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Introduction to basic HTML.

Introduction to basic HTML.

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intro-to-html intro-to-html Presentation Transcript

  • HTML in Web DesignHTML in Web Design Prepared by: Shah Vivek
  • What is HTML?What is HTML? • HTML is a language for describing web pages. • HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language • HTML is not a programming language, it is a markup language • A markup language is a set of markup tags • HTML uses markup tags to describe web pages
  • HTML TagsHTML Tags • HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags • HTML tags are keywords surrounded by angle brackets like <html> • HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b> • The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag • Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags.
  • HTML DocumentsHTML Documents • HTML Documents = Web Pages • HTML documents describe web pages • HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text • HTML documents are also called web pages
  • ExampleExample Simple HTML <html> <body> <h1>My First Heading</h1> <p>My first paragraph</p> </body> </html> Example Explained • The text between <html> and </html> describes the web page • The text between <body> and </body> is the visible page content • The text between <h1> and </h1> is displayed as a heading • The text between <p> and </p> is displayed as a paragraph
  • Document Structure TagsDocument Structure Tags Opening Tag Closing Tag Attribute Description <HTML> </HTML>   Identifies document as  HTML <HEAD> </HEAD>   Document Head contains  Title Tag <TITLE> </TITLE>   Title of Document <BODY> </BODY>   Contents of Document
  • Formatting Tags-Formatting Tags- BASICBASIC Opening Tag Closing Tag Attribute Description <BODY> </BODY> Contents of Document BGCOLOR="#color code" Background Color BACKGROUND="... .gif " Background Image TEXT="#color code" Text Color <CENTER > </CENTER> Centers Text and Images <H1> to <H6> </H1>to</H6> Heading ALIGN="Left, Center, Right" Align Text
  • Formatting TagsFormatting Tags Opening Tag Closing Tag Attribute Description <BASEFONT SIZE="1 to7"> specify the overall font for your page : place <basefont> tag at the beginning of the <body> section. <P> </P> New Paragraph ALIGN="Left, Center, Right" Align Text <BR> Line Break
  • Formatting TagsFormatting Tags Opening Tag Closing Tag Attribute Description <HR> Horizontal Rule ALIGN="Left, Center, Right" Align Text- 3 choices SIZE = "number" Thickness of Horizontal Rule WIDTH = "number %" % of Document to Span NOSHADE Removes Shading
  • FONT tagsFONT tags   Opening Tag Closing Tag Attribute Description <FONT> </FONT>   Section of Text     COLOR="#color  code" Font Color     SIZE="number" Font Size <B> </B>   Bold Text <U> <U>   Underline Text <I> </I>   Italic Text
  • FONT tagsFONT tags   Opening Tag Closing Tag Attribute Description <STRIKE> </STRIKE>    Strikeout  <BLOCKQUOTE> </BLOCKQUOTE>   Separates Text  <SUB> </SUB>   Subscript Text SUP <SUP> </SUP>   Superscript Text SUB
  • HTML HeadingsHTML Headings •  Headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6>  tags.  <h1> defines the largest heading.   <h6> defines the smallest heading •Use HTML headings for headings only. Don't use  headings to make text BIG or bold. •Search engines use your headings to index the  structure and content of your web pages.
  • HTML StylesHTML Styles The purpose of the style attribute is: To provide a common way to style all HTML elements. Styles was introduced with HTML 4, as the new and  preferred way to style HTML elements. With HTML styles,  styles can be added to HTML elements directly by using the  style attribute, or indirectly by in separate style sheets (CSS  files). You can learn using styles with CSS  Examples:  1. style="background-color:yellow" 2. style="font-size:10px" 3. style="font-family:Times" 4. style="text-align:center"
  • Definition LISTS Optional list header(LH), followed by one or  more terms(DT) and definitions(DD).  A definition list is a list of terms and corres-  ponding definitions.  Definition lists are typically formatted with the  term on the left with the definition following on  the right or on the next line.  The definition text is typically indented with  respect to the term. 
  • Definition LISTS The opening list tag must be <DL>. It is followed  by an optional list header (<LH>caption</LH>)  and then by term names (<DT>) and definitions  (<DD>).  For example:  <DL> <LH>My Favorites</LH>  <DT>Song<dd>This is My LIFE!!!<br> I love this one…  <DT>Author<dd>Carole Mortimer  <p>WOW!!! </DL>
  • LISTS List tags define lists of elements that may  be displayed as bulleted or numbered  lists, glossary entries with definitions,  and menu formats. All of these layouts  are useful when organizing lists of items  or elements to improve their readability.
  • Unordered LISTS An unordered list is a list of items. The list items are marked with bullets (typically small black circles). An unordered list starts with the <ul> tag. Each list item starts with the <li> tag.                <html><body>                 <h4>An Unordered List:</h4>                         <ul>                              <li>Coffee</li>                              <li>Tea</li>                             <li>Milk</li>                         </ul>                </body></html>
  • Ordered LISTS Ordered Lists An ordered list is also a list of items. The list items are marked with numbers. An ordered list starts with the <ol> tag. Each list item starts with the <li> tag. <ol> <li>Coffee</li> <li>Milk</li> </ol>
  • Types of Ordered LISTS <h4>Numbered list:</h4> <ol> <li>Apples</li> <li>Bananas</li> <li>Lemons</li> <li>Oranges</li> </ol> <h4>Letters list:</h4> <ol type="A"> <li>Apples</li> <li>Bananas</li> <li>Lemons</li> <li>Oranges</li> </ol> <h4>Lowercase letters list:</h4> <ol type="a"> <li>Apples</li> <li>Bananas</li> <li>Lemons</li> <li>Oranges</li> </ol> <h4>Roman numbers list:</h4> <ol type="I"> <li>Apples</li> <li>Bananas</li> <li>Lemons</li> <li>Oranges</li> </ol> <h4>Lowercase Roman numbers list:</h4> <ol type="i"> <li>Apples</li> <li>Bananas</li> <li>Lemons</li> <li>Oranges</li> </ol>
  • Types of Unordered LISTS <h4>Disc bullets list:</h4> <ul type="disc“ > <li>Apples</li> <li>Bananas</li> <li>Lemons</li> <li>Oranges</li> </ul> <h4>Circle bullets list:</h4> <ul type="circle“ > <li>Apples</li> <li>Bananas</li> <li>Lemons</li> <li>Oranges</li> </ul> <h4>Square bullets list:</h4> <ul type="square"> <li>Apples</li> <li>Bananas</li> <li>Lemons</li> <li>Oranges</li> </ul>
  • The Graphics Images The Image Tag and the SRC Attribute In HTML, images are defined with the <img> tag. The <img> tag is empty, which means that it contains attributes only and it has no closing tag. To display an image on a page, you need to use the src attribute. Src stands for "source". The value of the src attribute is the URL of the image you want to display on your page. The syntax of defining an image: <img src="url"> The URL points to the location where the image is stored. The browser puts the image where the image tag occurs in the document. If you put an image tag between two paragraphs, the browser shows the first paragraph, then the image, and then the second paragraph.
  • Attributes of Images <p> An image <img src=”url/inage“ align="bottom" width="100" height="50"> in the text </p> <p> An image <img src ="/images/xhtml.gif“ align="middle" width="100" height="50"> in the text </p> <p> An image <img src ="/images/xhtml.gif" align="top" width="100" height="50"> in the text </p>
  • Using Hyperlinks  Link Tags: <A> ... </A> Links on web pages are created using the anchor <A> tag. These links can point to a different document on the Internet or to some anchor on the same page. Documents linked in this manner need not be HTML (or PHP/ASP) files. You can place a link to any kind of file, like in PPT or DOC files. • Style Tip Use hyperlinks liberally throughout your HTML pages to create links to related resources and to information on your own site as well as other sites.
  • Links in Files HTML documents contain certain 'hot spots'. These hot spots provide the links to other documents/files on the Internet. Lets look at this tag in detail. <A HREF=http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com> Takes you to Webdevelopersnotes.com's main page </A> is displayed as This will take you to Webdevelopersnotes.com's main pageThis will take you to Webdevelopersnotes.com's main page..  Anchor tags have a starting (<A>) and an (</A>) ending tag.  The HREF attribute is required and takes the URL address of the destination page as value. Without this attribute-value, no links will be created.  Some text is enclosed between the anchor tags. This text serves as the hot spot. When a visitor clicks on this 'hot spot', he or she will be transported to the target page.
  • The Anchor Tag and Hyperlinks Hyperlinks are the colored, underlined words you find on a web document. Clicking on these words will send you to a predefined location on the same document, to another page on the same server or to a location on another server. Hyperlinks are created using the anchor tag. <a command="target">Highlighted Text</a> Commands for this tag can be: 1. href - Signifies a hyperlink. 2. name -Signifies a specified location on page. 3. The anchor tag requires a closing tag- </a>
  • Links in Files Linking in the same document We employ the <A> tag in this case too, but its format changes slightly. Instead of a URL in the HREF attribute, we use names. First, an anchor is set at the desired place in the document using the NAME attribute. In this case : <A NAME="top"></A> The value of NAME attribute can be anything you want use. Also note, that it is not necessary to enclose any text or other HTML element if the anchor tag is used in this manner. 1.After setting an anchor with its NAME attribute you employ another set of <A> to make a link that points to it: <A HREF="#top" CLASS="text">Click here to go to the top</A>. 1.On clicking this link, you will be taken to the top of the page where you have put the anchor. 2.The HREF attribute takes the value of the NAME attribute mentioned before as its value; the name is prefixed with a # symbol.
  • Links in Files Removing the Underline The default underline can be removed from the hyperlink using style sheets. Though, you should not remove the underline from links within your document body, there are times when this practice is acceptable. The code: a {text-decoration : none} a href Text links are defined with the hyperlink reference anchor. It looks like this in your code: <a href="target">Destination</a> Location on Same Site To link to another page on the same site the code would be: <a href="samesite.htm"> Another Page</a> To link to another site: Note: http:// is required. <a href="http://www.destination.com / index.html">Another Site</a>
  • Links in Files Rollover Effect You've seen hyperlinks that change colors when the mouse is placed over them. We use this effect on links. The code for assigning colors to the different states of the hyperlink is shown below.  It can be placed in a style sheet in the head section of your document. Change the specified colors to produce your own version of rollovers. a:link{color :#000000} a:visted{color :#BFBFBF } a:hover{color :#DFDFDF }
  • HTML Styles The purpose of the style attribute is: 1. To provide a common way to style all HTML elements. 2. Styles was introduced with HTML 4, as the new and preferred way to style HTML elements. With HTML styles, styles can be added to HTML elements directly by using the style attribute, or indirectly by in separate style sheets (CSS files). HTML Style Examples style= "background- color:yellow" style= “font-size:10px" style= "font-family:Times" style= "text-align:center"
  • Color Values • HTML colors are defined using a hexadecimal (hex) notation for the combination of Red, Green, and Blue color values (RGB). • The lowest value that can be given to one of the light sources is 0 (hex 00). The highest value is 255 (hex FF). • Hex values are written as 3 double digit numbers, starting with a # sign.
  • Color Color HEX Color RGB   #000000 rgb(0,0,0)   #FF0000 rgb(255,0,0)   #00FF00 rgb(0,255,0)   #0000FF rgb(0,0,255)   #FFFF00 rgb(255,255,0)   #00FFFF rgb(0,255,255)   #FF00FF rgb(255,0,255)   #C0C0C0 rgb(192,192,192)   #FFFFFF rgb(255,255,255) Color Values
  • Uses of Color ValuesUses of Color Values • The COLOR Values can be used with: 1.<body background=“#00ff00”> 2. <font color= “#FF00FF”> 3.In table cells, <td background = “#aa0099”>