Group behaviour

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  • 1. Individual behavior,group behavior,
  • 2. PersonalityAttitudesPerceptionAttributionImpression ManagementTheories of MotivationLearning and ReinforcementInter-personal relationsManaging Stress and AggressiveBehavior
  • 3. IndividualBehaviourand ResultsRolePerceptionsSituationalFactorsMotivationAbilityValuesPersonalityPerceptionsEmotionsAttitudesStressModel of Individual Behavior
  • 4. MARSBAREmployee Motivation• Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntarychoice of behaviour– direction– intensity– persistence
  • 5. MARSBAREmployee Ability• Natural aptitudes and learnedcapabilities required to successfullycomplete a task– competencies personal characteristics thatlead to superior performance– person job matching• select qualified people• develop employeeabilities through training• redesign job to fitpersons existing abilities
  • 6. MARSBAREmployee Role Perceptions• Beliefs about what behaviour is required toachieve the desired results– understanding what tasks to perform– understanding relative importance of tasks– understanding preferredbehaviours to accomplish tasks
  • 7. MARSBARSituational Factors• Environmental conditions beyond theindividual’s short-term control that constrainor facilitate behaviour– time– people– budget– work facilities
  • 8. OrganizationalCitizenship• Performance beyond the required jobdutiesTask performance• Goal-directed behaviours underperson’s controlTypes of Behaviour in Organizations
  • 9. Maintaining WorkAttendance• Performance beyond the required jobdutiesJoining/stayingwith theOrganization• Goal-directed behaviours underperson’s controlTypes of Behaviour in OrganizationsCounterproductiveWork Behaviours• Voluntary behaviour that potentiallyharms the organization
  • 10. Values in the Workplace• Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences• Define right or wrong, good or bad• Value system -- hierarchy of values• Espoused vs. enacted values:– Espoused -- the values we say we use and often think weuse– Enacted -- values we actually rely on to guide ourdecisions and actions
  • 11. Values Congruence• Values congruence -- where two or more entities have similarvalue systems• Consequences of incongruence– Incompatible decisions– Lower satisfaction and commitment– Increased stress and turnover• Benefits of incongruence– Better decision making (diverse values)– Enhanced problem definition– Prevents “corporate cults”
  • 12. Individualism- CollectivismPeruChileItalyPortugalTurkeyCanada/U.S.A.JapanEgyptKoreaFranceChinaZimbabweMexicoHongKongTaiwanCollectivismHighLowIndividualism HighLowIndia
  • 13. UtilitarianismIndividualRightsGreatest good for the greatest numberof peopleFundamental entitlementsin societyDistributiveJusticePeople who are similar should receivesimilar benefitsThree Ethical Principles
  • 14. Influences on Ethical Conduct• Moral intensity– degree that issue demands ethical principles• Ethical sensitivity– ability to recognize the presence and determinethe relative importance of an ethical issue• Situational influences– competitive pressures and other conditions affectethical behaviour
  • 15. Supporting Ethical Behaviour• Ethical code of conduct– Establishes standards of behaviour– Problem: Limited effect alone on ethical behaviour• Ethics training– Awareness and clarification of ethics code– Practice resolving ethical dilemmas• Ethics officers– Educate and counsel; hear about wrongdoing• Ethical leadership– Demonstrate integrity and role model ethical conduct
  • 16. Defining Personality• Relatively stable pattern ofbehaviours and consistent internalstates that explain a personsbehavioural tendencies
  • 17. Big Five Personality DimensionsOutgoing, talkativeSensitive, flexibleCareful, dependableCourteous, caringAnxious, hostileExtroversionOpenness to ExperienceConscientiousnessAgreeablenessNeuroticism
  • 18. Myers-Briggs Type IndicatorExtroversion Introversionvs.Sensing Intuitionvs.Thinking Feelingvs.Judging Perceivingvs.
  • 19. Locus of Control and Self-Monitoring• Locus of control– Internals believe in their effort and ability– Externals believe events are mainly due toexternal causes• Self-monitoring personality– Sensitivity to situational cues, and ability to adaptyour behaviour to that situation
  • 20. Occupational Choice Theory• Career success depends on fit between the person and workenvironment• Holland identifies six “themes”– Represent work environment and personality traits/interests• A person aligned mainly with one theme is highlydifferentiated• A person has high consistency when preferences relate toadjacent themes
  • 21. IndividualBehaviour,Values, andPersonality
  • 22. Chapter TwoExtras
  • 23. Group Behavior23
  • 24. Learning Objectives• Describe a group and distinguish among organizational groups –functional, cross-functional, project, virtual, and interest-friendship.• Explain the stages of group development.• Discuss the importance of roles, norms, status, cohesiveness, and groupsize to group behavior.• Describe how communication and decision-making styles, risk taking, andcreativity affect group decisions.• List ways in which groups try to gain power over other groups.• Identify ways to resolve intergroup conflict.24
  • 25. Definition of a Group25A group is a social unit of twoor more independent, interactivepeople striving for commongoals
  • 26. Types of Groups• A functional group is composed of individualsperforming the same tasks• A cross-functional group is a group composed ofindividuals from two or more functional areas• A project group includes members from manydifferent backgrounds26
  • 27. Types of Groups (contd.)• A virtual group is a task-focused group that meetswithout all the members being present in the samelocale or at the same time• Interest-friendship groups are formed on the basisof common beliefs, concerns, or activities27
  • 28. Stages of Group Development• The FORMING stage is characterized by efforts todetermine initial direction• The STORMING stage is characterized byconfrontation, questioning, and resistance• The NORMING stage is characterized by cooperationand teamwork• The PERFORMING stage is characterized by opennessand collaboration28
  • 29. Roles29A role is an expected behaviorRole ambiguity occurs whenthe job description is vagueIn role conflict, two roles aremutually incompatible
  • 30. Norms and Status30Norms are rules of conduct adopted by groupmembersStatus is the relative ranking of an individualin a groupStatus incongruence is a discrepancy betweena person’s supposed status and the way theindividual is treatedStatus discrepancy occurs when people dothings that do not fit in with their status in thegroup
  • 31. Figure 4.2 Cohesion and Productivity31Group XNorm of Group XGroup YNorm of Group YOrganization’s NormGroup ZNorm of Group ZLowAverageHigh= Productivity of individual group member
  • 32. Communication Roles• The OPINION LEADER is typically the informal leader• The GATEKEEPER controls the flow of information tothe group members• The LIAISON links the group to other groups• The ISOLATE is a person who is generally ignored• The FOLLOWER goes along with the opinion leader orgroup at large32
  • 33. Decision-Making Styles33Analytical ConceptualDirective BehavioralHighLowToleranceforAmbiguityTask andTechnicalConcernsPeople andSocialConcernsValue Orientation
  • 34. Phases in Creative Thinking341. Preparation2. Incubation3. Illumination4. Verification
  • 35. Left-Brain, Right-Brain Thinking35Left-brain people arelogical, rational, anddetailedRight-brain people arespontaneous, emotional,and visual
  • 36. Conflict Resolution Methods36Conflict Resolution Method Characteristics of Resolution MethodConfrontation Face-to-face meeting between groupsAll parties discuss the problemAll parties agreed on a solutionCreate steps to monitor complianceProblem is solvedCollaboration All parties understand the situationAll parties fully cooperate in resolvingthe problem
  • 37. 37Conflict ResolutionMethodCharacteristics of Resolution MethodCompromise Each party reluctantly gives upsomethingProblem is temporarily solvedProblem may reoccurAltering theOrganizationalStructureTransfer workers to new locationsChange work assignmentsChange the flow of work or supervisionRearrange the furniture to separatepeopleMove wall petitions to regroup people
  • 38. Key Terms in the Chapter• Group• Functional group• Cross-functional group• Project group• Virtual group• Interest-friendship group• Forming stage• Storming stage• Norming stage• Performing stage• Role• Role ambiguity• Role conflict• Norms• Status• Status incongruence• Status discrepancy• Cohesiveness• Opinion leader• Gatekeeper• Liaison• Isolate38
  • 39. Key Terms in the Chapter• Follower• Risky-shift phenomenon• Brainstorming• Dialectic inquiry• Empathic design• Left-brain people• Right-brain people• Goal conflict• Confrontation• Collaboration• Compromise39