Soil pollution


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Soil pollution

  1. 1. SOIL POLLUTION & IT’S REMEDIES Prepared By:Vivek Pathak
  2. 2. PLANET EARTH Home to millions of species, including humans. Earth is the only place in the universe where life is known to exist.
  3. 3. What is Soil..?? • Soil is the thin layer of organic and inorganic materials that covers the Earth's rocky surface. • Soil is composed of particles of broken rock that have been altered by chemical and mechanical processes that include weathering and erosion.
  4. 4. • O Horizon – Organic matter • A Horizon – Top soil • B Horizon – Subsoil • C Horizon – Parent Material
  5. 5. Tom McMillan
  6. 6. SOIL POLLUTION • It is defined as the build-up in soils of persistent toxic compounds, chemicals, salts, radioactive materials, or disease causing agents, which have adverse effects on plant growth and animal health. • Soil pollution is also caused by means other than the direct addition of xenobiotic (man-made) chemicals such as agricultural runoff waters, industrial waste materials, acidic precipitates, and
  7. 7. Causes of Soil Pollution • Seepage from a landfill • Discharge of industrial waste into the soil • Percolation of contaminated water into the soil • Rupture of underground storage tanks • Excess application of pesticides, herbicides or fertilizer • Solid waste seepage • Deforestation and Soil erosion
  8. 8. Causes of Soil Pollution
  9. 9.  Excess application of pesticides etc. Excess use & disposal of Plastics and polyethene wastes
  10. 10.  Industrial seepage  Solid waste seepage
  11. 11. How Do We Use Our Land /Soil Today? We use our land today for several things such as: Farming, Mining, Recreation, Highways, Building Cities. - When land is being used for houses, industries, roads, and businesses it is known as urban land. - Rural land is an area of few people and large open spaces of land. When land is being used for graze livestock and wildlife, it is known as range land. - We use land in three major ways; woods in forests, crops in farm, and mineral resources! Weather people live in rural or urban cities, we all depend on resources that are being produced in the rural areas. -Resources being produced by natural and artificial ecosystems is known as ecosystem services. -Ecosystem Services: -aesthetic beauty - purification of water & air -regulation of climate -prevention of flood/drought -movement and cycling of nutrients -maintenance of biodiversity -detox wastes -decompose wastes
  12. 12. The most common chemicals involved in causing soil pollution are: • Petroleum hydrocarbons • Heavy metals • Pesticides • Solvents
  13. 13. “The living sinners on deadly ground.” ― Toba Beta, My Ancestor Was an Ancient Astronaut
  14. 14. Types of Soil Pollution • Agricultural Soil Pollution i) pollution of surface soil ii) pollution of underground soil • Soil pollution by industrial effluents and solid wastes i) pollution of surface soil ii) disturbances in soil profile • Pollution due to urban activities i) pollution of surface soil ii) pollution of underground soil
  15. 15. Agricultural Soil Pollution • Plants on which we depend for food are under attack from insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses, rodents and other animals, and must compete with weeds for nutrients. • To kill unwanted populations living in or on their crops, farmers use pesticides. • The remnants of such pesticides used on pests may get adsorbed by the soil particles and contaminate root crops grown in that soil. • The consumption of such crops causes the pesticides remnants to enter human biological systems, affecting them adversely.
  16. 16. Agricultural effects: • Reduced soil fertility • Reduced nitrogen fixation • Increased erodibility • Larger loss of soil and nutrients • Deposition of silt in tanks and reservoirs • Reduced crop yield • Imbalance in soil fauna and flora
  17. 17. Agricultural effects:
  18. 18. Industrial Soil Pollution • Large quantity of solid wastes like unused and rejected chemicals (like sludge, press mud, saw dust, bottles, plastic materials etc.), unwanted industrial wastes generated during manufacturing processes are dumped over on the surface of soil by almost all industries with difference in the degree. • Larger the production base, larger is the generation of wastes. • Traditionally, these materials have been dumped around the factory site or around the entire city. Rarely, they are
  19. 19. Industrial Soil Pollution
  20. 20. Industrial effects: • Dangerous chemicals entering underground water. • Ecological imbalance. • Release of pollutant gases. • Increased salinity. • Reduced vegetation.
  21. 21. Industrial Effects: Soil pollution due to industrial waste Polluted land with dangerous chemicals
  22. 22. Soil Pollution due to Urbanization • Urban activities generate large quantities of city wastes including several Biodegradable materials (like vegetables, animal wastes, papers, wooden pieces, carcasses, plant twigs, leaves, cloth wastes as well as sweepings) and many non-biodegradable materials (such as plastic bags, plastic bottles, plastic wastes, glass bottles, glass pieces, stone / cement pieces). • On a rough estimate Indian cities are producing solid city wastes to the tune of 50,000 - 80,000 metric tons every day. • If left uncollected and decomposed, they are a cause of several problems.
  23. 23. The human race will be the cancer of the planet. Julian Huxley
  24. 24. Urbanization effects: • Clogging of drains • Inundation of areas • Public health problems • Pollution of drinking water sources • Foul smell and release of gases • Waste management problems
  25. 25. Urbanization effects: Contamination of soil due to waste water
  26. 26. Some more effects of soil pollution: • Pollution runs off into rivers and kills the fish, plants and other aquatic life. • Crops and fodder grown on polluted soil may pass the pollutants on to the consumers. • Polluted soil may no longer grow crops and fodder • Soil structure is damaged (clay ionic structure impaired.) • Corrosion of foundations and pipelines • May release vapours and hydrocarbon into buildings and cellars • May create toxic dusts • May poison children playing in the area
  27. 27. Bio magnification • Process in which certain non-biodegradable substances go on accumulating in the food-chain. The most common example is of methyl mercury in fish and mercury in eagles. Not only does bio magnification put the particular species at risk, it puts all the species above and below it at risk, and ultimately affects the food pyramid.
  28. 28. Solid waste composition
  29. 29. Solid waste management hierarchy
  30. 30. Some more effects of soil pollution:
  31. 31. Reason for Misuse of Natural Resources a)Commercial interests like trading in products out of natural resources. b) Ignorance on necessity to preserve natural resources. c) Deliberate negligence on destruction of natural resource. d) Entertainment / recreational / aesthetic interest. e) Extreme population pressure. f) Self interest of human beings over the interest to retain natural resources. g) International trade and commitments. h) Misuse of legislation. ….contd
  32. 32. i) Loop holes of provisions of law. j) Protracted legal process. k) Food interest l) Luxuries required for man. m) Increased industrial requirement. n) Improvement of standard of living, GDP, per capita income and purchasing power. o) Expectations of instantaneous returns.
  33. 33. What can be done?
  34. 34. Methods to control Soil Pollution • Reducing chemical fertilizer and pesticide use. • Recycling is another way to reduce and control soil pollution. Recycling paper, plastics and other materials reduces the volume of refuse in landfills, another common cause of soil pollution. • Reusing of materials • De-forestation, the cutting down of trees, causes erosion, pollution and the loss of fertility in the topsoil. Planting trees--or re-forestation--helps prevent soil erosion and pollution.
  35. 35. Methods to control Soil Pollution • Weeds soak up minerals in the soil. Reducing weed growth helps reduce soil pollution. One of the more common methods of reducing weed growth is covering the soil with numerous layers of wet newspapers or a plastic sheet for several weeks before cultivation. This prevents light from reaching the weeds, which kills them. • Designated pits should be used for the dumping of soil wastes. These wastes should be treated chemically and biologically to make them less toxic and hazardous.
  36. 36. Bioremediation A treatment process that uses microorganisms (yeast, fungi, or bacteria) to break down, or degrade, hazardous substances into less toxic or nontoxic substances (carbon dioxide and water)
  37. 37. Methods to control Soil Pollution
  38. 38. Disposal of Wastes • One of the ways of doing this is by separating dry and wet waste. Dry waste should be recycled or it can be burned. On the other hand, wet waste should be decomposed.
  39. 39. Disposal of Wastes • This decomposed waste should be further dumped in pits so that it can be converted into compost and used for agriculture. When disposing of waste, the authorities should treat it with various kinds of chemicals, so that it has a very low level of toxicity.
  40. 40. Recycling and Reuse • People should buy and use products that have been recycled. For instance, plastic bags should be given up; instead, jute bags should be used. Reusing old items is another good way to reduce the stress on various resources. Clothes, paper, glass, everything should be recycled and reused, as far as possible.
  41. 41. Biodegradable Products • People should buy biodegradable products. Go organic - that's the mantra for avoiding land pollution. Organic farming, lessening the use of pesticides, buying organic fruits and vegetables and other products, will keep land pollution in check.
  42. 42. Grow More Trees • Initiative should be taken to grow more trees. Researches show that trees can actually fertilize the soil. This means that by growing trees, soil will become fertile, agriculture will get boosted and land pollution will greatly reduce.
  43. 43. Efficient Use of Resources • There should be minimal wastage. There should be no littering. Oil and petrol should be used judiciously. So should all the other products and resources made from glass, plastic, metal and paper.
  44. 44. Use organics products Buy organics products, especially organic cleaners, pesticides, insecticides and fertilizers. The advantage of using organic products is that they are biodegradable and friendly to the environment.
  45. 45. Proper Waste Management • Excessive littering is one of most common reasons for land pollution. • Take initiative to inform others about the harmful effects of littering. • Organic wastes must be disposed of in areas that are far from human or animal habitation. Waste like plastic, metals, glass and paper must be recycled and reused. • Find land far away from natural environments to dump wastes that cannot be disposed of and are essential to industrial processes.
  46. 46. Improve fertility of the land by reforesting Soil in forested lands are far more fertile than soil without trees, suggesting that trees have the ability to fertilize land.
  47. 47. Compost garden and kitchen waste
  48. 48. Recycle everything.
  49. 49. When we heal the Earth, we heal ourselves. -David Orr
  50. 50. Compost garden and kitchen waste.
  51. 51. Dispose of trash, properly.
  52. 52. "Treat the earth well: it was not given to you by your parents, it was loaned to you by your children. We do not inherit the Earth from our Ancestors, we borrow it from our Children." Ancient Native Indian Proverb