From Confusion to Conclusion. How to Write a First-Class Essay
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

From Confusion to Conclusion. How to Write a First-Class Essay

on

  • 3,187 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,187
Views on SlideShare
3,151
Embed Views
36

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
31
Comments
0

2 Embeds 36

http://thelectureroom.co.uk 24
http://www.linkedin.com 12

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

From Confusion to Conclusion. How to Write a First-Class Essay From Confusion to Conclusion. How to Write a First-Class Essay Presentation Transcript

  • From Confusion to Conclusion How to Write a First-Class Essay Vlad Mackevic 23rd October 2012 Aston University
  • www.TheLectureRoom.co.uk
  • www.FirstYearCounts.com
  • Objectives How to answer essay and exam questions? How to come up with an essay topic? How to be critical? How to structure your essay? How to research efficiently? How to become a better writer?
  • School  University
  • Overwhelmed!
  • What Earns You Points? Answering the Question (!) Structure Style and language Research and Analysis References Formatting and Presentation
  • Set Topic vs. Free Topic !!! ???
  • Set Topic
  • The Assignment Question1. The Object of the Study2. The Context of the Study3. The Method of the Study
  • Modern organisations oftenreplace the traditionalhierarchical structure with amore ‘horizontal’ team structure.Select two motivation theoriesfrom the field of organisationalpsychology and discuss how theycan be applied in a team-basedorganisation.
  • Action VerbsModern organisations often replacethe traditional hierarchical structurewith a more ‘horizontal’ teamstructure. Select two motivationtheories from the field oforganisational psychology anddiscuss how they can be applied in ateam-based organisation.
  • ObjectModern organisations often replacethe traditional hierarchical structurewith a more ‘horizontal’ teamstructure. Select two motivationtheories from the field oforganisational psychology anddiscuss how they can be applied in ateam-based organisation.
  • ContextModern organisations often replacethe traditional hierarchical structurewith a more ‘horizontal’ teamstructure. Select two motivationtheories from the field oforganisational psychology anddiscuss how they can be applied in ateam-based organisation.
  • MethodModern organisations often replacethe traditional hierarchical structurewith a more ‘horizontal’ teamstructure. Select two motivationtheories from the field oforganisational psychology anddiscuss how they can be applied in ateam-based organisation.
  • Discuss 1. It is the case because Reason A Reason B Reason C 2. On the other hand, it is not the case because Reason A Reason B Reason C
  • Do you agree with Hedley Bull’scomment that the notion of‘international society has alwaysbeen present’ in the worldpolitical system?
  • ObjectDo you agree with Hedley Bull’scomment that the notion of‘international society has alwaysbeen present’ in the worldpolitical system?
  • ContextDo you agree with Hedley Bull’scomment that the notion of‘international society has alwaysbeen present’ in the worldpolitical system?
  • MethodDo you agree with Hedley Bull’scomment that the notion of‘international society has alwaysbeen present’ in the worldpolitical system?
  • What were the reasons for theeconomic miracle of South Koreain the second half of the twentiethcentury?
  • ObjectWhat were the reasons for theeconomic miracle of South Koreain the second half of the twentiethcentury?
  • ContextWhat were the reasons for theeconomic miracle of South Koreain the second half of the twentiethcentury?
  • MethodWhat were the reasons for theeconomic miracle of South Koreain the second half of the twentiethcentury?
  • Reasons Internal vs. External Levels: individual, organisation, society, country Not universal, but a good start
  • Other ‘Action Words’ Compare and contrast (similarities and differences) Advantages and disadvantages (‘Evaluate’) Outline (describe the main features) Enumerate (‘number’, list something)
  • Always define the object of your study.Show your understanding of the key termsSometimes also define the context
  • What about Exams?
  • Exams are just likeessays, but you’ve got much less time
  • Exam Tips Research Practise Object, Context, Method Prepare an outline Manage your time
  • Creating a Free Topic Research report Essay (2nd year onwards) Dissertation
  • Keep It Simple and NarrowThe rise of the Asian Tigers(economic power in the East)
  • Taiwan Reasons Impact Singapore The rise of the Asian Tigers (economic power in the East) International relations Hong KongSouth Korea Consequences Economic performance
  • What were the reasons for theeconomic miracle of South Koreain the second half of the twentiethcentury?
  • What were the reasons for the economic miracle of South Korea in the second half of the twentieth century?• Not consequences
  • What were the reasons for the economic miracle of South Korea in the second half of the twentieth century?• Not consequences• Not Taiwan, Singapore or Hong Kong
  • What were the reasons for the economic miracle of South Korea in the second half of the twentieth century?• Not consequences;• Not Taiwan, Singapore or Hong Kong• Not any other time
  • StructureIntroduction (10-15%) Main Body (70-80%) Conclusion (10-15%)
  • Structure1. Say what you’re going to say;2. Say it;3. Say what you’ve just said.
  • Set Topic vs. Free Topic Introduction Main Body Conclusion References
  • Set Topic vs. Free Topic Introduction  Introduction Main Body  Literature Conclusion Review References  Methodology  Analysis and Discussion  Conclusion  References
  • Introduction
  • Introduction Explain what you are writing about Guide your reader Mention the Object, the Context and the Method
  • Write YourIntroduction at the End
  • Why? It’s hard You don’t have all the information yet  Theory  Applications of the theory  Arguments of the essay  Outline and structure Write about your most recent actions
  • Main Body Main arguments Evidence Reading/knowledge References
  • The Funnel and the Hourglass
  • Set Topic Free Topic
  • Broad to Narrow
  • The Funnel Principle
  • Link all yourarguments back to the essay question!
  • Broad to Narrow and Back to Broad
  • TheHourglassPrinciple
  • Copy from one, it’s plagiarism; copy from two, it’s research. Wilson Mizner US screenwriter (1876 - 1933)
  • AssignmentsResearch-Based vs. Library-Based
  • ResearchPrimary Secondary
  • Research Wikipedia (ONLY for general knowledge) Not to be included in the list of references References on Wikipedia
  • Research Textbooks and their chapters (theory) Research articles and conference papers (application of theory in practice)
  • http://scholar.google.com
  • Aston Library Smart Search
  • Research Websites Serious journalism Email correspondence
  • Research Tips Relevant – answer the question Research ethics Make notes while you’re reading Carefully note down full references BACK IT UP!
  • Literature Review
  • Literature Review A critical summary of mainresearch you have found on the subject
  • Why? Done your reading Know your topicAware of the weaknesses
  • ‘Passable’ Literature Review Main theories How they were applied Research methods used by others Research design used by others
  • First-Class Literature Review Why did you choose these theories? How did others obtain their results? Similarities/differences in study design Predict your results An original contribution
  • Analysis and DiscussionInsanity: doing the same thingover and over again and expectingdifferent results. Albert Einstein (attributed)
  • Analysis and Discussion What has been found? Why such results? Differences between your research and that of the others Different methods; different participants
  • LimitationsIn the beginners mind there aremany possibilities, in the expertsthere are few. Shunryu Suzuki
  • Acknowledge Your Limitations Your lecturer will like it All researchers do it No theory is perfect No dataset is perfect No research method is perfect
  • Conclusion Mention the topic again Describe methods, data analysed etc. Summarise the findings How your findings correspond to the previous research Only write about your data and your research.
  • Speak confidently about your own results. Do not make generalisationsabout the world based on your limited data sample.
  • Referencing
  • Why Reference? To avoid failing the module Because it’s fair To back up your claims Evidence of extensive reading
  • Referencing Who wrote it? What is the book/article called? Who published it? Where was it published? When was it published?
  • http://firstyearcounts.com/free-resources- for-students/referencing/
  • The Writing Process
  • No Perfect First Draft
  • Never Leave Your Sheet Blank
  • Good Writers Read
  • Always Carry a Notebook
  • Linking Words
  • Do Not Complicate Things
  • Paragraph
  • Speak to Your Lecturers!
  • Facebook.com/thelectureroom1
  • Facebook.com/First.year.counts
  • Amazon Kindle Applications
  • first.year.counts@gmail.com
  • If you liked the event... Feel free to talk about it Write me a review
  • Tuesday, 20th November 2012, 6.00 PM Aston university, Birmingham
  • The Lecture Room Newsletter Click here to subscribe
  • Get the Book on Amazon Paperback Kindle Version Don’t have a Kindle? Get a FREE application for your PC or phone!
  • Thank you!