Ways of Acquiring Knowledge and Solving Problems
Learning Objectives:Learning Objectives:
Identify the component of an investigatory
Describe what is meant by fair test.
Recognize that the design of an
investigation should show fair testing.
Something to Ponder…
“The formulation of the problem is
often more essential than its
solution, which may be merely a
matter of mathematical or
“A simple man believes
anything, but a prudent man
gives thought to his steps.”
What is a Fair Test?What is a Fair Test?
An investigation where only one factor is changed
while all others are kept the same (controlled).
This way, the changes are due only to the thing we
want to test.
e.g. if testing the effect of amount of light on
growth of seedlings, keep everything else the
same e.g. type of soil, amount of water,
temperature, length of time grown etc.
The things that can change in an experiment are
e.g. in the seedling experiment, variables were
amount of light, amount of water, temp, soil type….
There are different
types of variables in a fair test:
Independent variable: the thing that is
changed on purpose
Dependent variable: the thing that is
Controlled variables: all other changeable
factors that must be kept the same to
ensure a fair test
(What I change)
(What I observe)
(What I keep the
How much water flows
through a tap at different
Tap opening (closed, half
open, fully open)
Amount of water flowing
measured in litres per
- water pressure, or how
much the water is
Does heating a cup of
water allow it to dissolve
Temperature of the water
measured in degrees
Amount of sugar that
measured in grams
- type of sugar
Does fertilizer make a
plant grow bigger?
Amount of fertilizer
measured in grams
Growth of the plant
measured by its height
AND / OR
Growth of the plant
measured by the number
•Same size pot for each
•Same type of plant in
•Same type and amount
of soil in each pot
•Same amount of water
•Make measurements of
growth for each plant at
the same time
COMPONENTS OF AN INVESTIGATORY
Gathering Preliminary Data
Formulating the Hypothesis
Testing the Hypothesis
Analysing the Data
Writing the Research Report
Doing an Investigatory Project
Thinking about a practical problem motivates a research question which
defines a research problem which finds a research answer which helps to
solve the practical problem.
A question raised for inquiry, consideration or solution.
Statement about an area of concern
Condition to be improved
Difficulty to be eliminated, or a troubling question that exists
Points to the need for meaningful understanding and deliberate
Does not specifically state how to do something
Does not offer a vague or broad proposition
Does not present a bias statement/question.
“The greatest challenge to any thinker is stating the problem in a way
that will allow a solution.” –Bertrand Russell British author, mathematician, & philosopher (1872 -
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time-based
The necessity to be prepared before heading to the field!
Find out about what you want to investigate. Read books, articles,
journals, magazines or ask professionals to learn about the effect
or area of study. Keep track of where you got your information
Data-collection methods are the identification of the broad
problem area, preliminary information gathering, especially
through unstructured and structured interviews and literature
survey and problem definition.
Formulating a hypothesis or educated guess helps by
defining an initial explanation to be tested in the
Suggest a causal relationship involve at least one
independent variable and at least one dependent
variable; in other words, one variable which is presumed
to affect the other.
Null hypothesis vs. Alternative hypothesis
It is expressed verbally or in writing and states a theory
regarding an if-blank-then-blank situation.
Understand the scope of study: while a hypothesis is
usually used for studying the sciences, it is not limited to
Design an experiment to test each hypothesis. Make a
step-by-step list of what you will do to answer each
question. This list is called an experimental procedure or
Variables- things that can change in an experiment are
Independent variable: the thing that is changed on
purpose (what you change for a purpose)
Dependent variable: the thing that is measured (what
you observe for occurrences of changes)
Controlled variables: all other changeable factors that
must be kept the same to ensure a fair test (what you
keep the same)
Interpreting the meaning of the data we have collected,
Displayed in the form of a table, bar chart, line graph, or
Looking for patterns—similarities, disparities, trends, and
other relationships—and thinking about what these
patterns might mean.
The ability to make inferences and predictions based on
data is a critical skill students need to develop.
Using the trends in your experimental data and your experimental observations, try to answer
your original questions. Is your hypothesis correct? Now is the time to pull together what
happened, and assess the experiments you did. Other things you can mention in the conclusion:
If your hypothesis is not correct, what could be the answer to your question?
Summarize any difficulties or problems you had doing the experiment.
Do you need to change the procedure and repeat your experiment?
What would you do different next time?
List other things you learned
Aim is to write clearly and concisely about your research topic so
that the reader can easily understand the purpose and results of
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitation of the Study
Review of Literature and Conceptual Framework
Review of Literature
Definition of Terms
Results and Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Apply/demonstrate scientific principles or attempt to provide new
Be a result of continuing or parallel scientific research and
investigation & not a copy of any previous research;
Have socio-economic significance and relevance to livelihood
Contribute to the advancement of S&T and the development of the
Physical Set-up/Visual Display
Attractive and informative.
Interested spectators and judges should easily asses the study and
the results obtained.
Use clear and concise displays.
Make headings stand-out, draw graphs and diagrams clearly and
label them correctly.
A one-page project abstract must be posted in one corner of the
booth. Be sure to adhere to the size limitations and safety rules
when preparing the display.
CHANGE ONLY ONE FACTOR AND KEEP OTHERS THE SAMECHANGE ONLY ONE FACTOR AND KEEP OTHERS THE SAME
SYSTEMATIC WAY OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGESYSTEMATIC WAY OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE
QUESTION RAISED FOR INQUIRY AND STUDYQUESTION RAISED FOR INQUIRY AND STUDY
REFERRING TO WORKS DONE BY EXPERTSREFERRING TO WORKS DONE BY EXPERTS
EDUCATED GUESSEDUCATED GUESS
A FACTOR CHANGED FOR AN EXPERIMENTAL PURPOSEA FACTOR CHANGED FOR AN EXPERIMENTAL PURPOSE
INTERPRETING THE MEANING OF DATA COLLECTEDINTERPRETING THE MEANING OF DATA COLLECTED
COMPOSED OF DIFFERENT CHAPTERSCOMPOSED OF DIFFERENT CHAPTERS
FACTOR OBSERVED FOR OCCURENCES OF CHANGE/SFACTOR OBSERVED FOR OCCURENCES OF CHANGE/S
THE STANDARD FACTOR IN AN EXPERIMENTTHE STANDARD FACTOR IN AN EXPERIMENT
A PLANNED RESEARCH ACTIVITYA PLANNED RESEARCH ACTIVITY
STATEMENT THAT APPROVE OR DISPROVE THE HYPOTHESISSTATEMENT THAT APPROVE OR DISPROVE THE HYPOTHESIS
ACTION DONE TO BE PREPARED FOR THE RESEARCHACTION DONE TO BE PREPARED FOR THE RESEARCH
ACTION DONE TO TEST THE HYPOTHESISACTION DONE TO TEST THE HYPOTHESIS
PART OF RESEARCH REPORT WHERE EXPERIMENTALPART OF RESEARCH REPORT WHERE EXPERIMENTAL
PROCEDURES ARE FOUNDPROCEDURES ARE FOUND
TEST RESULTS CAN BE COMPARED WITHTEST RESULTS CAN BE COMPARED WITH
ORGANIZERS USED PRIOR TO DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OFORGANIZERS USED PRIOR TO DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF
PART OF RESEARCH REPORT WHERE THE POSSIBLEPART OF RESEARCH REPORT WHERE THE POSSIBLE
COVERAGE AREA AND LIMITS ARE MADE MENTIONCOVERAGE AREA AND LIMITS ARE MADE MENTION