Introduction<br /><ul><li>Blood Bank is a cache or a bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusion.
The term “Blood Bank” typically refers to a division of a hospital laboratory where the storage of blood product occurs and proper testing of blood is performed to reduce the risk of transfusion related events.
Now a days stand alone blood banks also occur and can be a Govt. holding body or a private body.</li></li></ul><li> History<br /><ul><li>In 1950, Richard Lewison of Mount Sinai Hospital, New York City initiated the use of Sodium Citrate as an anticoagulant. This discovery transformed the blood transfusion procedure from direct (vein to vein) to indirect.
The introduction of a Citrate Glucose solution later permitted the storage of blood in containers for several days, thus opening the way for the first “Blood Depot” in Britain during World War I.
Oswald Hope Robertson, a medical researcher and US army officer who established the depot, is now recognized as the creator of first Blood Bank.</li></li></ul><li>Imporatant Historical Facts<br /><ul><li>1st mobile blood bank was set up in 1930s during the spanish civil war.
On March 15,1937, world’s 1st hospital blood bank was established in Cook County Hospital of Chicago, Unitad States.
In 1939 India’s 1st blood bank was set up in the School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata by Sir UpendranathBrahmachari, the then chairman of Bengal Red Cross Society.
In 1941, Blood Collecting Bottles and also the collection quantity per unit was specified</li></li></ul><li>Contd………<br /><ul><li>In 1986 1st AIDS patient due to blood transfusion in Mumbai was reported thus realizing the immense importence of testing the blood before transfusion.
In 1996 Supreme Court of India gave a judgement on blood transfusion and blood banking in India, as a result of whichNational Blood Tranfusion Council and State Blood transfusion Councils were established
World Health Day on 7th April 2000 was celebrated with “ Safe Blood Starts With Me” as slogan of the year.</li></li></ul><li> Storage of Blood<br /><ul><li>“Whole Blood” (WB) is the proper name given for the unseperated venous blood with an approved preservative added.
Most of the blood for transfusion is collected as Whole Blood.
Autologous donations are sometimes transfused without further modification</li></li></ul><li>Contd……<br /><ul><li>The whole blood is typically seperated by centrifugation into its components, with RBC’s in solution being a commonly used product.
Units of WB and RBCs are both kept referigerated at 1-6 degree celsius with maximum permitted storage period (shelf lives) of 35 and 40 days respectively - SHORT TERM STORAGE OF BLOOD
Frozen red cells are given expiration dates of upto 10 years and are stored at -65 degree celsius - LONG TERM STORAGE OF BLOOD</li></li></ul><li>Treatment of Blood Plasma<br /><ul><li>The less dense blood plasma is made in a variety of frozen components.
If the plasma is frozen promptly and is intended for transfusion, it is typically labelled as Fresh frozen plasma.
If it is intended to be made into other products, it is typically labelled as Recovered Plasma or Plasma for fractionation.
The layer between the RBCs and the plasma is referred to as the buffy coat, removed to make platelets for transfusion.
Platelets have a shelf life of 5 days kept at a room temperature of 20 – 24 degree celsius with frequent agitation.</li></li></ul><li> Blood Dispatch<br /><ul><li>Although blood is donated absolutely free of cost by the volunteers but when required by anyone, certain amount of money is charged from him/her.
This is done because the lab spends a good amount of money on conducting certain important blood tests and on the staff and equipments in the blood banks</li></li></ul><li>Mobile Blood Bank<br /><ul><li> Mobile Blood Bank is a self-contained Blood donor clinic that comes to you on a dependable schedule, on wheels.
Mobile Blood Bank is a mobile medical center, a Blood collection vehicle at your door, rain or shine. From the outside, the mobile Blood Donation Unit is about as big as a bus. It is over forty-feet long, eight-feet wide and nearly fifteen feet high.
The Bloodmobile has a Blood donor welcome area, private interview booths, comfortable donation beds, and a refreshment area where Bloodmobile Blood donors are encouraged to enjoy coffee or juice after their Blood donation. There are lots of windows in the Bloodmobile placed throughout the viewing area in the Bloodmobile to allow for ample natural light, creating an inviting and relaxing atmosphere. You can see out; Others can not see you inside the Bloodmobile!
The Bloodmobile travels to business and educationalorganizations throughout.</li></li></ul><li>Online Blood Banks….The latest Trend<br /><ul><li>Certain blood banks are now offering online services for people seeking blood through internet.
It made the search for appropriate blood group and other specifications easier and much simpler.
An easier way for volunteers to search for where and when to donate blood