Definition• A pharmaceuticaldrug, also referred to asmedicine ormedication, can beloosely defined as anychemical substanceintended for use in themedicaldiagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention ofdisease.
Classification• Medications can be classified in various ways, such as by chemicalproperties, mode or route of administration, biological systemaffected, or therapeutic effects. An elaborate and widely usedclassification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic ChemicalClassification System (ATC system). The World Health Organizationkeeps a list of essential medicines.A sampling of classes of medicine includes:• Antipyretics: reducing fever (pyrexia/pyresis)• Analgesics: reducing pain (painkillers)• Antimalarial drugs: treating malaria• Antibiotics: inhibiting germ growth• Antiseptics: prevention of germ growth near burns, cuts and wounds
Dosage form• Dosage forms are amixture of active drugcomponents and nondrugcomponents. Dependingon the method ofadministration they comein several types. Theseare liquid dosageform, solid dosage formand semisolid dosageforms.
Types of drugsOralA pill is a small, round, solid pharmaceuticaloral dosage form that was in use before theadvent of tablets and capsules.A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form. Itcomprises a mixture of active substancesand excipients, usually in powderform, pressed or compacted from a powderinto a solid dose.Encapsulation refers to a range of techniquesused to enclose medicines in a relativelystable shell known as a capsule.Caplet - a smooth, coated, oval shapedmedicinal tablet in the shape of a capsule.Thin film drug delivery uses a dissolving filmor oral drug strip to administer drugs viaabsorption in the mouth.Medicated syrups are aqueous solutionscontaining sugar and at least one watersoluble active ingredient.Powder -a preparation in the form of fineparticles especially for medicinal orcosmetic use.
Types of drugsInhalationalAerosol spray is a type ofdispensing system which createsan aerosol mist of liquidparticles.An inhaler or puffer is a medicaldevice used for deliveringmedication into the body via thelungs.A nebulizer is a device used toadminister medication in theform of a mist inhaled into thelungs.Vaporizer a device used to extractfor inhalation the activeingredients of plant material.
Types of drugsParenteral InjectionIntradermal (ID) one made into thedermis or substance of the skin.Intramuscular (IM) is the injection of asubstance directly into a muscle.Intraosseous (IO) is the process ofinjecting directly into the marrow of abone.Intraperitoneal (IP) is the injection of asubstance into the peritoneum (bodycavity).Intravenous (IV) is the infusion of liquidsubstances directly into a vein.Subcutaneous (SC) Injection into thesubcutaneous tissue is a route ofadministration used for, forexample, insulin.Intrathecal (IT) Injection into the spinalcolumn (субдурально)
Types of drugsTopicalA cream is a topical preparation usually for application to the skin.A gel is a solid, jelly-like material that can have properties rangingfrom soft and weak to hard and tough.Balm - topical medical preparation (бальзам)A lotion is a low- to medium-viscosity, topical preparation intendedfor application to unbroken skin.An ointment is a homogeneous, viscous, semi-solid preparation thatis intended for external application to the skin or mucousmembranes.Ear drops are a form of medicine used to treat or prevent earinfections, especially infections of the outer ear and ear canal.Eye drops are saline-containing (солевий розчин) drops used as anocular route to administer.A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed onthe skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skinand into the bloodstream.Vaginal rings (also known as intravaginal rings, or V-Rings) arepolymeric drug delivery devices designed to provide controlledrelease of drugs for intravaginal administration over extendedperiods of time.
Types of drugsSuppositorySuppositories may beinserted into the rectumas a route ofadministration formedicine.(rectal)Intravaginal administrationis a route ofadministration where thesubstance is applicatedinside the vagina.