Reproductive SystemsMale Reproductive System   Female Reproductive System• Testes                   • Ovaries• Epididymide...
Male Reproductive System
Male Reproductive Organs• Testes   –   Primary sex organs   –   Sperm cells & male sex hormones formed here   –   2 testes...
Fig. 19.02aStructure  of the  testis
Sperm Cell Anatomy• Tiny tad-pole shaped cell• 0.06 millimeters long• Oval Head   – Nucleus w/ compacted chromatin     con...
Spermatogenesis• Occurs continually starting at puberty• During embryonic development, hormones stimulate  spermatogonia (...
Spermatogenesis• Before Meiosis I, each homologous chromosome is replicated• Meiosis I separates homologous chromosome pai...
Spermatogenesis• Meiosis II separates  chromatids, producing cells whose  chromosomes are no longer in  replicated form• A...
Male Internal Reproductive Organs• Specialized to nurture & transport sperm• Epididymides (2)   – Tightly coiled, threadli...
Male Internal Reproductive Organs• Specialized to nurture & transport sperm• Prostate Gland   –   Chestnut shaped structur...
Male External Reproductive Organs• Scrotum   – Pouch of skin & subcutaneous tissue hanging from lower abdominal     region...
Hypothalamic & Pituitary Hormones• Hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)• Stimulates anterior pituit...
Male Sex Hormones = Androgens• Testosterone   – Most important androgen• Actions:   – Increased growth of body hair   – En...
Regulation of Testosterone• Hypothalamus regulates  through negative feedback• Increasing Concentration   – Inhibits hypot...
Female Reproductive System
Female Reproductive Organs• Ovaries (2)   – Solid, ovoid structures   – Lie in shallow depressions in lateral wall of pelv...
Primordial Follicles• During prenatal development, small group of cells of ovarian  cortex form several millions primordia...
Oogenesis• Beginning at puberty, some primary oocytes stimulated to continue  meiosis• When primary oocyte divides, cytopl...
Oogenesis
Follicle Maturation• w/ each reproductive cycle, some primordial follicles mature into primary  follicles• During maturati...
Follicle Maturation
Ovulation• As follicle matures, primary oocyte undergoes oogenesis giving rise to  secondary oocyte & 1st polar body• Ovul...
Female Internal Reproductive Organs• Uterine Tubes aka Fallopian Tubes (2)   – 10 cm long passing medially to uterus, pene...
Female Internal Reproductive Organs• Uterus (Cont.)   – Thick wall w/ 3 layers   – Endometrium (inner mucosal layer) – cov...
Female External Reproductive Organs• Labia Majora   – Rounded folds of adipose tissue & thin layer of smooth muscle, cover...
Female External Reproductive Organs
Female Sex Hormones• Hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, & ovaries secrete  hormones• Hypothalamus secretes gonadotrop...
Female Sex Hormones• Estrogen   – Ovaries are primary source   – Development of breasts & ductile system of mammary glands...
Female Reproductive Cycle
Mammary Glands• Accessory organs specialized to secrete milk following  pregnancy• Located in subcutaneous tissue of anter...
Mammary Glands• Each lobe contains alveolar glands & an alveolar duct which  leads to lactiferous duct• Dense connective t...
Reproductive Systems
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Reproductive Systems

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Reproductive Systems

  1. 1. Reproductive SystemsMale Reproductive System Female Reproductive System• Testes • Ovaries• Epididymides • Uterine Tubes• Ductus Deferentia • Uterus• Seminal Vesicles • Vagina • Labia Majora• Prostate Gland • Labia Minora• Bulbourethral Glands • Clitoris• Scrotum • Vestibule• Penis • Mammary Glands
  2. 2. Male Reproductive System
  3. 3. Male Reproductive Organs• Testes – Primary sex organs – Sperm cells & male sex hormones formed here – 2 testes w/in cavity of scrotum – Tough, white, fibrous capsule encloses each testis – Connective tissue thickens & extends into testis forming 250 lobules – Each lobule contains 1-4 seminiferous tubules – Tubules unite to form complex network of channels that give rise to ducts that join tube called epididymis – Specialized stratified epithelium called spermatogenic cells line the seminiferous tubules & give rise to sperm cells – Interstitial cells lie in space between seminiferous tubules & produce/secrete male sex hormones
  4. 4. Fig. 19.02aStructure of the testis
  5. 5. Sperm Cell Anatomy• Tiny tad-pole shaped cell• 0.06 millimeters long• Oval Head – Nucleus w/ compacted chromatin consisting of 23 chromosomes – Acrosome contains enzymes to help penetrate egg cell• Midpiece – Many mitochondria organized in a spiral• Tail – Flagellum – Allows for movement to propel sperm through fluid
  6. 6. Spermatogenesis• Occurs continually starting at puberty• During embryonic development, hormones stimulate spermatogonia (undifferentiated spermatogenic cells) to undergo mitosis• Each cell division gives rise to 2 new cells – Type A maintains supply of undifferentiated cells – Type B differentiates becoming a primary spermatocyte• Spermatocytes reproduce by cell division called meiosis• Meiosis contains 2 successive divisions: 1st & 2nd meiotic divisions
  7. 7. Spermatogenesis• Before Meiosis I, each homologous chromosome is replicated• Meiosis I separates homologous chromosome pairs• Haploid: each cell undergoing meiotic division begins w/ 1 member of each homologous pair – Haploid cell has 1 set of chromosomes
  8. 8. Spermatogenesis• Meiosis II separates chromatids, producing cells whose chromosomes are no longer in replicated form• After meiosis II, each chromatid is independent chromosome• For each primary spermatocyte undergoing meiosis, 4 sperm cells w/ 23 chromosomes result• Each primary spermatocyte divides to form 2 secondary spermatocytes; each of these divide to form 2 spermatids (mature into sperm cells)
  9. 9. Male Internal Reproductive Organs• Specialized to nurture & transport sperm• Epididymides (2) – Tightly coiled, threadlike tubes 6 meters long – Each connected to ducts w/in a testis – Emerges from top of testis, descends along posterior surface, & comes upward to become ductus deferens• Ductus Deferentia (2) – Muscular tubes 45 cm long – Pass upward in lower abdominal wall, enter pelvic cavity, & end behind urinary bladder – Unite w/ duct of seminal vesicle to form ejaculatory duct, which passes through prostate gland & empties into urethra• Seminal Vesicles (2) – Convoluted, saclike structures 5 cm long – Attach to ductus deferens near base of urinary bladder – Lining secretes alkaline fluid to regulate pH of tubular contents – Secretes fructose – provide energy to sperm – Secretes prostaglandins – stimulate muscular contractions w/in female reproductive organs
  10. 10. Male Internal Reproductive Organs• Specialized to nurture & transport sperm• Prostate Gland – Chestnut shaped structure that surrounds part of urethra, inferior to bladder – Secretes thin, milky fluid w/ alkaline pH – Secretion neutralizes fluid containing sperm cells – Enhances motility of sperm cells & helps neutralize acidic secretions of vagina• Bulbourethral Glands (2) – Inferior to prostate gland – Secrete mucus-like fluid in response to sexual stimulation – Fluid lubricates end of penis in preparation for sexual intercourse• Semen – Fluid secreted by male urethra during ejaculation – Consists of sperm & secretions of seminal vesicles, prostate gland, & bulbourethral glands – Slightly alkaline & includes prostaglandins & nutrients
  11. 11. Male External Reproductive Organs• Scrotum – Pouch of skin & subcutaneous tissue hanging from lower abdominal region posterior to penis – Contains 2 chambers each of which hold a testis – Chambers contain serous membrane to cover testis & allow for smooth movement – Protects & helps regulate temperature of testes• Penis – Cylindrical organ that conveys urine & semen through urethra – Shaft of penis has 3 columns of erectile tissue – Urethra extends through glans penis which is cone shaped sensitive end of penis
  12. 12. Hypothalamic & Pituitary Hormones• Hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)• Stimulates anterior pituitary gland to release gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone, & follicle-stimulating hormone• Luteinizing Hormone – Promotes development of interstitial cells of testes – In turn, testes secrete male sex hormones• Follicle-Stimulating Hormone – Stimulates seminiferous tubules to respond to effects of testosterone – FSH & testosterone stimulate spermatogenic cells to undergo spermatogenesis – Seminiferous cells also secrete hormone inhibin, which inhibits anterior pituitary gland by negative feedback
  13. 13. Male Sex Hormones = Androgens• Testosterone – Most important androgen• Actions: – Increased growth of body hair – Enlargement of larynx & thickening of vocal folds – Thickening of skin – Increased muscular growth, broadening of shoulders, & narrowing of waist – Thickening & strengthening of bones – Increases rate of cellular metabolism & RBC production – Stimulates sexual activity by affecting certain parts of brain
  14. 14. Regulation of Testosterone• Hypothalamus regulates through negative feedback• Increasing Concentration – Inhibits hypothalamus – stimulation of anterior pituitary gland decreases – As secretion of LH falls, testosterone release from cells decreases• Decreasing Concentration – Hypothalamus stimulates anterior pituitary gland to release LH – Secretion causes interstitial cells to release testosterone
  15. 15. Female Reproductive System
  16. 16. Female Reproductive Organs• Ovaries (2) – Solid, ovoid structures – Lie in shallow depressions in lateral wall of pelvic cavity – Divided into 2 regions – inner medulla & outer cortex – Ovarian medulla composed of loose connective tissue w/ many blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, & nerve fibers – Ovarian cortex consist of compact tissue & granular appearance due to tiny masses of cells called ovarian follicles – Layer of cuboidal epithelium covers ovary’s free surface – Beneath layer of epithelium is layer of dense connective tissue
  17. 17. Primordial Follicles• During prenatal development, small group of cells of ovarian cortex form several millions primordial follicles• Each follicle = single, large cell called primary oocyte• Each primary oocyte surrounded by epithelial cells called follicular cells• Once primordial follicles appear, no new ones form• Number of ooyctes in ovary steadily decline over time
  18. 18. Oogenesis• Beginning at puberty, some primary oocytes stimulated to continue meiosis• When primary oocyte divides, cytoplasm distributed unequally• One of resulting cells, secondary oocyte, is large• Other resulting cell, first polar body, is small• Secondary oocyte represents future egg cell – If fertilized by sperm, divides unequally to produce a 2nd polar body & a large fertilized egg cell called a zygote• Polar bodies degenerate
  19. 19. Oogenesis
  20. 20. Follicle Maturation• w/ each reproductive cycle, some primordial follicles mature into primary follicles• During maturation, primary oocyte enlarges & surrounding follicular cells proliferate by mitosis• Follicular cells organize into layers & a cavity appears in the cellular mass• Clear follicular fluid fills cavity & bathes primary oocyte• Enlarging fluid filled cavity presses primary oocyte to one side• Mature follicle buldges outward on ovary surface• Secondary oocyte w/in mature follicle is large, spherical cell, surrounded by glycoprotein called zona pellucida & attached to mantle of follicular cells
  21. 21. Follicle Maturation
  22. 22. Ovulation• As follicle matures, primary oocyte undergoes oogenesis giving rise to secondary oocyte & 1st polar body• Ovulation: releases secondary oocyte & 1st polar body w/ 1 or 2 surrounding layers of follicular cells from mature follicle• Release of LH triggers ovulation• Eventually mature follicle’s wall ruptures & follicular fluid & secondary oocyte ooze from ovary surface• After ovulation, secondary oocyte & surrounding follicular cells propelled to uterine tube• If not fertilized, oocyte degenerates
  23. 23. Female Internal Reproductive Organs• Uterine Tubes aka Fallopian Tubes (2) – 10 cm long passing medially to uterus, penetrates its wall & opens into uterine cavity – Near each ovary, expands to form infundibulum, which partially encircles ovary – Simple columnar epithelial cells line uterine tubes – Epithelium secrete mucus which cilia move towards uterus – Ciliary action & peristaltic contractions help transport secondary oocyte down uterine tube – Fertilization occurs in uterine tube• Uterus – Receives embryo that develops from fertilized egg in uterine tube – Hollow, muscular organ located medially in anterior part of pelvic cavity, superior to vagina – Uterine tubes enter at top of uterus – Lower third of uterus, cervix, extends downward into upper part of vagina – Cervix surrounds opening through which uterus opens to vagina
  24. 24. Female Internal Reproductive Organs• Uterus (Cont.) – Thick wall w/ 3 layers – Endometrium (inner mucosal layer) – covered w/ columnar epithelium & contains tubular glands – Myometrium (thick, middle layer) – consist of bundles of smooth muscle fibers – Perimetrium (outer serosal layer) – covers body of uterus & part of cervix• Vagina – fibromuscular tube extending from uterus to outside of body – Conveys uterine secretions, receives penis during sexual intercourse, & provides open channel for birth – Wall has 3 layers • Inner mucosal layer of stratified squamous epithelium • Middle muscular layer consisting of smooth muscle • Outer fibrous layer consists of dense connective tissue interlaced w/ elastic fibers
  25. 25. Female External Reproductive Organs• Labia Majora – Rounded folds of adipose tissue & thin layer of smooth muscle, covered by skin – Enclose & protect other external reproductive organs• Labia Minora – Flattened, longitudinal folds between labia majora – Composed of connective tissue richly supplied w/ blood vessels• Clitoris – Small projection at anterior end of vulva between labia minora – Richly supplied w/ sensory nerve fibers• Vestibule – Enclosed space by labia minora – Vagina opens into posterior portion of vestibule & urethra open in the midline – Pair of vestibular glands lie on either side of vaginal opening
  26. 26. Female External Reproductive Organs
  27. 27. Female Sex Hormones• Hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, & ovaries secrete hormones• Hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone• Anterior pituitary secretes FSH & LH which play role in controlling female sex cell maturation & in producing female sex hormones• Female Sex Hormones = Estrogen & Progesterone
  28. 28. Female Sex Hormones• Estrogen – Ovaries are primary source – Development of breasts & ductile system of mammary glands in breasts – Increased deposition of adipose tissue in subcutaneous layer, breasts, thighs, & buttocks – Increased vascularization of skin• Progesterone – Ovaries are primary source – Promotes changes in uterus during female reproductive cycle – Affects mammary glands – Helps regulate secretion of gonadotropins from anterior pituitary gland
  29. 29. Female Reproductive Cycle
  30. 30. Mammary Glands• Accessory organs specialized to secrete milk following pregnancy• Located in subcutaneous tissue of anterior thorax w/in elevations called breasts• Mammary gland composed of 15-20 lobes
  31. 31. Mammary Glands• Each lobe contains alveolar glands & an alveolar duct which leads to lactiferous duct• Dense connective tissue & adipose tissue separate lobes• Tissues support glands & attach them to fascia of underlying pectoral muscles• Other connective tissue which forms dense suspensory ligaments, extends inward from dermis to fascia, helping support breast• Ovarian hormones stimulate development of glands in females
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