Vivek s v

259
-1

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
259
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Vivek s v

  1. 1. BIOREMEDIATION OF ENDOSULFAN 1
  2. 2. ENDOSULFAN 2
  3. 3. WHAT IS ENDOSULFAN An Organochloro Pesticide A Sulfurous Acid Ester Of Chlorinated Cyclic Diol Chemical Name: 6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro- 6,9-methano-2,3,4-benzo(e)dioxathiepin-3-oxide Molecular Formula: C9H6Cl6O3S 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Brownish in Colour Solid Under Normal Conditions Crystalline In Nature Slight Odour Of Sulphurdioxide 0.33 mg/L solubility 1.7 g/cc density 102 deg C Melting pt 5
  6. 6. WHERE IS ENDOSULFAN USED Agricultural Lands, Plantations And Farmlands Effective Against Pests - Beetles, Caterpillar, Colorado Beetle, Leaf Hoppers, Woolly Aphids, Cabbage Worms, Etc Preharvest Insecticide For Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts, Field And Grain Crops Including Rice Non Food Crops Like Tobacco And Cotton 6
  7. 7. PRODUCTION AND USAGE IN INDIA Hindustan Insecticides Ltd Sole Producer In India Thionex Endocil Phaser Benzoepin 120 Million Indian Farming Families Use Endosulfan 7
  8. 8. FIELD APPLICATION Sprayed From 2m - 3m Above Foliage Adjacent Residents- Away For 20 Days Water Bodies Covered 8
  9. 9. HOW IS IT HARMFUL TO HUMANS Neurotoxin Carcinogen Polio-like Deformities Via Direct Skin Contact, Inhalation and Ingestion But Only Negligible Effects on Pollinators 9
  10. 10. NEUROLOGIC SYSTEMIC CNS Directly Nausea Dizziness Convolutions Lowering of IQ Kidney And Liver Damage To RBCs Tumor Promotion Birth Defects Mutation 10
  11. 11. BIO-REMEDITION Of Endosulfan 11
  12. 12. WHAT IS BIOREMEDIATON A Solution To A Problem By Biological Action Plants- Phytoremediation Microbes- Bacterial Or Fungal Bioremediation (carbon source) 12
  13. 13. STUDIES CONDUCTED 28 soil fungi 49 soil bacteria 10 actinomycetes Found To Posses Reasonable Ability To Degrade Endosulfan. Using C14-labeled Isotope, Qualitative As Well As Quantitative Formation Of Metabolites Followed 13
  14. 14. CHEMICAL REACTION Basically, It Involves Biochemical Reactions The Major Metabolites Are Endosulfate- Formed By Oxidation Of The Sulfites Endodiol- Formed By Hydrolysis Of The Ester Bond Small Quantities Of Endohydroxyether Endosulfate From Fungi Endodiol From Active Bacteria. 14
  15. 15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES Factors Influencing Degradation Of Endosulfan Martens Experiment Pilot Scale Reactor Experiment 15
  16. 16. FACTORS INFLUENCING DEGRADATION OF ENDOSULFAN Study # 1 16
  17. 17. DETAILS Niranjan Awasthi, Rajiv Ahuja, Ashwani Kumar Parrysulphan 35% Ec 2 Strains Of Bacillus Sp 2 Soil Samples Clay 60%, Silt 30%, Sand 10%, O C.38% pH 8.7 Clay 39%, Silt12%, Sand 49%, O C.59% pH 9.37 17
  18. 18. EFFECT OF pH Significant Effect Nil At pH 3.0 Slight At pH 5.0 Significant At pH 7.5- 8.5, Less Endo diol At pH 10- 12, Completely to Endo diol 18
  19. 19. EFFECT OF ADDITIONAL CARBON SOURCES Reduced Efficiency Glucose, Sodium Succinate Similar Results For Both Isomers 19
  20. 20. EFFECT OF ADDITIONAL CARBON SOURCES 20
  21. 21. EFFECT OF INOCULUM SIZE Increased Efficiency 2 x 105 CFU/g Soil Had No Significant Effect 2x106 Cells Stimulated A Rapid Degradation 2 X 107, 4x107 ,108 Resulted In Initial Increase 21
  22. 22. EFFECT OF INOCULUM SIZE 22
  23. 23. EFFECT OF INITIAL CONCENTRATION Rapid Degradation at Low Conc. 50 µg/g of Soil Speed Reduces With Higher Initial Conc. Higher Conc. 50mg/g has inhibitory effect 23
  24. 24. EFFECT OF INITIAL CONCENTRATION 24
  25. 25. MARTENS EXPERIMENT Study # 2 25
  26. 26. DETAILS By Dr Rainer Martens Germen Institute Samples From Around The Globe 28 Bacteria strains and 49 Fungi Sorted The Bacterial and Fungi strains As Per Their Activity And Efficiency 26
  27. 27. LIST OF FUNGI 27
  28. 28. LIST OF BACTERIA 28
  29. 29. INFERENCE Bacteria With A High Degradation Capacity Hydrolyzed Endosulfan To Endodiol The Fungi With A High Degradation Capacity Oxidized Endosulfan To Endosulfate 29
  30. 30. PILOT SCALE REACTOR EXPERIMENT Study # 3 30
  31. 31. DETAILS By Dr Mathav Kumar and Dr Liggy Philip Used 3 Bacterial Strains • Staphylococcus sp • Bacillus circulans -I and II Specially Fabricated Soil Reactor Also Conducted Lab Scale Experiments 31
  32. 32. EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTARY CARBON SOURCE 32
  33. 33. EFFECT OF INOCULUM SIZE IN AQUEOUS SYSTEM 33
  34. 34. EFFECT OF pH 34
  35. 35. INFERENCE • External Carbon Source Increases Degradation Efficiency • Ph Has A Significant Effect On Endosulfan Degradation • Performance Of Anaerobic Soil Reactors Was Better Compared To Aerobic Soil Reactors Irrespective Of Soil Type • Maximum Efficiency Was Observed In Sandy Soil • Efficiency Was More In Bottom Layers Due To The Prevailing Anaerobic Condition • The Optimum Moisture Content 35–40% 35
  36. 36. CONCLUSION 36
  37. 37. Suitability of Bioremediation to Endosulfan Advantages of Bioremediation • Surface • Sub surface • Water (surface and ground) Limitation of Bioremediation - Air 37
  38. 38. THANK YOU 38
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×