Radiation Hazards


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Radiation Hazards from Cell Phones/Cell Towers

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Radiation Hazards

  1. 1. Radiation Hazards from Cell Phones/Cell Towers VIVEKANANDAN EEE
  2. 2. OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION • • • • • • Electromagnetic Radiations MICROWAVE OVENS WI-FI RADIATIONS TV & FM RADIATIONS Vulnerabilities of EMR Radiation Pattern of a Cell Tower Antenna • Restriction to Tower • Case Studies
  3. 3. Electromagnetic Radiations Radiation emitted from Cell Phones, Cell phone towers, Wi-Fi, TV and FM towers, microwave ovens, etc. are called Electromagnetic radiations (EMR). EMR causes significant health hazards (biological effects) on human, animals, birds, plants and environment.
  4. 4. FM TOWER (88-108MHz) TV TOWER (180-220MHz) RF SOURCES IN INDIA AM TOWER (540-1600KHz) Wi-Fi (2.4 - 2.5 GHz) CELL TOWER (800,900,1800 MHz) MOBILE PHONES PT=10KW PT=40KW PT=100KW PT=10-100KW PT=20 W GSM-1800 - 1 W GSM-900 -2 W 503 TOWER 1044 TOWER 197 TOWER Wi-Fi HOT SPOTS 4.3 LAKHS TOWERS 600+ million
  5. 5. MICROWAVE OVENS Microwave radiation effects are classified as: •Thermal •Non-thermal The current exposure safety standards are mainly based on the thermal effects, which are inadequate. Non-thermal effects are several times more harmful than thermal effects.
  6. 6. WI-FI RADIATIONS • Wireless Internet routers or Wi-Fi modems use dangerous electromagnetic radiation to send their signals to your computer through walls. • If you have a wireless Internet router set up in your home or office (or WiMax, Blue Tooth, Air-Port Extreme, Air-Port Express, Netgear, D-Link, Belkin, Linksys and other wireless network devices) you are receiving massive EMF exposure, and living or working in a dangerous soup of radiation. Duration is a Factor in Wi-Fi Health Dangers: Most wi fi heath damage comes from cable modems and DSL routers don’t get turned off at night: they stay on. connecting your machines to the internet whether you’re surfing or not…and flooding your space with EMFs 24/7.
  7. 7. RADIATIONS FROM TV & FM • CRTs put an picture on the screen by shooting electrons at the CRT face and apparently this caused a tiny amount of radiation. • However, most people do not even have a CRT based TV anymore and LCDs work totally differently and there is no radiation of any type. Even if you have a CRT, just turn it off. Problem solved.
  8. 8. Restrction to Tower • For the past few months ago, apart from the scams, what’s also making news is the issue of mobile phone tower radiation. Recently new radiation norms were adopted by India and the Department of Tele communication (DoT) had set September 1 as the deadline for the telecom operators to adhere to them. • As per the new norms, the operators were mandated to reduce the radiation levels by 1/10th of the current levels, thus making it 0.9 watt/m2. Furthermore, it was announced that operators who are found flouting these rules would be heavily penalised.
  9. 9. Vulnerabilities of EMR • All of us know that we are not allowed to operate Mobile Phones in an aircraft because of the reason of interference of the Radiating RF with the Onboard Systems of the aircraft. • It is very unfortunate that same analogy is not applied to the living beings although everybody is vulnerable to this continuous RF Radiations. All of us vulnerable to the ill effects of RF EMR but following are more vulnerable as per the existing scientific studies.
  10. 10. Risk to Pregnant Women • A pregnant woman and the fetus both are vulnerable because of the fact that these RF Radiations continuously react with the developing embryo, increasing cells, because of thermal heat also. • When the pregnant ladies either use Mobile Phone or when illuminated with RF Radiations, the developing child can become affected, the developmental mall formation may occur.
  11. 11. Radiation Pattern of Antenna
  12. 12. Radiation Pattern of a Cell Tower Antenna People living within 50 to 300 meter radius are in the high radiation zone (dark blue) and are more prone to ill-effects of electromagnetic radiation
  13. 13. EXPERIMENT: Radiation level measurements near several Cell Tower sites 50m Measured Power -20 to -30 dBm (in dBm) For each frequency bands 100m -30 to -50 dBm
  14. 14.  Now days in most of the places the towers are constructed over upon the building  Peoples accepting to construct the towers on there roofs because of rent given by companies.  But they were no aware of dangerous of radiations and the health problems occurred by that.  Bedroom or rooms placed at equal height of tower will face more radiations.  More than adults children's are affected by highly.
  15. 15. • Radiation consists of several types of subatomic particles, principally those called gamma rays, neutrons, electrons, and alpha particles, that shoot through space at very high speeds, something like 100,000 miles per second. • They can easily penetrate deep inside the human body, damaging some of the biological cells of which the body is composed. This damage can cause a fatal cancer to develop, or if it occurs in reproductive cells, it can cause genetic defects in later generations of offspring.
  16. 16.  The negative impact of mobile towers on birds, bees, humans, wildlife and plants. The experts even cited an international study that pinpointed cell phone towers as a potential cause in the decline of animal populations.  They went on to say that there was an urgent need to focus more scientific attention on the subject before it was too late.  India has 7,36,654 Mobile Towers
  17. 17. Most common problems Cognitive functions -Concentration, memory, behavior, etc Epidemiological studies - Sleep disruption, Headache , Depression, discomfort, irritability, nausea, dizziness, appetite loss, muscle spasms, numbness, tingling, altered reflexes Subjects reported buzzing in the head, palpitations of the heart, light-headedness, heat, visual disorders, cardiovascular problems, respiratory problems, nervousness, agitation. More severe reactions include seizures, paralysis, psychosis and stroke.
  18. 18. Do mobile phones harm brain tissues and cause cancer? There is an argument that mobile phone causes change in the structure of chemicals of cells. Also, they are accused of causing cancer. The radiation from the mobile phones has been villain zed by those who warn that the excess usage of mobile phones can damage brain cells.