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Women empowerment in post independence india
 

Women empowerment in post independence india

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Lecture delivered on Rescue women campaign by Kota city Police

Lecture delivered on Rescue women campaign by Kota city Police

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    Women empowerment in post independence india Women empowerment in post independence india Presentation Transcript

    • Vijay Sardana MD; DM(Neurology) Professor & Head Deptt. Of Neurology,Govt. Medical College, Kota
    • Bhikaji Cama Rajkumari Amrit KaurAruna Asaf Ali Sucheta Kriplani Kasturba Gandhi
    • • President of India• Speaker of Lok Sabha• Leader of opposition in Lok Sabha (Lower house)
    • • Hard working• Sincere• More honest• More meticulous Software industry – 30% women
    • • Women in all professions, all levels of employment, efficient workers• Still seen by some as -Reproducers, care givers, sexual receivers, agents of family’s general prosperity
    • • Sex determination of fetus• Child marriages• Poor education• Eve teasing• Bride burning• Exploitation in office• Domestic violence• Lower wages for laborers
    • Constitutional guarantees• Women equality – Article 14• No discrimination by state – Article 15(1)• Equality of opportunity – Article 16• Equal pay for equal work – Article 39(d)• Allows special provisions to be made by state for securing just and humane condition of work & for maternity relief – Article 42
    • • Sex ratio at birth : 1991 – 945 2001 – 927 2011 – 940• Sex ratio of last birth : Delhi - 681 Punjab - 504 Rajasthan - 717 Haryana – 540• Sex ratio : With ultrasound - 851 Without ultrasound - 941
    • • Strong son preference• Girls under represented at birth & over represented in child deaths• Ultrasound abused despite PNDT Act
    • • 10 or more years of education (20-25 yrs ) 27% women 39% men• Never gone to school (15-49 yrs ) 41% women 19 % men Census 2011 India Rajasthan Total 74.04% 67.1% Male 82.14% 80.5% Female 65.46 52.7%
    • • Lesser access to Money (about 15% bank/saving account) Healthcare Media• Movement outside restricted – one in three allowed to go alone to market, health centre & outside the community
    • UNICEF – State of the world’s children 2009 report• 47% of women age 20-24 yrs were married before legal age of 18• 40 % of world’s child marriages in India
    • • 1961 – Dowry prohibition act• 1985 – Dowry prohibition ( maintenance of list of presents to the bride & bridegroom) rules framed
    • • 15 – 49 yrs :- Women – 43% Men – 87%• Most work in agriculture 7% professional, technical & managerial occupations• Largely employment is a result of economic necessity rather then expression of choice or a self fulfillment
    • • Majority men advocate joint decision making but significant number of husband feel they should have major say• >50% women & men agree with reasons that justify wife beating -Women disrespecting in - laws -Women neglecting house & children• Common “taken for granted” rights of husband -Rights to be key decision maker in major household decisions -Rights to control wife’s behavior & body, with violence if necessary -Right to have sex when they want
    • • Those employed & earn - one fifth have major say in spending own earned money• One fifth earn same as their husband – more likely to have say in husband’s earned money• Participation in decision Alone Jointly Own health care 27 35 Visit to own family 11 50 Large household purchase 8 44 Daily need purchase 32 28
    • • 39% of women 15 - 49 yrs age ever experience physical, sexual or emotional violence Duration of Physical or sexual Emotional marriage 0-4 yrs 25 % 18 % >10 yrs 40 % 17 %
    • Common physical violence• Slapping – most common• Twisting of arm & pulling of hair• Pushing, throwing something on her• Kicking, dragging, beating• Punching with fist or something that could hurt
    • Common emotional violence• Humiliating in front of others• Insulting or making her feel bad about herself• Threatens to hurt or harm her/ someone close to her Sexual violence• Physically forcing to have sex against her will• Forcing unwanted sexual act
    • Variable affecting• Education more than 10 years• Wealth• Husband – alcohol drinking• Mother’s experience of spousal violence
    • S. No. Year Total IPC Crime against %age of crimes women (IPC total IPC cases) crimes1 2006 1878293 154158 8.22 2007 1989673 174921 8.83 2008 2093379 186617 8.94 2009 2121345 203804 9.25 2010 2224831 213585 9.6
    • State Total Number of Percentage women policeTamilnadu 102421 10225 9.98%Orrisa 47216 3092 6.55%Kerala 43909 2783 6.34%Goa 5055 315 6.23%Arunachal Pradesh 6018 288 4.79%Sikkim 3886 179 4.61%Maharashtra 201251 9165 4.52%Himachal Pradesh 14369 605 4.21%Rajasthan 72626 2662 3.67%
    • Rank IG DIG SP Add Dy IAS SI ASI HC Consta Total SP SP bleTotal 36 26 82 189 427 872 2627 4242 8202 54166 70869Women 1 4 10 2 37 9 137 39 69 4161 4469 6.30%
    • • General sense – refers to empowering women to be self dependent by providing them access to all the freedom & opportunities• Specific sense - enhancing their position in the present structure of society 1st generation rights – Political & civil liberties 2nd generation rights – Economic & social rights
    • • Dec 1992 – 73rd & 74th constitutional amendments – 33% reservation in Panchayats & Municipal councils• 1996 onwards – bill for 33% reservation in Parliament & State assembly moved many times• % of women in Parliament India – 9 China – 21.8 Sweden - 45.3 Pakistan - 21.6 Cuba – 30 Srilanka – 4.4
    • • Hindu Personal Law 1956s• Hindu Succession Amendment Act 2005• Reduction Of Stamp Duty For Women Violence incidence against women 49% - without property 18% - land owners 7% - both land & house
    • • 1956 – Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act• 1986 – Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act• 1987 – Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act• 1994-- PNDT Act• 2005-- Domestic violence act
    • • 1987-- Support to Training cum Employment for women (STEP)• 1998 – Swa-shakti project (earlier Rural Women Development & Empowerment Project)• 2001 – Swayam Siddha• 2001 – Year of women empowerment National policy for the empowerment passed
    • • Lack of awareness• Lack of political will• Lack of social & political empowerment• Feebleness of accountability mechanism• Lack of law enforcement
    • • “There is no chance for the welfare of the world unless condition of women is improved. It is not possible for a bird to fly on only one wing” Swami Vivekanand• “You can tell the condition of a nation by looking at the condition of its women” Jawahar Lal Nehru
    • • Gender inequality is persistent in in every domain of life. Women are disempowered both absolutely & in relation to men• Gender equality and women empowerment are two sides of same coin• There is a great divergence between constitutional position of women and stark reality. Progress is slow.
    • • Women welfare Development Empowerment• It is moral, social & constitutional responsibility of every Indian to ensure equal rights, opportunities & progress of women• Condition will improve only when complementory role of women is recognized by the society
    • Thank you