the same thingover and over again and expectingdifferent results. Albert Einstein (attributed)
    • Analysis and Discussion What has been found? Why such results? Differences between your research and that of the others Different methods; different participants
    • LimitationsIn the beginners mind there aremany possibilities, in the expertsthere are few. Shunryu Suzuki
    • Acknowledge Your Limitations Your lecturer will like it All researchers do it No theory is perfect No dataset is perfect No research method is perfect
    • Conclusion Mention the topic again Describe methods, data analysed etc. Summarise the findings How your findings correspond to the previous research Only write about your data and your research.
    • Speak confidently about your own results. Do not make generalisationsabout the world based on your limited data sample.
    • Referencing
    • Why Reference? To avoid failing the module Because it’s fair To back up your claims Evidence of extensive reading
    • Referencing Who wrote it? What is the book/article called? Who published it? Where was it published? When was it published?
    • http://firstyearcounts.com/free-resources- for-students/referencing/
    • The Writing Process
    • No Perfect First Draft
    • Never Leave Your Sheet Blank
    • Good Writers Read
    • Always Carry a Notebook
    • Linking Words
    • Do Not Complicate Things
    • Paragraph
    • Speak to Your Lecturers!
    • Facebook.com/thelectureroom1
    • Facebook.com/First.year.counts
    • Amazon Kindle Applications
    • first.year.counts@gmail.com
    • If you liked the event... Feel free to talk about it Write me a review
    • Tuesday, 20th November 2012, 6.00 PM Aston university, Birmingham
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    • Thank you!