Chapter 9:Race and Ethnicity Ross Martin Sabrina Hodnett Nate Jack Tamisha Lee
The Difference Between Race and Ethnicity A race is a category of people who have beensingled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes. An ethnic group is a collection of people distinguished, by other or by themselves, primarilyon the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics.
The Social Significance of Race and Ethnicity Race and ethnicity take on great social significance because howpeople act in regard to these terms drastically effects other people’s lives, including what opportunities they have, how they are treated, and even how long they live.
Historically class rank based on race and ethnicity has strongly affected all aspects ofpolitical, economic, and social life. Think of sports. Throughout the early history of the gameof baseball, many African Americans had outstanding skills as players but were categoricallyexcluded from Major League teams because of their skin color. Even after Jackie Robinsonbroke the “color line” and became the first African American in the Major Leagues in 1947,his experience was ruined by racial slurs, hate letters, death threats against his infant son, andassaults on his wife. With more and more professional athletes from diverse racial-ethnic categories havingmultimillion-dollar contracts and endorsement deals, its easy to assume that racism in sports ispast, but the commercialization of sports doesn’t mean that racial prejudice and discriminationis over.
• Racial classification was not always based on skin color.Racial classifications and • In ancient Greece or Rome a person’s race was the group to which he or she belonged, associated with ancestral place or culture. the Meaning of Race • From the middle ages until about the 18th century a person’s race was based on family and ancestral ties, in the sense of a line or ties to a national group. • During the 18th century physical differences became associated with race, but racial divisions were typically based on differences in religion and tradition rather than on human biology. • With the efforts that surrounded the attempt to justify black slavery and white dominance, race came to be defined as the distinct biological categories of people who were not all member of the same family but who shared inherited physical and cultural traits that were said to be different from those traits shared by people in other races. • Hierarchies of races were established placing the “white race at the top and the “black race” on the bottom, and others in between.
Dominant and Subordinate Groups (Majoritys and Minority’s)• A dominate group (majority) is one that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights in a society.• In the United States whites with Northern European ancestry have been considered to be the dominant group for many years.• A subordinate group (minority) is one whose members, are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by the dominant group and who regard themselves as object of collective discrimination.• Historically African Americans and other persons of color have been considered to be subordinate group members, especially when they are from lower income categories.
Prejudice, Stereotype, Discrimination and Racism• Prejudice is a negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of specific racial, ethnic, or other groups.• Stereotypes are over generalizations about appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories. (stereotypes can be either positive or negative)• Racism is a set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group.• Discrimination involves actions or practices of dominant-group members (or their representatives) that have a harmful effect on members of a subordinate group.
Native America Native American groups have been activelyworking to eliminate the use of stereotypic mascots(with feathers, buckskins, beads, spears, and“warpaint”), “Indian chants,” and gestures, which theyclaim trivialize and exploit Native American culture.College and university sports teams with NativeAmerican names and logos also remain a subject ofcontroversy. The use of Stereotypes and words such as redskinsymbolizes a lack of understanding of the culture andheritage of native peoples and is offensive to manyNative Americans. Although some people see thesenames and activities as “innocent fun,” others viewthem as a form of racism.
African Americans• The African American experience has been one marked by slavery, segregation, and persistent discrimination.• Gaining freedom did not give African Americans freedom equality with whites. They were subjected to many indignities because of race, through informal practices in the north and Jim Crow laws in the south African Americans experienced a lot of segregation.• In the 20th century the live of many African Americans were changed by the civil rights movement.
African American “People could not even register to vote when we came back here in 1963 for the March on Washington. And I was here when Dr. King stood and said, “ I have a dream today,” a dream deeply rooted in the Americandream. And to come back [to Washington for the inauguration ofPresident Barack Obama] 45 years later, it is almost too much. It is almost too much” ~Representative John Lewis Democrat of GeorgiaOn January 20, 2009 Barack Obama was sworn in as the President of the United States, becoming the first person of color ever to hold office.
Global Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the Future• Throughout the world, many racial and ethnic groups seek self-determination– the right to choose their own way of life. Because many nations are currently structured, self-determination is impossible.
Racial and ethnic diversity is increasing in the united states. African Americans, Latinos/as, Asian Americans Racial and ethnic diversity is increasing in the United States. African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americansconstitute one-fourth of the U.S. Population, whereas whites are a shrinking population. Today White Americans make up 70% of the population in contrast to 80% in 1980. It is projected that in 2056, the roots of the average U.S. resident will be in Africa, Asia, Hispanic countries, the Pacific Islands, and the Middle East. Not white Europe. What effect will these changes have on racial and ethnic relations?