Evolution of Quality Historically Proactive Quality “ Create process that will produce less or no defects” Contemporary Reactive Quality Quality Checks (QC) - Taking the defectives out of what is produced
The term “sigma” is used to designate the distribution or spread about the mean (average) of any process or procedure.
For a process, the sigma capability (z-value) is a metric that indicates how well that process is performing. The higher the sigma capability, the better. Sigma capability measures the capability of the process to produce defect-free outputs. A defect is anything that results in customer dissatisfaction.
To understand the process; it’s mission, flow and scope
To know the customers and their expectations
To identify, monitor and improve correct performance measures for the process
The Need of BPMS
The Methodology Define purpose of the process, its goal and its boundaries Identify Critical to Quality and Critical to process Visual representation of performance Map process steps, identify input/ output measures MSA, DCP, indicators and monitors Service excellence and process excellence The DMAIC cycle Define Process Mission Map Process VOC and VOP Build PMS Develop Dashboards Identify Improvement Opportunities
A logical and structured approach to problem solving and process improvement
An iterative process (continuous improvement)
A quality tool with focus on change management
What is DMAIC ? E Effectiveness = Q Quality Improvement x A Acceptance
The Approach Practical Problem Statistical Problem Statistical Solution Practical Solution
D Define M Measure A Analyze I Improve C Control Identify and state the practical problem Validate the practical problem by collecting data Convert the practical problem to a statistical one, define statistical goal and identify potential statistical solution Confirm and test the statistical solution Convert the statistical solution to a practical solution Methodology
VoC - Who wants the project and why ? The scope of project / improvement Key team members / resources for the project Critical milestones and stakeholder review Budget allocation Define D Define M Measure A Analyze I Improve C Control
Ensure measurement system reliability Prepare data collection plan Collect data - Is tool used to measure the output variable flawed ? - Do all operators interpret the tool reading in the same way ?
- How many data points do you need to collect ?
How many days do you need to collect data for ?
What is the sampling strategy ?
Who will collect data and how will data get stored ?
What could the potential drivers of variation be ?
Measure D Define M Measure A Analyze I Improve C Control
Understand statistical problem Baseline current process capability Define statistical improvement goal Identify drivers of variation (significant factors) Analyze D Define M Measure A Analyze I Improve C Control
A visual tool that helps in separating the vital few from the trivial many
Control Impact Analyze – Identify Drivers of Variation Vital Few High Control – High Impact Cost Ineffective Low Control – High Impact Cost Ineffective High Control – Low Impact Trivial Many Low Control – Low Impact
Visually highlights hand off points / working relationships between people, processes and organizations
Helps identify rework loops and non value add steps
Analyze – Identify Drivers of Variation
Map improved process Pilot solution Identify operating tolerance on significant factors Improve D Define M Measure A Analyze I Improve C Control
Ensure measurement system reliability for significant factors Improved process capability Sustenance Plan - Is tool used to measure the input / process variables flawed ? - Do all operators interpret the tool reading in the same way ? - Statistical Process Control - Mistake Proofing - Control Plan Control D Define M Measure A Analyze I Improve C Control
Have the new operating procedures and standards been documented ?
What Statistical Process Control (SPC) tools will be used to monitor the process performance ?
Who will review the performance of the output variable and significant factors on closure of the project and how frequently ?
What is the corrective action or reaction plan if any of the factors were to be out of control ?
Control – Sustenance Plan
6 DMAIC Process DMAIC = D efine, M easure, A nalyze, I mprove and C ontrol Develop Charter and Business Case Map Existing Process Collect Voice of the Customer Specify CTQs / Requirements Measure CTQs / Requirements Determine Process Stability Determine Process Capability Calculate Baseline Sigma Refine Problem Statement Identify Root Causes Quantify Root Causes Verify Root Causes Institutionalize Improvement Control Deployment Quantify Financial Results Present Final Project Results and Lessons Learned Close Project Select Solution (Including Trade Studies, Cost/Benefit Analysis) Design Solution Pilot Solution Implement Solution Define Measure Analyze Improve Control