Research<br /> Research is one of the ways to find answers to your questions. When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find out answers to a question, you are implying that the process:<br />is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies;<br />uses procedures, method and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability;<br />is designed to be unbiased and objectifying <br />
Some other definitions of research<br /> Grinnell (1993)<br />The word research is composed of two syllables, re and search. The dictionary defines the former as a prefix meaning again, a new or over again and the latter as a verbmeaning to examine closely and carefully, to test andtry.<br />
Burns (1994)<br />Define research as a systematic investigation to find answers to a problem.<br /> Bulmer (1977)<br />Research is primarily committed to establishing systematic, reliable and valid knowledge about the social world.<br />
<ul><li>You are working as supervisor, administrator or manager</li></ul>Different questions relating to efficient and effective service may come to your mind.<br />How many people are coming to my agency?<br />What are the socioeconomic-demographic characteristics of my clients?<br />How many cases in a day can a worker effectively handle?<br />Why do some people use the service while others do not?<br />How effective is the service?<br />What are the most common needs of clients who come to this agency?<br />What are the strengths and weakness of the service?<br />How satisfied are the clients with the service?<br />How can I improve this service for my clients?<br />
<ul><li>You are working in the area of marketing</li></ul>You may beworking as salesperson, sales manager or sales promotion executive. The list of questions that may be come to your mind can be endless.<br />What is the best strategy to promote the sale of a particular product?<br />How many salespersons do I need?<br />What is the effect of a particular advertising campaign on the sale ofthis product?<br />How satisfied are the consumers with this product?<br />How much are consumers prepared to spend on this item?<br />What do consumers like or dislike about this product?<br />What type of packaging do consumers prefer for this product?<br />What training do the salespersons need to promote the sale of the sale of this product?<br />What are the attributes of a good salesperson?<br />
Categories of Research:<br /> Basically the research may be divided into two main categories<br />1. Qualitative Research<br /> The qualitative research, as clear from the name is concerned with qualitative aspects of phenomenon of interest. In this research qualitative information are used gathered using Nominal and Ordinal Scales.<br />
Quantitative Research<br /> In quantitative research we study or investigate the facts using Quantitative type of information. This information is extracted from data collected using high level scales of measurements, such as interval and ratio scales.<br />
Criteria for a good Research Problem<br />i. Originality<br /> It should not involve objectionable duplication.Though originality is a basic condition and it is credit point for any research, yet it does not mean that a problem studied in the past cannot be undertaken again.<br />
2. Importance<br /> How important is your project should be undertaken if one feels that it would not add any significance findings and improvement in the area.<br />3. Aim of Research <br />The aim of the research also influences the selection of the problem. If it a producer research, the problem will be studied to enhance existing knowledge for its own sake. If it is a consumer type, the result should be suitable for immediate application.<br />
4. Level of Research<br />Level of research is another criterion to help in the selection of a problem. Is it an academic or business type research?<br />5. Interesting<br /> This problem should be interesting for the investigators and his interest should be intellectual not for any personal benefit.<br />
6. Experience<br />Good research problems stem from a clear understanding of a theoretical, empirical and practical aspects of the subject derived from personal experience and from a thorough review of the literature.<br />Conversely lack of familiarity, with the subject is almost sure to result in a poor choice. The investigator should possess the required competence, knowledge and skill to handle the project.<br />
7. Availability of Data<br />If it is an applied research, the researcher should ensure the availability of valid and reliable data gathering devices and procedures. <br />No investigator is in a position to handle the study independently. He needs a group to work for him in planning, collection and analysis of data.<br />
8. Availability of Guidance<br />Guidance in research is very important. Is there any qualified persons or guide in the field you are interested? You need help from the persons who are involved in that business in which you are conducting your research. One cannot see the insight of the problem independently.<br />
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