Microprocessors and microcontrollers

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Introductory lecture on Microprocessors and Microcontrollers

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Microprocessors and microcontrollers

  1. 1. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 Microprocessors and Microcontrollers CSE Department, THDC-IHET February 11, 2014 CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  2. 2. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 Table of contents 1 General Definitions 2 Evolution of Microprocessors 3 Intel 4004 CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  3. 3. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 General Definitions Microcomputer: The term microcomputer is generally synonymous with personal computer, or a computer that depends on a microprocessor Microcomputers are designed to be used by individuals, whether in the form of PCs, workstations or notebook computers A microcomputer contains a CPU on a microchip (the microprocessor), a memory system (typically ROM and RAM), a bus system and I/O ports, typically housed in a motherboard. CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  4. 4. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 General Definitions Microprocessor: A silicon chip that contains a CPU. In the world of personal computers, the terms microprocessor and CPU are used interchangeably A microprocessor(sometimes abbreviated µP) is a digital electronic component with miniaturized transistors on a single semiconductor integrated circuit (IC). One or more microprocessors typically serve as a central processing unit (CPU) in a computer system or hand-held device. Microprocessors made possible the advent of the microcomputer CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  5. 5. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 General Definitions At the heart of all personal computers and most working stations sits a microprocessor. Microprocessors also control the logic of almost all digital devices, from clock radios to fuel-injection systems for automobiles. Three basic characteristics differentiate microprocessors: Instruction set: The set of instructions that the microprocessor can execute. Bus width :The number of bits processed in a single instruction CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  6. 6. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 General Definitions Clock speed :Given in megahertz (MHz), the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the processor can execute. In both cases, the higher the value, the more powerful the CPU. For example, a 32 bit microprocessor that runs at 50MHz is more powerful than a 16-bit microprocessor that runs at 50MHz. In addition to bus width and clock speed, microprocessors are classified as being either RISC (reduced instruction set computer) or CISC (complex instruction set computer) CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  7. 7. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 General Definitions Supercomputer: A supercomputer is a computer that performs at or near the currently highest operational rate for computers. A supercomputer is typically used for scientific and engineering applications that must handle very large databases or do a great amount of computation (or both). At any given time, there are usually a few well-publicized supercomputers that operate at the very latest and always incredible speeds CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  8. 8. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 General Definitions The term is also sometimes applied to far slower (but still impressively fast) computers. Most supercomputers are really multiple computers that perform parallel processing. In general, there are two parallel processing approaches: symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) and massively parallel processing (MPP). CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  9. 9. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 General Definitions Microcontroller: A highly integrated chip that contains all the components comprising a controller. Typically this includes a CPU, RAM, some form of ROM, I/O ports, and timers. Unlike a general-purpose computer, which also includes all of these components, a microcontroller is designed for a very specific task - to control a particular system. A microcontroller differs from a microprocessor, which is a general-purpose chip that is used to create a multifunction computer or device and requires multiple chips to handle various tasks. CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  10. 10. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 General Definitions A microcontroller is meant to be more self-contained and independent, and functions as a tiny, dedicated computer. The great advantage of microcontrollers, as opposed to using larger microprocessors, is that the parts-count and design costs of the item being controlled can be kept to a minimum. They are typically designed using CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology, an efficient fabrication technique that uses less power and is more immune to power spikes than other techniques. CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  11. 11. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 General Definitions Micro Controller It is a single chip. Consists Memory, I/O ports. Micro Processor It is a CPU. Memory, I/O ports to be connected externally. Figure: Microcontroller and Microprocessor CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  12. 12. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 Word Length word is a term for the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design A word is basically a fixed-sized group of digits (binary or decimal) that are handled as a unit by the instruction set and/or hardware of the processor. The number of digits in a word (the word size, word width, or word length) is an important characteristic of any specific processor design or computer architecture. Modern processors, including embedded systems, usually have a word size of 8, 16, 24, 32, or 64 bits, while modern general purpose computers usually use 32 or 64 bits Special purpose digital processors, such as DSPs for instance, may use other sizes and many different sizes have been used historically, including 8, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 39, 40, 48, and 60 bits CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  13. 13. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 Evolution of Microprocessors The first microprocessor, Intel 4004, a 4-bit PMOS microprocessor was introduced in the year 1971 by Intel Corporation, U.S.A. After this a 4-bit microprocessor Intel 4040, an enhanced version of Intel 4004 was developed. Many other companies also made 4-bit Microprocessor like Rockwell International’s PPS-4, Toshiba’s T3472 etc. In 1973 Intel introduced the first 8-bit microprocessor , Intel 8008 which also used PMOS technology. The 8008 was the precursor to the very successful Intel 8080 (1974), which offered much improved performance over the 8008 and required fewer support chips CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  14. 14. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 Evolution of Microprocessors 8-bit microprocessors of other manufacturers are Zilog’s Z80 and Z800, national semiconductor’s NSC800, Motorola’s MC6800 and MC6809. 8-bit Microprocessor are widely used in instrumentation, industrial control applications, etc. In 1978 Intel introduced a 16-bit microprocessor , Intel 8086 Other 16-bit microprocessors are: Intel 80186, Intel 8088, Intel 80188, Intel 80286, Zilog’s Z8000, Motorola’s 6800 etc. CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  15. 15. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 Evolution of Microprocessors The 80186 and 80188 are integrated microprocessors. Besides CPU they contain some additional components like programmable interrupt controller, DMA channels, 3 16-bit timer/counters,clock generator, programmable memory etc. In 1985 Intel introduced a more powerful 32-bit microprocessor, Intel 80386 which became very popular and was widely used in desktop computers. Pentium series namely Pentium III and Pentium IV were also 32-bit microprocessor. A number of 64-bit microprocessor have also been developed. Examples are : SUN’s SPARC and ULTRASPARC, AMD’s Athlon 64 and Opetron. CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  16. 16. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 Microprocessors now a days Now a days multicore processors have been developed. Two, four eight or more CPUs are placed on a single-chip IC. Examples of multicore processors having 2 CPUs on a single chip (i.e in an IC) are : Intel Core 2 Duo 8500, Intel core 2 duo E6850, Intel Core 2 Extreme X6800. Examples of multicore processors having 4 CPUs are Intel core 2 extreme QX9700, Intel Core 2 Quad Q9550, Intel i7 965XE No. of transistors used in 4004 were 2300, in 8086 were 29000 , in pentium 4 were 5 millions, 582 millions in Intel core 2 Extreme Q6850 and 820 millions in Intel QX9770. CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  17. 17. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 Intel 4004 The Intel 4004 was a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971 by Intel engineers Federico Faggin, Ted Hoff, and Stanley Mazor. It was the first complete CPU on one chip and also the first commercially available microprocessor. This was made possible by the use of then-new silicon gate technology allowing a higher number of transistors and a faster speed than was possible before. The Intel 4004 chip took the integrated circuit down one step further by placing all the parts that made computer think(CPU, memory, I/O controls) on one small chip. CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  18. 18. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 Figure: Intel 4004 CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
  19. 19. General Definitions Evolution of Microprocessors Intel 4004 Maximum clock speed 740 kHz. 8 clock cycles/ instruction cycle Instruction execution time 1 or 2 instruction cycles(10.8 or 21.6 µs It uses a single multiplexed 4-bit bus for transferring: 12-bit addresses . 8-bit instructions and 4-bit data words. Instruction set contained 46 instructions (of which 41 were 8 bits wide and 5 were 16 bits wide) Register set contained 16 registers of 4 bits each Internal subroutine stack 3 levels deep. CSE Department, THDC-IHET Microprocessors and Microcontrollers

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