Language: Target group: Unit of work: Estimated duration:Spanish Stage 5 (Year 10) Visiting Barcelona Approximately 3 weeksKey concepts: Why does the learning matter?The key concepts I want students to learn are that: The learning matters because: - They can plan a holiday in the target language. - students need to understand how to get around a city when - They are able to follow instructions when on holidays . on a holiday. - They are able to give suggestions and express probability in - Students will need to use their second language skills when Spanish. travelling overseas, especially when handling different types of information to make holidays arrangements.
Targeted outcomes: A student:5.UL.1selects, summarises and analyses information and ideas in spoken texts and responds appropriately5.UL.2selects, summarises and analyses information and ideas in written texts and responds appropriately5.UL.3uses Spanish by incorporating diverse structures and features to express own ideas5.UL.4experiments with linguistic patterns and structures in Spanish to convey information and to express own ideas5.MLC.1demonstrates understanding of the nature of languages as systems by describing and comparing linguistic features across languages5.MLC.2uses linguistic resources to support the study and production of texts in Spanish5.MBC.1explores the interdependence of language and culture in a range of texts and contexts5.MBC.2identifies and explains aspects of the culture of Spanish-speaking communities in texts
Students learn about: Students learn to:5.UL.1 • ways of identifying relevant details when listening • make judgements about the relevance of detail in understanding for specific information text, eg extracting ideas and issues referred to in text5.UL.2 • ways of identifying relevant details when reading for • make judgements about the relevance of detail in analysing text, eg specific information extracting ideas and issues referred to in text5.UL.3 • the manipulation of structure, format and choice of • select and manipulate particular structures to achieve specific vocabulary to achieve specific purposes communication goals, eg use appropriate tense for recounting, emotive language for effect: El año pasado, pasé un mes en Cuba.¡Qué vacaciones! • the application of known linguistic structures in new • reconstruct information from a range of sources, eg summarising contexts information • Collaborative and inclusive ways to achieve • interact with reference to purpose, audience or participants, eg communication goals. making arrangements ¿Quieres salir conmigo el sábado?5.UL.4 • resources available to enhance or promote • develop skills in accessing appropriate additional information to independent learning expand and enhance communication, eg dictionaries, word lists, grammar references, authentic texts in print and online • the use of technology to express ideas and create • Access websites to transfer and manipulate data to produce a own text. specific text, eg multimedia presentation.5.MLC.1 • use metalanguage to explain linguistic structures and textual • the need for consistent application of grammatical rules and conventions to achieve effective features encountered in text communication • ways to support and sustain communication in • describe features of text structure, textual coherence and cohesion extended text in sequencing ideas,5.MLC.2 • the importance of being aware of the choices that are • evaluate the accuracy and appropriateness of structures when made to convey precise meaning constructing and editing text5.MBC.1 • Etiquette and ethical behaviour associated with • recognise appropriate intercultural behaviour in diverse settings cross-cultural communication.5.MBC.2 • language used to express cultural values, and to • explain cultural references in texts, eg fiesta represent people and cultures in texts
Structures: Socio-cultural content: Resources: Revision of past tense by introducing verbs Travelling in Spain. (Barcelona) “Ven II” Intermediate Spanish related to this topic: verb to go: “Ir” Getting around the city coursebook Verbs ending in “er”: Haber, poder, tener Barcelona’s Cultural highlights World wide web Selected software (Inspiration, Expressing probability: “seguramente...” Word, Audacity, Power point, Giving suggestions: “Porque no pasamos...? Windows Movie Maker) Giving directions: “Siga recto...” Projector/IWB Distance and time using “ser”(be): “Esta...”, “Estara” Conditional structures: “Pensaria...” “iria” “tendria” contrast with future “Pensare”, “Ire” “tender”Unit of Work Rationale Richards (2005) argues that “to effectively integrate ICT in education teachers need to increasingly become designers rather thanmerely transmitters of learning” (p 61). For that reason, this unit of work has been designed incorporating technology as an integral part of it toaid learning. Also, to develop learners’ proficiency in a second language, the content is highly authentic to allow students to performreal-world tasks. In this unit, learners progress from simple, drill-like and focussed language practice to a more independent languageuse as they author unique video productions. They will be able to learn the appropriate structures and vocabulary for holidayingwhile performing real tasks such as planning a holiday and asking for directions. The overall aim is to help students develop theirlinguistic confidence in this context and also allow them to have fun experimenting with newly-learnt language. For that purpose, theunit of work incorporates both cognitive and direct teaching strategies to create balanced technology integration for maximumlearning benefits.
WEEK 1: Lessons outlinesLesson 1: “Building the field” • To introduce the topic, the teacher will show students pictures on the OHP / IWB that depict famous tourist attractions in Australia and other parts of the world. Students will be asked “where did you go on holidays last year (last time)?” A discussion will be carried out as a whole class to activate existing knowledge (contructivist approach) and draw on it. If IWB is available, the teacher can draw a mindmap on Inspiration with related vocabulary. (the word “holiday” can be branched out as “weather”, “transport”, “activities done”, etc) to raise awareness on the lexical field. (brainstorming)Lesson 2: Activation of vocabulary and reviewing grammatical structures • Students write a series of sentences on their last holiday. They share it with their partner. • The teacher will discuss relevant vocabulary and grammatical structures (including verbs in the past) on the board. At this stage, the class is working on what they know to help them to learn new structures. • Next, students will do some practice activities online. They are as follows: Vocabulary: places to stay. Students complete a matching exercise on vocabulary words in Spanish and English. http://www.asisehace.net/alojamiento/jigword2.html Vocabulary: weather. Students play a game of Tetris while typing the right weather words in Spanish. http://www.asisehace.net/el_tiempo_tetris/el_tiempo_tetris.htm Vocabulary & Verb patterns: my last holidays. (Fill-in the gaps exercise). Students review common past tense verb patterns as well as topic-related vocabulary. http://www.asisehace.net/mis_vacaciones_1.htm (Structured practice vocabulary/grammatical structures)Lesson 3: Past tense focussed practice. • Students will review the past, completing a VEN II course book fill in the gaps exercise (p 44). • Students will do some online reading and listening activities to build confidence in related vocabulary and structures: Mis vacaciones pasadas: Reading and fill in the blanks exercise about someone’s past holiday experience. http://www.asisehace.net/mis_vacaciones_1.htm Viajes y transporte: Students listen and fill in the blanks about someone retelling an odd holiday experience
Week 1 Rationale in justifying using technologies In this week, technology has been used to extend students’ imagination as well as focussing their language practice inparticular grammatical/lexical structures. To start with, they can simply look at holiday pictures and activate vital schemata for theirlearning. Using Inspiration can be a starting point to organize their knowledge of the language into another sub classification,“activate” a series of schema and thus aid learning 1 . In order to allow intensive practice of the verb structures, lexical items and tointegrate it with language sub skills (Reading, listening, writing), I have planned to integrate a few online interactive drill-likeactivities. They allow focussed practice and give immediate feedback on students’ performance. These characteristics save timedevoted to correction and save on material resources. For students, they are also motivating since some of them include game-likefeatures and colourful animations. This kind of activities “stress individualized work” and promote “skill fluency and automaticity”while supporting “efficient, self-paced instruction” (Roblyer & Doering, 2010: 44-45). Additionally, it is paramount to note that allthese activities have been carefully selected by the teacher in order to enhance literacy in the language. Brooks (2002) highlights theimportance of “precise teacher intervention”, which may well be the case of any mixed-ability class. He found that that where“technology was used with precision and backed up by teachers, gains were made”. Usage of the World Wide Web needs to becarefully planned to avoid wasting valuable learning time by letting students surf the web aimlessly. In Lessons 4-5, students will be doing some writing but thanks to ICT, they will also be recording their own voice record theirown reading of the recount2, which allows pronunciation practice. In order to correct their writing and pronunciation, they will havethe chance of receiving feedback from peers, again thanks to the collaborative learning potential of a classroom blog. These activitiesallow “knowledge transfer” since they need to use what they have learnt to produce a piece of writing. Also, they “foster group1 From Bruning et.al. p 48 “whenever a particular configuration of values is linked with the representation of variables of a schema, the schema is said to beinstantiated”.2 Roblyer & Doering also suggest using Audacity as a tool to assess students’ speaking skills. Although I have not used this tool in this way here, I think it couldpossibly be used like this in this context and add another assessment tool to the unit.
cooperation skills”, peer collaboration and increases motivation as “(there is) evidence (that)... students’ appreciation of cooperativework as both more motivating and easier to accomplish when it uses technology” (Roblyer & Doering, 2010: 47). Blogs also offer amore informal way of communicating their ideas and gives a chance for all students to comment on each other’s work (ibid, p 197).The PowerPoint presentation permits students to demonstrate learning in a visual way, which would benefit visual/spatial studentsand develop key skills in making effective presentations. According to the same authors “online publishing offers... an audiencebeyond their teacher and can give students an incentive to revise their work” (p 301) which gives an instant incentive to improvetheir writing.
WEEK 2: Lessons outlinesLesson 1- Planning a trip: focussed language practice • Students read a text on “Viaje a Extremadura” (Trip to Extremadura) from the VEN II course book, p 41. It’s a dialogue about holiday plans and travelling by car to Barcelona (Reading) • Teacher will introduce language on giving suggestions for future plans. “Why don’t we..?” ( Por que no pasamos...?) • Students complete a follow-up activity on making suggestions from the course book in pairs (page 42). At this stage, students slowly start experimenting with newly-learn structure, but the practice is quite structured. • “Preparing a trip”: Students go through a series of interactive, mainly comprehension activities on planning a trip on http://cvc.cervantes.es/ensenanza/actividades_ave/aveteca.htm . Students listen to informal conversations and complete some activities on planning a trip. They also complete some fill-in-the gaps activities about the listening. At the end, they reinforce the grammar presented in a short grammar presentation (non-interactive tutorial) about talking about future plans. Students also are introduced to some vocabulary on different kinds of trips and Spanish travel hotspots.Lesson 2: Following directions • See “Lessons Plans” section for a detailed lesson plan.Lesson 4-5: Planning a trip: Real life scenario practice • Step 1: Students get together in groups to do some research online and decide where they would like to go in Barcelona. There will be one or two people with a laptop researching interesting travel destinations in Barcelona using the website: http://www.spain.info/ven/grandes-ciudades/barcelona.html?l=es . The rest of the group discuss ideas gathered from the laptop students’ web search and make appropriate decisions on what attractions they would like to visit. (Note: this website is both in Spanish and in English, so students can practice their reading and revert to the English version when they are struggling) • Step 2: They could also use the website: http://www.softguide-barcelona.com/ . As they will have an idea what tourist attraction they want to visit, they will need to find affordable accommodation as well. They will only have a certain amount of money set by the teacher. They will also have a time-frame and a time of the year to visit Barcelona. • This activity will require considerable effort, so I will spend a couple of lessons, if not more, to accomplish the desired goal.
Week 2 Rationale in justifying using technologies This week, students experience the language in a culturally-embedded and highly authentic way. In a pilot study carried out byMeskill and Osuna (1998), they found out that students’ learning improved by exposing them to the culture of the language in highlyauthentic activities. Findings were quite relevant as “the subjects showed increased knowledge of language integrated with culture”(ibid, p 73). They assert that an activity like the ones planned for this week “support language in context” and “help learners developsthe needed range of communicative/sociolinguistic competencies” (Meskill & Osuna, 1998: 71). I have incorporated a similar activityby allowing students to access foreign language material used by Spanish speakers online to plan and book their holiday. Theaforementioned authors note that “(by) using the Internet ... students can have almost instantaneous access to a range of foreignexperiences in the target language” (ibid). This activity also broadens their experience with the target language and culture and givesstudents valuable skills in problem-solving. Roblyer & Doering highlight the importance of giving learners opportunities to expandtheir problem-solving skills as “our society is beginning to place a high value on the ability to solve novel problems in creative ways”(Roblyer & Doering, 2010: 46). This activity also allows students of various abilities to make “valuable contributions on their ownterms” (ibid, p 47) which acts as a synergic force to improve learning. In a study by Lee (1997), she explains that the internet can be a highly valuable tool in the foreign language classroom. Shestresses the fact that “cultural information helps gain proficiency” (p 413). This is noteworthy point as we usually only equalproficiency with students’ successful manipulation of the language system but overlook the importance of being able to communicatein a specific social environment, that is understanding and applying socio-cultural conventions. Lee argues that by using the Internetin a culturally rich way, we can help students develop this much needed skill: “access to the Internet resources provides a great dealof cultural information to help students gain C2 awareness and understanding in order to function appropriately in the targetlanguage community” (ibid, p 413)
WEEK 3: Lessons outlinesLesson 1-3: Writing a skit or video pre-production stage • See “Lessons Plans” section for a detailed lesson plan.If possible, students will perform at home and they will videotape their performances, the following lesson, they willbring the video to school for the audience to watch. (They might need extra time to do this).Lesson 4: Video editing • Students edit their video using Windows Movie Maker. They can make use of clever elements such as transitions, titles, and credits (at the end).Lesson 5: “Movie screening” and feedback time • Students watch each other’s videos. There will be discussion time at the end to allow everyone to give their feedback on each other’s videos. • Assessment: The assessment rubric includes elements of pre-production such as teamwork and video concept. The teacher will assess students’ video production using this rubric http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php? screen=ShowRubric&rubric_id=1154037& • Students will also have the option to upload their video to the class blog.Week 3 Rationale in justifying using technologies At the end of this unit of work, I have planned a mini-project. In it, students are required to synthesize all the language learntduring the unit into one product (a skit). This activity requires critical thinking skills, collaboration and allows for creativity and self-direction. They need to plan in a work environment, use real life technology (video camera and video-editing software), and create an
effective presentation while taking some responsibility for the product, all “21st century skills” 3 . These activities are structured toprovide practice on specific language points. A student-created presentation offers several learning benefits. Among them, they can “present their findings attractively andwith impact” and also “the act of producing and sharing their presentation helps them learn even more about the topics and enhancestheir research, study and communication skills” (Roblyer & Doering, 2010: 193), not to mention development of higher orderthinking skills. Undoubtedly, these advantages are very important in language learning as students will explore the topic more indepth, make sense of their ( in this case, website) research, and develop their communication skills, namely accuracy and fluency inthe language. All in all, the culmination of three weeks of intensive language practice involves letting students experiment withlanguage in a real and highly engaging way.LESSON PLANSWeek 2, Lesson 2: Following Directions Lesson PlanStudents learn to: • make judgements about the relevance of detail in understanding text, eg extracting ideas and issues referred to in text • make judgements about the relevance of detail in analysing text, eg extracting ideas and issues referred to in text • develop skills in accessing appropriate additional information to expand and enhance communication, eg dictionaries, word lists, grammar references, authentic texts in print and onlineSequence:3 See http://www.bie.org/about/21st_century_skills
• Students learn some expressions on giving and following directions from Ven II coursebook, p. 42 called “En la ciudad” (in the city). • Students go to http://www.asisehace.net/direcciones/direcciones.htm and review a number of expressions used when giving directions in Spanish and English. (memory game) • Students visit the Centro Cervantes Website on http://cvc.cervantes.es/ensenanza/actividades_ave/nivelII/actividades/actividad_18.html?id=41 Students complete a number of interactive online activities on giving and asking for directions. Students will learn related vocabulary and review expressions related to understanding directions. Students will also listen to short clips to make their way around a map of the city. Students will practice the imperative (third person: usted) and conditionals. (Reading/ Listening/ Comprehension) • Additional activity: If time permits, students can watch a podcast on http://asisehace.podomatic.com/entry/2009-05-09T00_08_15-07_00 on useful expressions to use at the Tourist check point to add to their travel linguistic repertoires. (They can jot down notes as they watch the episode).Week 3, Lessons 1 to 3: Writing a skit or video pre-productionObjective: Students will draft a skit on holidaying in Barcelona (as a springboard for a video production).Spanish Syllabus Outcomes: 5 UL 3, 5 MLC 1 and 5 MLC 2Students learn about: • the manipulation of structure, format and choice of vocabulary to achieve specific purposes
• Collaborative and inclusive ways to achieve communication goals. • ways to support and sustain communication in extended text • the importance of being aware of the choices that are made to convey precise meaningStudents learn to: • Select and manipulate particular structures to achieve specific communication goals, eg use appropriate tense for recounting, emotive language for effect: El año pasado, pasé un mes en Cuba.¡Qué vacaciones! • Interact with reference to purpose, audience or participants, eg making arrangements ¿Quieres salir conmigo el sábado? • describe features of text structure, textual coherence and cohesion in sequencing ideas, • evaluate the accuracy and appropriateness of structures when constructing and editing textSequence: • The teacher will give a short introduction on drafting an effective skit. • Students will start drafting their skit on “Visiting Barcelona”. This skit will consist of three acts. Act I is called “Getting ready to go”. In this conversation they will include elements of presenting the audience with their travel plans (resulting from the previous week’s web search). They will let their classmates know where they are going in Barcelona, where they will be staying and which attractions they are planning to visit. Note that this will be done in a dialogue format, not as an oral presentation. The language focus is giving suggestions and making arrangements. Act II might be called “Getting lost” they will be role-playing walking on one of Barcelona’s streets, and asking for directions to get to the desired destination. The Language focus is giving/following directions. In Act III, they will be back in Australia, and one of them will be retelling part of his holiday experience to one of his friends. The language focus is past tense. • The teacher will monitor the class and give assistance as students do this activity. Students will edit their writing at the same
time.BibliographyBrooks, G. (2002)What Works for Children with Literacy Difficulties? The Effectiveness of Intervention Scheme. Retrieved onNovember 5, 2010 from http://www.education.gov.uk/research/data/uploadfiles/RR380.pdfBruning, R. et al (2004). Cognitive psychology and instruction. 4rd edition. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill.Lee, L. (1997). Using Internet Tools as an Enhancement of C2 Teaching and Learning. Foreign language Annals. 30 (3), 410-427Meskill C. & Osuna, M. M. (1998). Using the World Wide Web to integrate Spanish language and culture: a pilot study. LanguageLearning and Technology. 1 (2), 71-92.Richards, C. (2005). The design of effective ICT-supported learning activities: Exemplary models, changing requirements and newpossibilities. Journal of Technology and Language Learning, 9(1), 60-79.Roblyer, M. D. & Doering, A.H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching. 5th edn. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey:Pearson.
Curriculum ResourcesNSW Curriculum Support Website: http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/languages/cogs/index.htm