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  • 1. DATA CENTER Introduction A data center or computer centre (also datacenter) is a facility used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. It generally includes redundant or backup power supplies, redundant data communications connections, environmental controls (e.g., air conditioning, fire suppression) and security devices. Large data centers are industrial scale operations using as much electricity as a small town. History Data centers have their roots in the huge computer rooms of the early ages of the computing industry. Early computer systems were complex to operate and maintain, and required a special environment in which to operate. Many cables were necessary to connect all the components and methods to accommodate and organize these were devised, such as standard racks to mount equipment, elevated floors, and cable trays (installed overhead or under the elevated floor). Also, a single mainframe required a great deal of power, and had to be cooled to avoid overheating. Security was important – computers were expensive, and were often used for military purposes. Basic design guidelines for controlling access to the computer room were therefore devised. The boom of data centers came during the dot-com bubble. Companies needed fast Internet connectivity and nonstop operation to deploy systems and establish a presence on the Internet. Installing such equipment was not viable for many smaller companies. Many companies started building very large facilities, called Internet data centers (IDCs), which provide businesses with a range of solutions for systems deployment and operation.
  • 2. With an increase in the uptake of cloud computing, business and government organizations are scrutinizing data centers to a higher degree in areas such as security, availability, environmental impact and adherence to The old computer data center at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory Standards. Standard Documents from accredited professional groups, such as the Telecommunications industries Association, specify the requirements for data center design. Well-known operational metrics for data center availability can be used to evaluate the business impact of a disruption. There is still a lot of development being done in operation practice, and also in environmentally friendly data center design. Data centers are typically very expensive to build and maintain. REQUIREMENTS FOR MODERN DATA CENTERS: The Planning, Design and Implementation Services for Data Center transformation combine the people, processes and technology, with the program and project management necessary to transform a client’s existing data centers into ones that provide business agility at a lower cost. a wide
  • 3. range of services for discovery, analysis, optimization, virtualization and migration of data centers that can complement client efforts and fill gaps in client skills and capacities. Various aspects of the data centers include:  Facilities: layout, power/cooling, physical security;  System infrastructure: servers, networking, storage, and security;  Applications, infrastructure mapping & dependencies;  Service management and operations considerations IT operations are a crucial aspect of most organizational operations around the world. One of the main concerns is business continuity; companies rely on their information systems to run their operations. If a system becomes unavailable, company operations may be impaired or stopped completely. It is necessary to provide a reliable infrastructure for IT operations, in order to minimize any chance of disruption. Information security is also a concern, and for this reason a data center has to offer a secure environment which minimizes the chances of a security breach. A data center must therefore keep high standards for assuring the integrity and functionality of its hosted computer environment. This is accomplished through redundancy of both fiber optic cables and power, which includes emergency backup power generation. DATA CENTRE PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE: Data center virtualization includes storage, desktop, and server virtualization, reduces overall IT equipment electrical load through consolidation of systems. The resulting energy savings can be further maximized if IT or facilities managers adjust the power and cooling infrastructure to accommodate the reduced loads. Planning for this cycle of initial reduced load followed by load growth with IT equipment running at much higher overall utilization levels can result in the capture of a significant, supplemental energy savings entitlement.
  • 4. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS: A data center can occupy one room of a building, one or more floors, or an entire building. Most of the equipment is often in the form of servers mounted in 19 inch rack cabinets, which are usually placed in single rows forming corridors (so-called aisles) between them. This allows people access to the front and rear of each cabinet. Some equipment such as mainframe computers and storage devices are often as big as the racks themselves, and are placed alongside them. Design Programming: Design programming, also known as architectural programming, is the process of researching and making decisions to identify the scope of a design project. Other than the architecture of the building itself there are three elements to design programming for data centers: facility topology design (space planning), engineering infrastructure design (mechanical systems such as cooling and electrical systems including power) and technology infrastructure design (cable plant). Each will be influenced by performance assessments and modeling to identify gaps pertaining to the owner’s performance wishes of the facility over time. Modeling Criteria: Modeling criteria is used to develop future-state scenarios for space, power, cooling, and costs. The aim is to create a master plan with parameters such as number, size, location, topology, IT floor system layouts, and power and cooling technology and configurations. Design Recommendations: Design recommendations/plans generally follow the modeling criteria phase. The optimal technology infrastructure is identified and planning criteria is developed, such as critical power capacities, overall data center power requirements using an agreed upon PUE (power utilization efficiency), mechanical cooling capacities, kilowatts per cabinet, raised floor space, and the resiliency level for the facility.
  • 5. Conceptual Design: Conceptual designs embody the design recommendations or plans and should take into account “what-if” scenarios to ensure all operational outcomes are met in order to future-proof the facility. Conceptual floor layouts should be driven by IT performance requirements as well as lifecycle costs associated with IT demand, energy efficiency, cost efficiency and availability. Future- proofing will also include expansion capabilities, often provided in modern data centers through modularity. Mechanical Engineering Infrastructure Design: Mechanical engineering infrastructure design addresses mechanical systems involved in maintaining the interior environment of a data center, such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC); humidification and dehumidification equipment; pressurization; and so on. This stage of the design process should be aimed at saving space and costs, while ensuring business and reliability objectives are met as well as achieving PUE and green requirements. Modern designs include modularizing and scaling IT loads, and making sure capital spending on the building construction is optimized. Heating: Central heating differs from local heating in that the heat generation occurs in one place, such as a furnace room in a house or a mechanical room in a large building (though not necessarily at the "central" geometric point). The most common method of heat generation involves the combustion of fossil fuel in a furnace or boiler. The resultant heat then gets distributed: typically by forced- air through ductwork, by water circulating through pipes, or by steam fed through pipes. Increasingly, buildings utilize solar-powered heat sources, in which case the distribution system normally uses water circulation. Ventilation: Ventilation includes both the exchange of air to the outside as well as circulation of air within the building. It is one of the most important factors for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings. Methods for ventilating a building may be divided into mechanical/forced and natural types. Mechanical" or "forced" ventilation is used to control indoor air quality.
  • 6. Heat Recovery Ventilation system Air conditioning is the process of altering the properties of air (primarily temperature and humidity) to more favorable conditions. More generally, air conditioning can refer to any form of technological cooling, heating ventilation, or disinfection that modifies the condition of air. Refrigeration air-conditioning equipment usually reduces the absolute humidity of the air processed by the system. The relatively cold (below the dew point) evaporator coil condenses water vapor from the processed air (much like an ice-cold drink will condense water on the outside of a glass), sending the water to a drain and removing water vapor from the cooled space and lowering the relative humidity in the room. Since humans perspire to provide natural cooling by the evaporation of perspiration from the skin, drier air (up to a point) improves the comfort provided. The comfort air conditioner is designed to create a 40% to 60% relative humidity in the occupied space. In food-retailing establishments, large open chiller cabinets act as highly effective air dehumidifying units.
  • 7. Air Conditioning System Electrical Engineering Infrastructure Design: Electrical Engineering infrastructure design is focused on designing electrical configurations that accommodate various reliability requirements and data center sizes. Aspects may include utility service planning; distribution, switching and bypass from power sources; uninterruptable power source (UPS) systems; and more. These designs should dovetail to energy standards and best practices while also meeting business objectives. Electrical configurations should be optimized and operationally compatible with the data center user’s capabilities. Modern electrical design is modular and scalable, and is available for low and medium voltage requirements as well as DC (direct current).
  • 8. Banks of batteries that are always charging and a huge diesel-powered generator.
  • 9. Fire protection: Data centers feature fire protection systems, including passive and active design elements, as well as implementation of fire prevention programs in operations. Smoke detectors are usually installed to provide early warning of a fire at its incipient stage. This allows investigation, interruption of power, and manual fire suppression using hand held fire extinguishers before the fire grows to a large size. An active fire protection system, such as a fire sprinkler system or a clean agent fire suppression gaseous system is often provided to control a full scale fire if it develops. High sensitivity smoke detectors, such as Aspirating smoke detectors, activating clean agent fire suppression gaseous systems activate earlier than fire sprinklers. However, as gaseous systems have a limited fire suppression agent storage quantity, the provision of a clean agent system and a sprinkler system protects the building should the fire reignite after the gaseous agent has dispersed. Passive fire protection elements include the installation of fire walls around the data center, so a fire can be restricted to a portion of the facility for a limited time in the event of the failure of the active fire protection systems. Fire wall penetrations into the server room, such as cable penetrations, coolant line penetrations and air ducts, must be provided with fire rated penetration assemblies, such as fire stoping. Active fire protection: Passive fire protection
  • 10. Site selection: Aspects such as proximity to available power grids, telecommunications infrastructure, networking services, transportation lines and emergency services can affect costs, risk, security and other factors to be taken into consideration for data center design. Location affects data center design also because the climatic conditions dictate what cooling technologies should be deployed. In turn this impacts uptime and the costs associated with cooling. For example, the topology and the cost of managing a data center in a warm, humid climate will vary greatly from managing one in a cool, dry climate. DATA CENTER INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT Data center infrastructure management (DCIM) is the integration of information technology (IT) and facility management disciplines to centralize monitoring, management and intelligent capacity planning of a data center's critical systems. Achieved through the implementation of specialized software, hardware and sensors, DCIM enables common, real-time monitoring and management platform for all interdependent systems across IT and facility infrastructures. Depending on the type of implementation, DCIM products can help data center managers identify and eliminate sources of risk to increase availability of critical IT systems. DCIM products also can be used to identify interdependencies between facility and IT infrastructures to alert the facility manager to gaps in system redundancy, and provide dynamic, holistic benchmarks on power consumption and efficiency to measure the effectiveness of “green IT” initiatives. Measuring and understanding important data center efficiency metrics. A lot of the discussion in this area has focused on energy issues, but other metrics beyond the PUE can give a more detailed picture of the data center operations. Server, storage, and staff utilization metrics can contribute to a more complete view of an enterprise data center. In many cases, disc capacity goes unused and in many instances the organizations run their servers at 20% utilization or less. More effective automation tools can also improve the number of servers or virtual machines that a single admin can handle.
  • 11. MODULAR DATA CENTER Modular data center system is a portable method of deploying data center capacity. An alternative to the traditional data center, a modular data center can be placed anywhere data capacity is needed. Modular data center systems consist of purpose-engineered modules and components to offer scalable data center capacity with multiple power and cooling options. Modules can be shipped anywhere in the world to be added, integrated or retrofitted into the customer’s existing data center footprint, or combined into a system of modules. Modular data centers typically consist of standardized components, making them easier and cheaper to build. Containerized data centers Modular data centers come in two types of form factors. The more common type, referred to as containerized data centers or portable modular data centers, fits data center equipment (servers, storage and networking equipment) into a standard shipping container, which is then transported to a desired location.Containerized data centers typically come outfitted with their own cooling systems. Cisco makes an example of this type of data center, called the Cisco Containerized Data Center Containerized data centers
  • 12. Flexible Data Center Flexible Data Center is constructed of sheet metal components that are formed into four data center halls linked by a central operating building. HP flexible data center Network infrastructure Communications in data centers today are most often based on networks running the IP protocol suite. Data centers contain a set of routers and switches that transport traffic between the servers and to the outside world. Redundancy of the Internet connection is often provided by using two or more upstream service providers (see Multihoming).
  • 13. Some of the servers at the data center are used for running the basic Internet and intranet services needed by internal users in the organization, e.g., e-mail servers, proxy servers, and DNS servers. Network security elements are also usually deployed: firewalls, VPN gateways, intrusion detection systems, etc. Also common are monitoring systems for the network and some of the applications. Additional off site monitoring systems are also typical, in case of a failure of communications inside the data center. ROUTER A router is a device that forwards data packets between computer networks, creating an overlay internetwork. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. When a data packet comes in one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node. Cisco CRS Router(carrier routing system)
  • 14. Various Cisco routers 1. Cisco 3900 Series Integrated Services Routers Specifications  3 RU units with up to 4 GE ports with 2 SFP ports  UCS-E service module that can support Cisco and third-party apps, VMware ESXi, and MS hypervisor  Up to 4 service modules, 1 integrated service module (ISM)  Up to 98 LAN switch ports, 4 Enhanced High-Speed WAN Interface Card (EHWIC) slots  Ability to add a second integrated power supply  Security o Embedded hardware-accelerated VPN encryption and Cisco Cloud Web Security o Integrated threat control using Cisco IOS Firewall and Cisco IOS IPS  Unified Communications o 3 or 4 on-board digital-signal-processor (DSP) slots optimized for voice and video o Cisco Unified Border Element capabilities for up to 2500 sessions
  • 15. 2. Cisco ASR 9000 Series Aggregation Services Routers Cisco is evolving its service provider architecture to deliver capabilities for the Next-Generation Internet, which must be more mobile, more visual, more virtual, and yet more simple to manage. This architecture will allow carriers to:  Monetize new, profitable services  Optimize network performance and efficiency  Reduce operational costs and complexity  Enhance customer experiences The Cisco ASR 9000 Series Aggregation Services Routers can serve as the foundational baseline for next-generation Carrier Ethernet networks, providing up to 96 terabits (Tbps) per system.
  • 16. 3. Cisco XR 12000 Series Router Cisco 12000 Series they offer highly secure virtualization, integral service delivery, continuous system operation, and multiservice scale. With upgradeable, intelligent routing solutions and platforms ranging from 2.5 Gbps to n x 10-Gbps capacity per slot, the Cisco XR 12000 Series facilitates the move to Next-Generation IP Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. Powered by Cisco IOS XR Software, the Cisco XR 12000 Series isolates public and private services. Cisco IOS XR Software is a unique self- healing, self-defending operating system. It equips the Cisco XR 12000 with distributed processing intelligence and robust quality-of-service and multicast mechanisms.
  • 17. 4. Cisco 7600 Series Routers Important Features:  High performance, with up to 720 Gbps in a single chassis, or 40 Gbps capacity per slot  A choice of form factors purpose-built for high availability  Cisco I-Flex design: A portfolio of shared port adapters (SPAs) and SPA interface processors (SIPs) that controls voice, video, and data experiences  Scalable and extensible suite of hardware and software capabilities to enable intelligent Carrier Ethernet services  Integrated Video Call Admission Control with innovative visual quality of experience for both broadcast and video on demand (VoD)  Intelligent Services Gateway, providing scalable subscriber and application awareness with multidimensional identity capabilities and policy controls.
  • 18.  Integrated Session Border Control with quality of experience in both Session Initiated Protocol (SIP) and non-SIP applications Applications:  Carrier Ethernet: Aggregation of consumer and business service  Ethernet services edge: Personalized IP services  Wireless mesh networking and mobility service convergence  IP/MPLS provider edge routing  Enterprise WAN aggregation  Headquarters core routing 5.Cisco ASR 1013 router
  • 19. The Cisco ASR 1013 Router offers highly integrated services for enterprise and service provider networks. With 100 Gbps total system bandwidth and 4- to 63-Mpps packet-forwarding capabilities, this powerful edge device delivers exceptional performance for its price range. The Cisco ASR 1013 supports:  100-Gbps embedded services processor (ESP)  40-Gbps embedded services processor (ESP)  40-Gbps SPA interface processor (SIP)  Approximately 3.2 kW of redundant power Support Video, Web 2.0, and Collaboration Technologies This white paper explores the innovative capabilities of the Cisco ASR 1000 Series for enterprises and service providers. Intelligent Forwarding and Queuing Discover the benefits of Embedded Services Processors (ESPs) on the Cisco ASR 1000 Series, based on the powerful Quantum Flow Processor. Prioritize Voice, Video, and Data Services The extensible I-Flex design for the Cisco ASR 1000 Series combines shared port adapters (SPAs) and SPA interface processors (SIPs).
  • 20. Network switch A network switch is a computer networking device that links network segments or network devices. The term commonly refers to a multi-port network bridge that processes and routes data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Switches that additionally process data at the network layer (layer 3) and above are often called layer-3 switches or multilayer switches. Function A switch is a telecommunication device that receives a message from any device connected to it and then transmits the message only to the device for which the message was meant. This makes the switch a more intelligent device than a hub (which receives a message and then transmits it to all the other devices on its network). The network switch plays an integral part in most modern Ethernet local area networks (LANs). Mid-to-large sized LANs contain a number of linked managed switches. Small office/home office (SOHO) applications typically use a single switch, or an all-purpose converged device such as a residential gateway to access small office/home broadband services such as DS or cable Internet. Network switch
  • 21. Various Cisco switches 1. Cisco Catalyst 4500-X Series Switches The switches:  Offer scalability of up to 25 times more routes and eight times more multicast entries than competitor's products  Come in a one-rack unit (1 RU), with a low-power form factor  Support Virtual Switching System (VSS) to provide resiliency, and increased operational efficiency with a single point of management  Offer up to 1.6 Tbps of switching capacity with VSS. Total 1 Gigabit or 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports Up to 40 Hot-swap Uplink Module 8 x 10 GE Size 1 rack unit Hot-swap, Redundant Power Supplies and Fans Yes System Power Consumption ~ 330 W Integrated Services Cisco Flexible NetFlow, Medianet, Cisco TrustSec Cisco Catalyst 4500-X Series Switches
  • 22. 2. Cisco Nexus 7000 Series Switches The Cisco Nexus 7000 Series was designed around three principles  Infrastructure scalability: Virtualization, efficient power and cooling, high density, and performance all support efficient data center infrastructure growth.  Operational continuity: The Cisco Nexus design integrates hardware, NX-OS software features, and management to support zero-downtime environments.  Transport flexibility: You can incrementally and cost-effectively adopt new networking innovations and technologies, such as: o Cisco Overlay Transport Virtualization (OTV) o Cisco Fabric Path o Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) o Cisco Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) o Cisco IOS Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
  • 23. 3. Cisco Nexus 5000 Series Switches Help enable any transport over Ethernet, including Layer 2 and Layer 3 traffic and storage traffic, on one common data-center-class platform. Cisco Nexus 5000 Series Switches help transform your data center, with a standards-based, multipurpose, multiprotocol, Ethernet-based fabric. 4. Cisco Nexus 3000 Series Switches Features and Capabilities Ultra-Low Latency  Line-rate Layer 2/Layer 3 switching at ultra-low latencies for High - Performance Trading workloads Mission-Critical Features  Network Address Translation  Virtual Port Channel
  • 24. Performance Visibility  Buffer monitoring  Embedded Remote SPAN with PTP time-stamping Easy Deployment and Configuration  Modular and resilient Cisco NX-OS operating system  Robust and proven software that is deployed in thousands of data centers worldwide  Simplified management with support for Python scripting, EEM, and other XML manageability tools