REAL ESTATE IN INDIAN CONTEXT-OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES Vijayakumar A B* and Dr.K.Nagendra Babu** *Research scholar, DOS in Commerce, University of Mysore. ** ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, DOS in Commerce, University of Mysore.ABSTRACT The real estate sector in India assumed greater prominence with theLiberalization of the economy, as the consequent increase in businessopportunities and labour migration led to rising demand for commercialand housing space. The real estate sector in India is presently worth USD15billion and it is growing at a phenomenal rate of 30% per year. This sectoris the second largest employer in India, after the agricultural sector. Havingattained maturity, the real estate sector is attracting huge investments,especially (Foreign Direct Investment) FDI. Today, real estate in Indiaaddresses the demand for built-up space, from a variety of propertysegments such as offices, residential units, shopping malls, hospitalityindustry, manufacturing sector and logistics parks, to name a few. The realestate sector is also active in the establishment of SEZs and the building oftownships; it is spreading to the smaller cities and underpins their growth.Infrastructure developments closely parallel real estate developments.This paper presents a panoramic view of the operations of Indian real estatesector in various property segments, the challenges faced by the sector andits prospects.Keyword: FDI, Infrastructure, Real Estate, Township.INTRODUCTION The term “real estate” is defined as land, including the air above it and the earthbelow it and any buildings or structures on it. Land plus anything permanently fixed to it,including buildings, sheds and other items attached to the structure. Although, media oftenrefers to the "real estate market" from the perspective of residential living, real estate can begrouped into three broad categories based on its use: residential, commercial and industrial.Examples of real estate include undeveloped land, houses, condominiums, town homes,office buildings, retail store buildings and factories. At present, the real estate andconstruction sectors are playing a crucial role in the overall development of India’s coreinfrastructure. Real Estate in India is one of the most important revenue generating sectors. Inevery assets are having depreciation value. Investment in property is believed to be thesmartest move as chances of loss is negligible. The growth and appreciation in this sector isdirectly influences the economy of the country. In case in our India if a person having aproperty of your own is a matter of pride for him, attachment to the property is massive.
Also, it is the most profitable investment in India. The growth graph of the Real Estate sectoris observed to be rising day by day. The real estate industry’s growth is linked to developments in the retail, hospitalityand entertainment (hotels, resorts, cinema theatres) industries, economic services (hospitals,schools) and information technology (IT)-enabled services (like call centers) etc and viceversa. The Indian real estate sector has traditionally been dominated by a number of smallRegional players with relatively low levels of expertise and financial resources.Historically, the sector has not benefited from institutional capital; instead, it hasTraditionally tapped high net-worth individuals and other informal sources of financing,which has led to low levels of transparency. This scenario underwent a change with in linewith the sector’s growth, and as of today, the real estate industry’s dynamics reflectconsumers’ expectations of higher quality with India’s increasing integration with the globaleconomy.OBJECTIVESThe paper aims to examine the present scenario of real estate in India. In this broaderframework, an attempt has been made to achieve the following specific objectives:1. To study the fundamental factors affecting the real estate value.2. To present the future constraints of real estate investment in India.REVIEW OF LITERATURE In the field of real estate various research article has made. Among those articles, thissection reviewed some of the articles.Bansal.A, Sirohi R and Jha Manish (2011) in their article explain that the real-estate sectorhas playing a crucial role in SEZ (Special Economic Zone) and forming of township. Asalso, it helps the town to become cities. They also explain the concept of “green” building,adopted by the sector, testifying to a significant emphasis on sustainability consideration.They explain the infrastructure development is just before parallel to the real estatedevelopments. Their paper presents a panoramic view of the operations of Indian real estatesector in various property segments, the challenges faced by the sector and its prospects.Singh V and Komal (2009) explained in their article about the investment in India forproperty or industry use. And also they divide this sector into three division, under 1st onethey explained the fundamental factor are affecting the real sector value like demand, supply,property, restriction to use and site characteristics. Under the 2nd and 3rd one, they explainedthe causes and constraints to the present real estate boom respectively in India. They alsopresent the suggestion and future prospects of real estate in the country.CONCEPT OF REAL ESTATE MARKET IN INDIA Indian real estate has seen an unprecedented boom in the last few years. This wasignited and fuelled by two main forces. First, the expanding industrial sector has created asurge in demand for offices building and dwellings. The industrial sector grew at the rate of10.8 percent in 2006-07 out of which a growth of 11.8 percent was seen by the manufacturingsector. Second, the liberalization policies of government have decreased the need for
permission and licenses before taking up mega construction projects. Opening the doors toforeign investments is a further step in these directions. The government has allowed FDI inthe real estate sector since 2002.With increasing sophistication of the real estate market inIndia, the need for valuation systems and practice becomes extremely acute, particularly inthis large country of sub-continental proportions. This need becomes even more important inthe evolving economy of India which has embarked on the overall policy of liberalizationwith foreign direct investment and entry of several players in the market. Concomitantly, themortgage housing finance market for home ownership has also been maturing in India andthis present s its own issues for a standardized system of valuation practice.All these developments over the last 10 years have fuelled a lot of churn in the real estateindustry. While developers, builders, finance companies, material manufacturers etc. havescaled up their operations to match global standards in terms of quality and delivery, the realestate valuation sector has remained largely orthodox, disorganized and out of date withmodern practices and global standards. With the development of private property ownership,real estate has become a major area of business. Purchasing real estate requires a significantinvestment and each parcel of land has unique characteristics, so real estate industry hasevolved into several distinct fields. Real estate can divided into three categories: These are 1. Commercial 2. Residential 3. AgriculturalThe following factors influence the price and cost of the real estate:1. The physical characteristics of the property2. The property rights holding the property3. Geographical area4. The development rateSOME KIND OF REAL ESTATE BUSINESSES INCLUDE:Appraisal – Professional valuation servicesBrokerage – Assisting buyers and sellers in transactionsDevelopment – Improving land for use by adding or replacing buildingsProperty Management – Managing a property for its owner(s)Real Estate Marketing – Managing the sale side of the property businessRelocation Services – Relocating people or business to difficult countryCURRENT SCENARIO OF THE REAL ESTATE MARKET IN INDIA Now the India’s population is above 121 crore. As shelter is our one of the primaryneed, so this sector is growing in drastic way. Most of the citizens are ready to purchase theirown home. This segment is highly influenced by economic condition of our nation. Owing toglobal meltdown, the residential real estate market in India too witnessed a shocking fall indemand and capital values, between first half of 2008 and first half of 2009. However, thesector experienced a pickup in demand during the second half of 2009 across major citiesmainly attributed to improvement in economy.
Residential projects across cities saw several new mid-income housing projects beinglaunched by developers to attract potential buyers. Demand for houses mounted as the globaleconomy improved bringing back financial confidence to the home buyers along with lowinterest rates. End-users, who had put their purchasing plans on hold due to the fall inaffordability levels and job-related uncertainties, started booking houses.REAL ESTATE BUSINESS IN BANGALORE Bangalore property market is slowly looking up and property prices are not as high asother cities in India. Also, many builders are launching new projects in the city. Sobhaand Mantri builders have launched big budget ventures in Bangalore! After the globaleconomic slowdown, the realty sector in Bangalore completely went haywire but now thesituation seems to be stabilizing with top developers launching new projects in the city.Rising purchasing power and higher wages in the information technology (IT) sector ismaking real estate firms in Bangalore confident of launching new projects.Mantri Developers has outlined their plans to launch new real estate ventures inBangalore, Chennai and Hyderabad during the course of this year. The company,which has set up one of the country’s largest malls in Bangalore, Mantri Square, islooking at launching six new projects in the city. The company has also launched aninnovative no EMI scheme till delivery of the possession of the apartment to boostsales. Under this offer, a potential buyer can book a flat by paying Rs 3.5 lakhupfront. He need not bother about instalments till the delivery of the possession.Once the apartment is handed over by December 2011 and March 2012, he beginspayment of instalments to the bank. These apartments will be designed to save onstamp duty and concessions offered for apartments less than 1,200 sq ft.Also breaking away from its strategy of no new launches for the past two years,Puravankara Projects announced a project, Purva Skywood, in Bangalore that wouldsee development of 1.25 million sq ft of residential space spread over 12.5 acres.“Towards the beginning of 2009, we had about 13-14 million sq. ft. of space underconstruction, of which over 50 per cent was sold and at about 55 per centcompletion. So the focus for the company was on the execution of ongoing projects,and new launches were done only from our 100 per cent subsidiary company,Provident Housing,” said Mr Jackbastian Nazareth, Chief Operations Officer,Puravankara Projects.The project would see development of about 730 units in seven towers, priced at Rs2,990 a sq ft. About 32 per cent of these units would be two bedroom units, whileMeanwhile Sobha Developers has also launched a new housing project “SobhaChrysanthemum” at Thanisandra Bangalore. The project Sobha ChrysanthemumBangalore includes the style of international architecture. Sobha Chrysanthemum willoffer luxury apartments at affordable cost with all modern world class facilities likeswimming pool, children’s play area, club house, jogging track, internal court yard,gym, indoor games facilities, intercom, power backup, common basement, coveredcar park in basement floor and many more.
Sobha Chrysanthemum offers 3 bedroom apartments ranging between 1716 sq.ft. &1867 sq.ft. Endowed with every conceivable amenity and facility and offering anUninterrupted view of the city’s skyline, this elegant property undoubtedly makes theideal choice for investment in North Bangalore.Also Tata Housings most ambitious project Aquila heights is finally on track and hasThree luxury projects under it - Atria, Polaris and Vega enveloped by open greenSpaces and designed by international architects, Aquila Heights provides for a wholenew way of life. Contemporary, minimalist style architecture, with use such as glassstone and steel dominate the entire campus. 2 BHK (Polaris) 1478 sq.ft apartments ispriced at Rs. 4800 per sq.ft, 3 BHK(Atria) where 1701 sq.ft is priced at Rs. 4235 and3 BHK(Vega) where 2064 sq.ft is priced at Rs. 4800 Baaskaran Subramanian, CFO, SobhaDevelopers, said the trend is driven by higher transaction volumes being registered by city’sbuilders, which had reduced the number of unsold inventory with them. “With the improvingaffordability, our existing unsold stock has come down drastically. Besides, we have alsocleaned up our balance-sheet by reducing debt and thereby improving cash flow. We feel wecan go ahead with new projects now,” he said.Sobha Developers’ transaction volume jumped 150 per cent in the first quarter of thefiscal 2011 over the same period last year. On the other hand, its unsold inventorydwindled by 0.625 msf in the last 3 months. Ashish Puravankara, director,Puravankara Projects Ltd, claims his company’s sales to have shot up in doubledigits over the last 4-6 months. Saurabh Kumar and Gunjan Prithyani, analysts withJP Morgan, said that Bangalore was the “only market, which is showing growth.”OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF INDIAN REAL ESTATE In India from various sector real estate sector is growing in a marvellous way in thepresence of private banks. These banks are providing houses loans towards Indians and NRIsfor fulfilling their self or business purpose. In our India, most of the city like New Delhi,Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai etc. these are main centre for the business and these cities areproviding more employment opportunities towards jobseekers.It is the sustained high growth rate of GDP and increasing GDP per capita in the countryproviding a momentum to the Real estate demand across segments. According to the recentFICCI report: the last three years have seen real GDP rise accumulative 26 per cent, withimpressive increases of 8.5per cent in 2003/04, 7.5percent in 2004/05 and 8.4per cent in2005/06 on the back of the robust growth across industries.Many things are witnessed here (in this country) for the amazing growth in this sector. Theincreasing rate of life expectancy, declining infant death and a high but falling birth rate inthe country these situations are created major demand for housing and infrastructure formeeting the human’s primary want. An estimate shows that the present India’s population isabove 121 crore would touch 150 crore by 2030. Now a day all families are becoming
nuclear family and most of the people are independent, they are able to meet their wants. Forthat reason higher personal savings and stronger investments, resultantly boosting the growthof real estate again. Within a few years, India becomes developed country.As the Indian economy shows signs of substantial improvement, the commercial real estateindustry is emerging from a transitional phase in 2010 to a recovery stage in 2011.Institutional-quality real estate assets in primary markets have begun to stabilize and appearto be poised for recovery. The future of real estate is full of challenges. In the commercialoffice segment, in spite of the huge demand, the developers may have to face heat from theups and down of other sectors since this segment, in particular, is highly dependent on theperformance of the Indian IT/ITES. Any unforeseen downturn in the business prospect ofthis industry would have a significant impact on the vacancy levels of the upcomingcommercial office space stock in the country.Secondly, with the introduction of the SEZ policy, it is believed that a significant amount ofthe office space demand will be targeted in SEZs. However, the current SEZ policy does notallow the migration of existing units to SEZs, in case such migration becomes possible, themarket will witness supply of a huge stock of un-used office space, which will lead tosubstantial crash in rental and capital values in the segment. These challenges would beapplicable to both the national or international players as the consumer preferences in Indiavary from one location to other and brand value in a highly competitive market would bestiff without substantial product differentiating factors. So for that reason the above factorsare affecting the real estate business.FUTURE PROSPECTS ON REAL ESTATE INDUSTRYThe real estate market in India is yet in a nascent stage and the scope is simply unlimited. Itdoes not resemble a bubble that wills burst. An unhindered growth for the next twenty yearsis almost sure. This is because the outsourcing business in India is going in great guns andthis entails a huge demand for commercial buildings and urban housing besides improvementin infrastructure. The organized retail market in India is also accelerating with players likewalmart, bharati, reliance etc. looking forward to make a foray thus stepping up the demandfor real estate. The government must ensure that there is no shortage of funds.SEBI (Securities Exchange Board of India) recent harbinger of permitting real estate mutualfunds in both private and public sector will go a long way in attracting funds from smallinvestor who emphasize on certain return. Another impediment that can be eased on thediscretion of government is the existing tax laws and other complex regulations relating tomultidimensional real estate’s such as industrial parks and SEZs (Special Economic Zone).CONCLUSIONOwing to the amendment in real estate prices and re-aligning of business strategy, as per theongoing business environment, has resulted in some signs of revival in the Indian real estatesector, in the recent past. A stable political scenario has also boosted confidence in the Indiancapital markets, and the overall business environment.
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