7. communication


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7. communication

  1. 1. CommunicationPrinciples of effective communication Barriers in communication 1
  2. 2. Communication• Efficient communication is ESSENTIAL to being success in life.• The biggest source of interpersonal problems is poor communications.• The key to the communication process is to be understood.• Language is rarely a barrier for communication 2
  3. 3. Communication• The aim of communication is the transference and understanding of information between two or more people.• Communication must always be between two or more people, one the sender and the other receiver. You participate in both roles and your role will change alternatively and frequently in conversation. 3
  4. 4. Effective Communication
  5. 5. Overview• Functions of Communication• The Communication Process• Communication Fundamentals• Key Communication Skills
  6. 6. Functions of Communication• Control• Motivation• Emotional Expression• Information
  7. 7. The Communication ProcessSourc Encodin Chann Decodin Receiver e g el g Feedbac k
  8. 8. Communication FundamentalsDirection:• Downward• Upward• CrosswiseNetworks:• Formal vs. Informal
  9. 9. Communication• Communication occurs in three directions in organizations – Upward communications – Downward communications – Lateral communications
  10. 10. Communication NetworksChain Wheel All Channels
  11. 11. Barriers to Effective Communication• Filtering• Selective Perception• Emotions• Language
  12. 12. Key Communication Skills• Listening Skills• Feedback Skills• Presentation skills
  13. 13. Basic Communication Skills Profile________________________________________________Communication Order Learned Extent Used Extent Taught____________________________________________ Listening First First Fourth Speaking Second Second Third Reading Third Third Second Writing Fourth Fourth First
  14. 14. Meaning• Listening Is With The Mind• Hearing With The Senses• Listening Is Conscious.• An Active Process Of Eliciting Information• Ideas, Attitudes And Emotions• Interpersonal, Oral Exchange
  15. 15. The Ten Commandments of Good Communication• Seek to clarify your ideas before • Take the opportunity to convey communicating something of help or value to the receiver• Examine the true purpose of each communication • Follow-up your communication • Communicate for tomorrow as• Consider the total physical and well as today human setting • Be sure your actions support your• Consult with others in planning communications communications • Seek not only to be understood• Be mindful of the overtones as but to understand - be a good well as the basic content of your listener message
  16. 16. Fallacies about Listening Listening is not my problem! Listening and hearing are the same Good readers are good listeners Smarter people are better listeners Listening improves with age Learning not to listen Thinking about what we are going to say rather than listening to a speaker Talking when we should be listening Hearing what we expect to hear rather than what is actually said Not paying attention ( preoccupation, prejudice, self-centeredness, stero-type) Listening skills are difficult to learn
  17. 17. Stages of the Listening Process• Hearing• Focusing on the message• Comprehending and interpreting• Analyzing and Evaluating• Responding• Remembering
  18. 18. Barriers to Active Listening• Environmental barriers• Physiological barriers• Psychological barriers Selective Listening Negative Listening Attitudes Personal Reactions Poor Motivation
  19. 19. How to Be an Effective Listener What You Think about Listening ? Understand the complexities of listening Prepare to listen Adjust to the situation Focus on ideas or key points Capitalize on the speed differential Organize material for learning
  20. 20. How to Be an Effective Listener (cont.) What You Feel about Listening ? Want to listen Delay judgment Admit your biases Don’t tune out “dry” subjects Accept responsibility for understanding Encourage others to talk
  21. 21. How to Be an Effective Listener (cont.) What You Do about Listening ? Establish eye contact with the speaker Take notes effectively Be a physically involved listener Avoid negative mannerisms Exercise your listening muscles
  22. 22. Feedback Skills• Positive vs. Negative Feedback• Positive feedback is more readily and accurately perceived than negative feedback• Positive feedback fits what most people wish to hear and already believe about themselves• Negative feedback is most likely to be accepted when it comes from a credible source if it is objective in form• Subjective impressions carry weight only when they come from a person with high status and credibility
  23. 23. Developing Effective Feedback Skills• Focus on specific behaviours• Keep feedback impersonal• Keep feedback goal oriented• Make feedback well timed• Ensure understanding• Direct feedback toward behaviour that is controllable by the recipient
  24. 24. Presentation SkillsIdeas, concepts or issues talked about or spoken to a group or audiencePublic speaking is one of the most feared things “I could make such a fool of myself”Skills required to give a good presentation can be developed Preparation is the Key
  25. 25. Presentation SkillsPreparation/ Planning is the first step on the ladder to successAspects in the development of a good presentation Self Centered (Self) Audience Centered (Audience) Subject Centered (Material)“I want (who) to (what) (where, when and how)because (why)”
  26. 26. Presentation Skills• HelpersWhat do you want to present (content)?Why do you want to present (purpose)?Where will you be presenting (place)?How do you want to present (words to be used or not, slides to be used)Who is your audience?
  27. 27. Presentation Skills• Preparation: Audience AnalysisWhat is the audience interested inWhat does the audience wantWhat does the audience already know and needs to knowWhat are their needs, expectations from this presentationHow will the audience benefit from this presentation
  28. 28. Presentation Skills• Structure the content in line with the audience’s needs• What do you want to tell the audience?• What is your objective?• Prepare keeping in mind the time allotted• Anticipate the questions and prepare• Collect material from a variety of sources• Arrange points logically and sequentially• Prepare handouts as well
  29. 29. Presentation Skills• Structuring the presentation2 to 2.5 mins--- opening/beginning20 to 21 mins--- middle section2 to 3 mins --- closing/end5 mins --- questions
  30. 30. Presentation SkillsThe BeginningShould be carefully designedGet attention - shock, humor, question, story, facts &figures - well rehearsed yet naturalMotivate audience to listen - listen to their needs
  31. 31. Presentation SkillsPreparation – StructureSequence should be logical & understandableInterim summaries- RecapsValue of visual aids-flip charts, handouts etc.
  32. 32. Presentation SkillsPrepare ClosingLast 2 to 2.5 minutes are as critical as the first five minutes for a successful presentationSummarize- highlight important pointsSuggest action- what to do and when, where and how to do it
  33. 33. Presentation SkillsStage FrightEveryone has it to some degreeCan be used constructivelyKey issue is not elimination of fear Instead channel the energy it generates for an effective presentation
  34. 34. Presentation SkillsEffective DeliveryBe active - moveBe purposeful - controlled gesturesVariations – vocal (pitch, volume, rate)Be naturalBe direct – don’t just talk in front of the audience talk to them
  35. 35. Group FacilitationVerbal Communication- barriersSpeaking too fastUsing jargonTone and contentComplicated or ambiguous languageNot questioningPhysical State of the audience
  36. 36. Presentation SkillsSensitivity to the audience“see” the audienceTake non-verbal feedback -congruent and incongruent body languageModify to meet audience needsDon’t just make it as a presentation
  37. 37. Presentation SkillsHandling QuestionsDo not get confusedYou are not supposed to know everythingAnticipate and keep answers readySometime questions themselves give you a lead to highlight your point of view
  38. 38. Presentation SkillsVisual AidsWhile using a over head projector face the audience while talkingPoint with a penAppropriate lightingWatch the coloursEnsure clear visibility10 lines, 10 words per line
  39. 39. Presentation SkillsSo to conclude : Always prepare Channelize you fear Interact with your audience
  40. 40. Communication Feedback• We may say that communication has occurred only when the message has been understood.• Understanding occurs in the mind of the receiver.• Feedback is critical to ensure that accurate understanding of the message has occurred. 40
  41. 41. Barriers to Communication• Barriers to accurate communication – Unfamiliar language – including dialects and accents – Improper timing – Is the boss distracted today? – Noise and distractions in the environment – Attitude of both the source and the receiver – Differences between people – gender, age, culture, education, intelligence, etc. – Relationship between the sender and the receiver – status, boss- employee, parent-child, etc. 41
  42. 42. Barriers to Communications– Filtering – manipulation of information so that it will seem more favorably to the receiver.– Selective Perception – receiver hears message based on his/her interests, needs, motivations, experience, background and other personal characteristics.– Defensiveness – response when receiver interprets message as threatening– Language – Words mean different things to different people. 42
  43. 43. Rumors• Response to situations that are IMPORTANT to us, and• There is AMBIGUITY between what is going on and what was said, and• Under conditions that arouse ANXIETY, such as time off, pay programs, layoffs, etc. 43
  44. 44. Suggestions for Reducing the Negative Consequences of Rumors• Announce timetables for making important decisions• Explain decisions and behaviors that may appear inconsistent or secretive• Emphasize the downside, as well as the upside, of current decisions and future plans.• Openly discuss worst case possibilities – it is almost never as anxiety provoking as the unspoken fantasy. 44
  45. 45. Communications – Did you know?• People remember: – 10 percent of what they read – 20 percent of what they hear – 30 percent of what they see – 50 percent of what they see and hear – 80 percent of what they say – 90 percent of what they say and do 45
  46. 46. Summary• Successful communication requires understanding by the receiver.• The communication process model includes a source, a message, encoding, a channel, decoding, a receiver, and, especially feedback.• Communication in organizations occurs in upward, downward, and lateral directions. 46
  47. 47. Final thoughts• Communicating to be understood and being a good listener are crucial.• Another important aspect of communication is to think about what you are saying before you say it.• Today’s communications set the tone for tomorrow’s relationships. 47
  48. 48. Conclusions• The key to the communication process is to have understanding on the part of the receiver.• There are many barriers to good communications that must be overcome for communications to be successful.• Learn to be an active listener as part of successful communications.
  49. 49. •End