CONTENTS• INTRODUCTION• PHILOSOPHY• ACHIEVEMENTS• PROJECTS• BRIEFS ON MAJOR PROJECTS• CASE STUDIES : CHAPEL OF THE CHIMES : HEARST CASTLE• CONCLUSION• REFERENCE
“Architecture is a visual art, and the buildings speak for themselves.” --- Julia Morgan
INTRODUCTION Born on January 20, 1872 in San Francisco and received her early education at Oakland High School(1890). In 1890, she enrolled in the University of California, in nearby Berkeley and graduated in 1894.École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts (1902)Submission of an outstanding design for apalatial theatre which earned her a certificatein architecture, the first woman to receive onefrom the school in Paris
TOWARDS ARCHITECTUREtwo principal facts:• her residence in California• practical possibilities, and her gender .She was inspired by Bernard Maybeck
PHILOSOPHYstylistic expression with beauty, comfort, and functionality.clients vision,the opportunities presented by the site,the required functionUse of indigineous materials
HER MODULARFIRST BAY TRADITION• Utilization of undisguised natural materials from the local environment, such ascedar, redwood, and oak, as well as brick and stone.• Combination of traditional craftsmanship and historic motifs with modern building materialsand construction methods.• site-sensitive designs by bringing "the outdoors indoors" with such devices as large areasof glass, balconies, and decks to allow sunlight and breezes from outside to flow throughthe interiors.• an original work of art that fulfilled the specific needs of the client and the nearbycommunity.
ACHIEVEMENTS• the first independent licensed woman architect in America• became the first woman allowed to study at the prestigious Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris• designed more than 700 buildings during her career.Legacy• Julia Morgan was buried in the Mountain View Cemetery in the hills of Oakland, California• Julia Morgan was be inducted into the California Hall of Fame• The Julia Morgan Ballroom at the Merchants Exchange Building in San Francisco was named in her honor
Images from Julia Morgan Ballroom
JULIA MORGAN’S DIVINE WORKS
HER PROJECTSEl Campanil, 1903-4 Examiner Building, Los Angeles, 1915Margaret Carnegie Library, 1905-6 Turner Stores, Oakland, 1916Introduction to Morgans early houses Rosenberg House, San Francisco, 1917Speculative Houses, Berkeley, 1905 Berkeley Baptist Divinity School, 1918-19Linforth Houses, Berkeley, 1907 *Hearst Castle, San Simeon, 1920-48Methodist Chinese Mission School, San Francisco, Emanu-el Sisterhood Residence, San1907-10 Francisco, 1921-22St. Johns Presbyterian Church, Berkeley, 1908-10 YWCA, Pasadena, 1921Kings Daughters Home, Oakland, 1908-12 *The Heritage, San Francisco, 1924-29Watt House, San Francisco, 1911 Phoebe Apperson Hearst MemorialYWCA, Oakland, 1913-15 Gymnasium, 1925-27Asilomar (YWCA Conference Center), Pacific Grove, Morgans House (remodeled), San Francisco, c.1913-37 1925 *Chapel of the Chimes, Oakland, 1926-30 [2Phoebe Apperson Hearst Administration Building pages]The Chapel Williams House, Berkeley, 1928Employees housing (Hilltop Cottage and Tide Inn) The Residence (YWCA), San Francisco, 1929-The Lodge and Scripps Lodge 30Merrill Hall *Berkeley Womens City Club, Berkeley, 1929- 30 *Chinese YWCA, San Francisco, 1930
THE HEARST CASTLE
ASILOMAR MERRILL HALL
THE BELL TOWER(1904)the first reinforced concretestructure built west of theMississippi
MARION DAVIES GUEST HOUSE
HERALD EXAMINER BUILDINGMission RevivalandSpanish ColonialRevival style building
CHAPEL OF THE CHIMES (1926-30)Location : Piedmont Avenue in Oakland, CAThe white concrete exterior, though largely Romanesqueborrows features from Gothic architecture, particularly the Gothic tracery of the nave ofthe main chapel and the cloisters connecting various sections of the structure.
The building is a colombarium,and is a bit off the beaten path. The design of the building can becharacterized as containing a progression of spaces and openings that lead from the entrance to thedeep interior. Facade in the morning The front wall has an opening whose abruptness is tempered by a double layer of arches. The arches gracefully extend the wall.
The window allows the exterior world to be part of the building via reflection enhanced by the darker interior.A long hall runs along the front of the building. Thefar end of the hall shows the offices. Behind the viewis a large chapel.
The main chapel.The ceilings are high with thick wood beams.The motif of the arches continues around the chapel.The exterior of the main chapel. Unfinished concrete on the outside joins the more finished interior.„Béton brut style
The middle areaMoroccan influences can be The hallways that are The simple plaster finishseen in the interior spaces parallel to the main hall at compliments gentle colors in the entrance have a the glass. lightness
If you were one of the richest people in the world, what would you do? Well, how about building your very own castle.
THE HEARST CASTLE (1919-1947) San Simeon, California,Nearest city: USA More than 90,000 sq ftArea: (8,400 m2)Built: 1919[ William RandolphArchitect: Hearst; Julia Morgan Mediterranean Revival,Architectural style: other late 19th and 20th century Revivals
LocationHearst Castle is located near the unincorporated community of San Simeon, California.atop a hill of the Santa Lucia Range at an altitude of 1,600 feet (490 m).DesignHearst was fond of Spanish Revival, but dissatisfied with the crudeness of the colonialstructures in California. Mexican colonial architecture had more sophistication but he objectedto its profusion of ornamentation. Turning to the Iberian Peninsula for inspiration, he foundRenaissance and Baroque examples in southern Spain more to his tastes.Hearst particularly admired a church in Ronda and asked Morgan to pattern the Main Buildingtowers after itThe estate is a pastiche of historic architectural styles that its owner admired in his travelsaround Europe.
CHURCH AT RONDA,SPAIN
Hearst Castle features:56 bedrooms61 bathrooms19 sitting rooms127 acres (0.5 km2) of gardens indoor and outdoor swimming pools, tennis courts, a movie theater, an airfield, and the worldslargest private zoo.WATER SUPPLYgravity-based water delivery system that transports water from artesian wells.SizeThe total square footage of the buildings on the estateexceeds 8,300 m². The area of Casa Grande, the "castle",is 5,634 m². The area of the guest houses on property are:Casa del Mar: 5,875 square feet (546 m²)Casa del Monte: 2,291 square feet (213 m²)Casa del Sol: 2,604 square feet (242 m²)
MASTERPIECES OF HEARST CASTLE NEPTUNE POOL “Temple Garden” with an ornamental pool and temple structure.-104 feet long, 58 feet wide and 95 feet wide at alcove.-3.5 feet deep at the west end, 10 feet at drains and holds -345,000 gallons of water.-Oil burning heating system-the light-veined Vermont marble decorating the pools andcolonnades -four 17-century Italian bas-reliefs on the sides of thecolonnades.
ROMAN POOL a tiled indoor pool decorated with eight statues of Roman gods, goddesses and heroes. styled after an ancient Roman bath such as the Baths of Caracalla in Rome c. 211-17 CE. The mosaic tiled patterns were inspired by mosaics found in the 5th Century Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna, Italy.decorated from ceiling to floor with 1″ square mosaic tiles.These glass tiles, called smalti, are either colored (mainlyblue or orange) or are clear with fused gold inside.The intense colors and shimmering gold of the tilescombine to create a breathtaking effect.
DINING HALL Dining Room with Old Spanish Carvings in the Ceiling
EGYPTIAN STATUE GRAECO ROMAN ROMAN STATUE STATUES @ HEARST CASTLE EUROPEAN EGYPTIAN STATUE
CONCLUSIONHer buildings really have a timeless qualityNot only did Morgan open the field of architecture to women through her example but she alsodid so by hiring and training women as artists, drafters, and architects for her projects.Julia Morgan, Americas first truly independent female architect, left a legacy of more than 700buildings, many of which are now designated landmarks, in cities throughout California, as wellas in Hawaii, Utah, and Illinois. Her work spanned five decades, and the total of hercommissions was greater than any other major American architect, including Frank Lloyd Wright.Julia Morgan tells the remarkable story of this architectural pioneer, and features text, drawings,and photographs of the many buildings that still exist.Learnt about the Romanesque and Greek architecture though her designs which also combinedthe Greek and Moroccan architecture. Mingling of various forms of architecture enlightened meabout the form and functions.
REFERENCEShttp://www.bluffton.edu/womenartists/morganassignment.htmlhttp://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/jmhearstss/intro.htmlJulia Morgan-The architect of Beauty: Book by Mark Anthony