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Vivek s v

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Vivek s v Vivek s v Presentation Transcript

  • 1BIOREMEDIATIONOF ENDOSULFAN
  • 2ENDOSULFAN
  • 3WHAT IS ENDOSULFANAn Organochloro Pesticide A Sulfurous Acid Ester Of Chlorinated Cyclic DiolChemical Name: 6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro- 6,9-methano-2,3,4-benzo(e)dioxathiepin-3-oxideMolecular Formula: C9H6Cl6O3S
  • 4
  • 5PHYSICAL PROPERTIESBrownish in ColourSolid Under Normal ConditionsCrystalline In NatureSlight Odour Of Sulphurdioxide0.33 mg/L solubility1.7 g/cc density102 deg C Melting pt
  • 6WHERE IS ENDOSULFAN USEDAgricultural Lands, Plantations And FarmlandsEffective Against Pests - Beetles, Caterpillar, Colorado Beetle, Leaf Hoppers, Woolly Aphids, Cabbage Worms, EtcPreharvest Insecticide For Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts, Field And Grain Crops Including RiceNon Food Crops Like Tobacco And Cotton
  • 7PRODUCTION AND USAGE IN INDIA Hindustan Insecticides Ltd Sole Producer In India Thionex Endocil Phaser Benzoepin 120 Million Indian Farming Families Use Endosulfan
  • 8FIELD APPLICATIONSprayed From 2m - 3m Above FoliageAdjacent Residents- Away For 20 DaysWater Bodies Covered
  • 9HOW IS IT HARMFUL TO HUMANSNeurotoxinCarcinogenPolio-like DeformitiesVia Direct Skin Contact, Inhalation and IngestionBut Only Negligible Effects on Pollinators
  • 10NEUROLOGIC SYSTEMIC CNS Directly  Kidney And Liver Nausea  Damage To RBCs Dizziness  Tumor Promotion Convolutions  Birth Defects Lowering of IQ  Mutation
  • 11BIO-REMEDITION Of Endosulfan
  • 12WHAT IS BIOREMEDIATONA Solution To A Problem By Biological ActionPlants- PhytoremediationMicrobes- Bacterial Or Fungal Bioremediation (carbon source)
  • 13STUDIES CONDUCTED28 soil fungi49 soil bacteria10 actinomycetesFound To Posses Reasonable Ability To DegradeEndosulfan.Using C14-labeled Isotope, Qualitative As Well AsQuantitative Formation Of Metabolites Followed
  • 14CHEMICAL REACTIONBasically, It Involves Biochemical ReactionsThe Major Metabolites AreEndosulfate- Formed By Oxidation Of The SulfitesEndodiol- Formed By Hydrolysis Of The Ester BondSmall Quantities Of EndohydroxyetherEndosulfate From FungiEndodiol From Active Bacteria.
  • 15EXPERIMENTAL STUDIESFactors Influencing Degradation Of EndosulfanMartens ExperimentPilot Scale Reactor Experiment
  • 16FACTORS INFLUENCINGDEGRADATION OF ENDOSULFAN Study # 1
  • 17DETAILSNiranjan Awasthi, Rajiv Ahuja, Ashwani KumarParrysulphan 35% Ec2 Strains Of Bacillus Sp2 Soil SamplesClay 60%, Silt 30%, Sand 10%, O C.38% pH 8.7Clay 39%, Silt12%, Sand 49%, O C.59% pH 9.37
  • 18EFFECT OF pHSignificant EffectNil At pH 3.0Slight At pH 5.0Significant At pH 7.5- 8.5, Less Endo diolAt pH 10- 12, Completely to Endo diol
  • 19EFFECT OF ADDITIONAL CARBON SOURCESReduced EfficiencyGlucose, Sodium SuccinateSimilar Results For Both Isomers
  • 20EFFECT OF ADDITIONAL CARBON SOURCES
  • 21EFFECT OF INOCULUM SIZEIncreased Efficiency2 x 105 CFU/g Soil Had No Significant Effect2x106 Cells Stimulated A Rapid Degradation2 X 107, 4x107 ,108 Resulted In Initial Increase
  • 22EFFECT OF INOCULUM SIZE
  • 23EFFECT OF INITIAL CONCENTRATIONRapid Degradation at Low Conc. 50 µg/g of SoilSpeed Reduces With Higher Initial Conc.Higher Conc. 50mg/g has inhibitory effect
  • 24EFFECT OF INITIAL CONCENTRATION
  • 25MARTENS EXPERIMENT Study # 2
  • 26DETAILSBy Dr Rainer MartensGermen InstituteSamples From Around The Globe28 Bacteria strains and 49 FungiSorted The Bacterial and Fungi strains As Per Their Activity And Efficiency
  • 27LIST OF FUNGI
  • 28LIST OF BACTERIA
  • 29INFERENCEBacteria With A High Degradation Capacity Hydrolyzed Endosulfan To EndodiolThe Fungi With A High Degradation Capacity Oxidized Endosulfan To Endosulfate
  • 30PILOT SCALE REACTOR EXPERIMENT Study # 3
  • 31DETAILSBy Dr Mathav Kumar and Dr Liggy PhilipUsed 3 Bacterial Strains• Staphylococcus sp• Bacillus circulans -I and IISpecially Fabricated Soil ReactorAlso Conducted Lab Scale Experiments
  • 32EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTARYCARBON SOURCE
  • 33EFFECT OF INOCULUM SIZE INAQUEOUS SYSTEM
  • 34EFFECT OF pH
  • 35INFERENCE• External Carbon Source Increases Degradation Efficiency• Ph Has A Significant Effect On Endosulfan Degradation• Performance Of Anaerobic Soil Reactors Was Better Compared To Aerobic Soil Reactors Irrespective Of Soil Type• Maximum Efficiency Was Observed In Sandy Soil• Efficiency Was More In Bottom Layers Due To The Prevailing Anaerobic Condition• The Optimum Moisture Content 35–40%
  • 36CONCLUSION
  • 37Suitability of Bioremediation to EndosulfanAdvantages of Bioremediation• Surface• Sub surface• Water (surface and ground)Limitation of Bioremediation - Air
  • 38THANK YOU