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  • 1. Wireless Sensor Network Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management Gwalior-474015, INDIA vishnu08jec@gmail.com March 25, 2014 Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 1 / 64
  • 2. Sensor Network A WSN is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion, at different locations. Large networks of simple sensors. Usually deployed randomly. Use broadcast paradigms to communicate with other sensors. Collect information and send it to base station. Must focus on power conservation. Two type of sensor network Static sensor network. Dynamic sensor network. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 2 / 64
  • 3. Sensor Node Node = sensing + processing + communication Figure: Sensor Node Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 3 / 64
  • 4. Mobile sensor Node Figure: Mobile Sensor Node Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 4 / 64
  • 5. Sensor characteristics Consume low power Autonomous Operate in high volumetric densities Adaptive to environment cheap Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 5 / 64
  • 6. Communication Radio Frequency Devices communicate synchronous, using primitives that take unit time (pulse) If one sensor receives more than one message, there is collision (noise), due to interference the real network is a subgraph Broadcasting Deterministic broadcasting: every node transmit to its neighbours. It creates a lot of interface. Need assignment of channels. Randomized broadcasting: at each time the sensors receiving a signal to rely it, each choose a random integer. Fewer interferences, Consume more energy, More time to transmit a message and Well studied analytically. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 6 / 64
  • 7. Why we use IEEE 802.15.4 ? Figure: IEEE 802.15.4 Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 7 / 64
  • 8. Zigbee Zigbee is a new wireless technology guided by the IEEE 802.15.4 Personal Area Networks standard. It is primarily designed for the wide ranging automation applications and to replace the existing non-standard technologies.Some of its primary features are: A standards-based wireless technology Interoperability and worldwide usability Low data-rates Ultra low power consumption Very small protocol stack Support for small to excessively large networks Simple design Security, and Reliability Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 8 / 64
  • 9. WSN Architecture Figure: Wireless Sensor Architecture Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 9 / 64
  • 10. WSN Architecture with OSI Model Figure: WSN Architecture with OSI Model Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 10 / 64
  • 11. IEEE 802.15.4 Main Characteristics Data rates of 250kb/s, 40kb/s and 20 kb/s Star or peer-to-peer operation Support for low latency devices CSMA-CA channel access Dynamic device addressing Fully handshake protocol for transfer reliability Low power consumption Frequency bands of operation 16 channels in the 2.4GHz ISM band 10 Channels in the 915MHz ISM band 1 Channel in the 868MHz band Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 11 / 64
  • 12. 802.15.4 Protocol Architecture Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 12 / 64
  • 13. 802.15.4 Channel Assignment Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 13 / 64
  • 14. 802.15.4 MAC Design Drivers Extremely low cost Ease of implementation Reliable data transfer Short range operation Very low power consumption Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 14 / 64
  • 15. 802.15.4 Device Classes Co-ordinator: It is a device which is authorised to provide synchronization services in an established network. There can be two different kinds of co-ordinators based on their operation scope. First is the PAN-Corodinator, which acts as a coordinator for the entire PAN. Where as an ordinary co-ordinator can only function within the scope of a cluster. Full function device (FFD) Any topology PAN coordinator capable Talks to any other device Reduced function device (RFD) Cannot become a network coordinator Talks only to a network coordinator Limited to star topology Very simple implementation Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 15 / 64
  • 16. 802.15.4 Data Transmission Transmission from the coordinator to the device Transmission from a device to the coordinator Transmission between any two devices. Figure: Transmission from the coordinator to the device Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 16 / 64
  • 17. 802.15.4 Data Transmission Transmission from a device to the coordinator Figure: Transmission from a device to the coordinator There is no predefined manner in which there can be a direct communication between two devices in the network. However, the suitable methods of transmission can be by mutual synchronization techniques, or direct transmission using unslotted CSMA-CA. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 17 / 64
  • 18. Real Time Routing Real time routing protocol can classified into two way. Real time routing protocol for static WSN RTLD is a real time with load distribution for WSN. It compute the optimal forwarding node based on the packet reception rate, remain power of sensor nodes and packet velocity over one hop. Real time routing protocol for MWSN It computes the optimal forwarding node based on RSSI, Remaining battery level of sensor nodes and packet delay over one hop. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 18 / 64
  • 19. Applications of WSNs Constant monitoring and detection of specific events Military, battlefield surveillance Forest fire and flood detection Habitat exploration of animals Patient monitoring Home appliances Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 19 / 64
  • 20. Design Issues and Challenges Random deployment Infrastructure-less networks Low Energy consumption Hardware energy efficiency Distributed synchronization Adapting to changes in connectivity Real-time communication, QoS Security Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 20 / 64
  • 21. Design Factors Scalability Fault tolerance Power consumption Sensor network architectures Layered Clustered Figure: Layered Architecture Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 21 / 64
  • 22. WSN Architecture Figure: Wireless Sensor Architecture Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 22 / 64
  • 23. RTLD Protocol Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 23 / 64
  • 24. Location Management It assume that all sensor nodes are in a fixed possion. It also assumes that the sink node is at the origin (0,0) and at least two of its neighbours are location aware. The location mechanism uses at least tree signal strengh measurements extracted from Request to route (RTR) packet braodcasted by pre-determind nodes at various intervals. Each pre-determind node broadcasts RTR packet and insert its location in the packet header. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 24 / 64
  • 25. Routing management The routing management consist of three sub functional processes. Forwarding metrics calculation Forwarding mechanism Routing problem handler Forwarding metrics calculation The optimal forwarding calculation is used to calculate next hop based on the forwarding metrics that include PRR, packet velocity and remaining power. The routing problem handler is used to solve the routing hole problem due to hiddel sensor nodes in WSN. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 25 / 64
  • 26. Forwarding mechanism The source node check the forward flag of each neighbour in the neighbour table. if the forward flag is 1, the source node will check the optimal forwarding metrics and compute forwarding progress and find the optimal path. If there are no nodes in the direction to the destination, the source node will invoke the neighbour discovery, the data packet will be unicast to the selected node. This procedure continues until the destination is one of the selected node’s neighbours. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 26 / 64
  • 27. routing Problem Handler It may fail to find a route in the presence of network holes even with neighbour discovery. Such holes may appear due to voids in node deployment or subsequent node failures over the lifetime of the network. Routing management in RTLD solves this problem by introducing routing problem handler which has two recovery methods. fast recovery using power adaptation and slow recovery using feedback control packet. The fast recovery is applied when the diameter of the hole is smaller than the transmission range at the maximum power. The routing problem handler will inform neighbour discovery to identify a maximum transmission power required to efficiently transmit the packet across the hole. In the slow recovery, candidate OF node will send feedback packet to its parent. The feedback packet will inform the sensor node parent to stop sending data packet toward OF sensor node. When the parent received feedback control packet, it will calculate OF again for all candidates. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 27 / 64
  • 28. Neighbour Management It is to discover a subset of forwarding candidate nodes and to maintain neighbour table of the forwarding candidate nodes. Due to limited memory and large number of neighbours, the neighbour table is limited to a small set of forwarding candidates that are most useful in meeting the one-hop end-to-end delay with the optimal PRR and remaining power. In the Neighbour table contain maximum 16 nodes information. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 28 / 64
  • 29. Power Management The main function of power management is to adjust the power of the transceiver and select the level of transmission power of the sensor node. It significantly reduces the energy consumed in each sensor node between the source and the destination in order to increase node lifetime span. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 29 / 64
  • 30. RTLD Protocol Limitation It work well when sensor node are not moveable If PAN coordinator is fail then whole network fail Neighbour discovery is possible only predetermine three node. It work only Location base, if sensor nodes are random then neighbour discovery fail. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 30 / 64
  • 31. MWSN Architecture Figure: Mobile Wireless Sensor Architecture Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 31 / 64
  • 32. ERTLD Protocol Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 32 / 64
  • 33. Sensor Location Management RTLD is depending on location management to calculate the sensor node location based on the distance to three pre-determined neighbour nodes. However, geographic forwardingbased is suitable for static WSN and leads to poor performance when the sink and/or intermediate nodes are mobile. Hence ERTLD used corona mechanism as a replacement to location based routing. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 33 / 64
  • 34. Corona Mechanism For Broadcasting Figure: Corona Mechanism for broadcasting Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 34 / 64
  • 35. Corona Mechanism For Unicasting Figure: Corona Mechanism for Unicasting Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 35 / 64
  • 36. Corona Mechanism Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 36 / 64
  • 37. Routing management Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 37 / 64
  • 38. Routing Problem Handler In ERTLD, if a mobile sensor node cannot forward data packets to the next-hop neighbour, it backwards the data packet to any node in high corona level and it will inform its parent to stop sending data. The parent will select new forwarding candidate. Hence, the backward mechanism guarantees to prevent dropping of data packet at the mobile node or its parent. This flexibility is not founded on RTLD. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 38 / 64
  • 39. Forwarding Mechanism The source node checks the C ID of each neighbour in the neighbour table. If the C ID of any neighbour node is less or equal to source node C ID, the optimal forwarding algorithm will be invoked to choose the optimal neighbour. If there is no node in neighbour table has C ID less or equal to source nodes C ID, the source node will invoke the neighbour discovery. Once the optimal forwarding choice is obtained, the data packet will be unicast to the selected node. This procedure continues until the MS is one of the selected nodes neighbours. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 39 / 64
  • 40. Optimal Neighbour Selection RTLD computes optimal forwarding node based on PRR, remaining power of sensor nodes and packet velocity over one-hop. PRR reflects the diverse link qualities within the transmission range and approximately calculated as the probability of successfully receiving a packet between two neighbour nodes. If PRR is high that means the link quality is high and vice versa. However, PRR requires extra time, more energy and complexity mathematical calculation based on IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee RF transceiver. Hence, ERTLD saves calculation time by utilizing RSSI which is a built-in physical layer parameter and does not require any extra calculation. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 40 / 64
  • 41. Neighbour Discovery The neighbour discovery procedure is executed in the initialization stage to identify a node that satisfies the forwarding condition. The neighbour discovery mechanism introduces small communication overhead. This is necessary to minimize the time it takes to discover a satisfactory neighbour. The source node invokes the neighbour discovery by broadcasting RTR packet. Some neighbouring nodes will receive the RTR and send a reply. Upon receiving the replies, the neighbourhood management records the new neighbour in its neighbour table. The neighbour table contain following field. node ID, corona ID (C ID), remaining power, one hop end to end delay, RSSI, corona control packet ID (CCP ID), location information and expiry time. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 41 / 64
  • 42. Power Management In ERTLD, the sensor node sleeps most of the time and it changes its state to idle if it has neighbour in the direction of the destination. In addition, if the sensor node wants to broadcast RTR, it changes its state to transmit mode. After that, it changes to receive mode if it receives replies or data packet from its neighbour. Since the time taken to switch from sleep state to idle state takes close to 1ms, it is recommended that a sensor node should stay in the idle state if it has neighbours. Thus, the total delay from the source to the destination will be decreased. In addition, a sensor node should change its state from idle to sleep if it does not have at least one neighbour in the neighbour table that can forward data packets to the destination. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 42 / 64
  • 43. Improvement in ERTLD Protocol The corona width is less than the transmission range, in this case the network performance increases. A network has a Mobile Sink (MS), if the MS fail or below of threshold value that establishing a new MS node take more time to re-establish. In the MS node has a voice sink node that if fails sink node we use the voice sink, by using voice sink the overall lifetime are increasing in the sensor network and reduce the delay. The Routing hole problem is solved by the slow recovery using backward mechanism. We do not use a fast recovery using power adaptation because the power consumption is saved. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 43 / 64
  • 44. NS2 Installation instructions Using related tools (nam, xgraph, etc) NS-2 official website and documentation Sample coding exercises Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 44 / 64
  • 45. What is simulation? Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 45 / 64
  • 46. Why Simulation? real-system not available, is complex/costly or dangerous (eg: space simulations, flight simulations) quickly evaluate design alternatives (eg: different system configurations) evaluate complex functions for which closed form formulas or numerical techniques not available Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 46 / 64
  • 47. Simulation: advantages/drawbacks advantages sometimes cheaper find bugs (in design) in advance generality: over analytic/numerical techniques detail: can simulate system details at arbitrary level drawbacks caution: does model reflect reality large scale systems: lots of resources to simulate (especially accurately simulate) may be slow (computationally expensive 1 min real time could be hours of simulated time) art: determining right level of model complexity statistical uncertainty in results Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 47 / 64
  • 48. Simulator Block Diagram Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 48 / 64
  • 49. What is NS2? NS2 is an object oriented, discrete event simulator, developed under the VINT project as a joint effort by UC Berkeley, USC/ISI, LBL, and Xerox PARC. It was written in C++ with OTcl as a front-end. The simulator supports a class hierarchy in C++ (compiled hierarchy), and a similar class hierarchy within the OTcl interpreter. A package of tools that simulates behavior of networks Create Network Topologies Log events that happen under any load Analyze events to understand the network behavior Creating Topologies Nodes Set properties like queue length, location Protocols, routing algorithms Links Set types of link Simplex, duplex, wireless, satellite Set bandwidth, latency etc. Done through tcl Scripts Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 49 / 64
  • 50. Installation Processes Step 1: Make it sure that Internet connectivity is good. Download NS2.35 from http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/ Step 2: Make a new folder [ns] in /Desktop/Extracts downloaded files in above folder. Step 3: copy downloaded ns-allinone-2.35.tar.gz in /Desktop/ns/ Step 4: open terminal Step 5: Run following commands cd Desktop/ns-allinone-2.35 sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install build-essential autoconf automake libxmu-dev Step 6: Run following command ./install Step 7: Run following command to install X graph sudo apt-get install xgraph Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 50 / 64
  • 51. Conti..... Step 8: Set environment variables by run this command gedit / .bashrc Add the following lines to the end of the file. Remember replace ”/your/path” by the folder where you have stored extracted the ns-2 file (For example, if your Linux account name is purple, and you have extracted the file to your Desktop directory, you have to change /your path to /Desktop/ns) Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 51 / 64
  • 52. conti... #LD LIBRARY PATH OTCL LIB = /your/path/ns − allinone − 2.35/otcl − 1.13 NS2 LIB = /your/path/ns − allinone − 2.35/lib X11 LIB = /usr/X11R6/lib USR LOCAL LIB = /usr/local/lib exportLD LIBRARY PATH = LD LIBRARY PATH : OTCL LIB : NS2 LIB : X11 LIB : USR LOCAL LIB #TCL LIBRARY TCL LIB = /your/path/ns − allinone − 2.35/tcl8.4.18/library USR LIB = /usr/lib exportTCL LIBRARY = TCL LIB : USR LIB #PATH XGRAPH = /your/path/ns − allinone − 2.35/bin : /your/path/ns − allinone − 2.35/tcl8.4.18/unix : /your/path/ns − allinone− 2.35/tk8.4.18/unix NS = /your/path/ns − allinone − 2.35/ns − 2.35/ NAM = /your/path/ns − allinone − 2.35/nam − 1.14/ PATH = PATH : XGRAPH : NS : NAM Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 52 / 64
  • 53. Conti.... Step 9: run following command source /.bashrc Now you can run your ns with ns command... The ”%” symbol appears on the screen. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 53 / 64
  • 54. NS2 Simulation Model Figure: NS2 Simulation Model Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 54 / 64
  • 55. How Do I use it? Creating a Simple Topology Getting Traces Using NAM Basics of using NS2 Define Network topology, load, output files in Tcl Script To run, ns simple network.tcl Internally, NS2 instantiates C++ classes based on the tcl scripts Output is in form of trace files Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 55 / 64
  • 56. A simple Example Creating the topology Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 56 / 64
  • 57. simulator produces the resultant network performance analysis The simulator needs the tcl scenario file as input. So the intended scenario of the network is presented as a sequence of tcl commands which are fed to the network simulator, and the simulator produces the resultant network performance analysis in two separate files. They are: Trace File (*.tr): The trace file contains information about the various events that occurred during the simulation duration. It contains every detail of node behavior, packet transmissions and receptions, packet type, layer responsible for communication, drops and reasons for drops, energy consumption, etc, to the utmost possible precision. NAM Trace file (*.nam): The network animator trace file contains information about topology, e.g; nodes, links, as well as packet traces. It can be said as a mirror of the trace file, with the exception that it uses a different syntax to work with the visualize. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 57 / 64
  • 58. Process Structure Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 58 / 64
  • 59. Functioning Throughput Minimum Delay Maximum Delay Average Delay Data Packets Transmitted Data Packets Successfully Received by their Respective Destinations Data Packet Delivery Ratio Average Initial Energy Average Energy Used Average Percentage Energy Used Node Packet Discrepancy Ratio Packet Drop statistics Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 59 / 64
  • 60. Simulation Parameters Traffic Parameters Traffic Type Number of Flows Packet Size Traffic Direction Node Parameters Number of Nodes Coordinators Node Movement Node Position Physical Parameters Radio Propogation Model Antenna Type Transmitter Gain Receiver Gain PathLoss Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 60 / 64
  • 61. Routing Routing is a method of determining routes to nodes to which information is due for transfer. The routing mechanism is guided with routing tables, which holds the best path to the destination node. These tables might have a direct path to the destination or a path to the nearest node, which can forward the information further, thus bridging the route to the destination node. A node which has data to be transmitted to a destination node, first looks up into its routing table, to determine if a path to the destination is available. If yes, it would go ahead with the transmission to the next nearest node in the path or may transmit a Route Request message to determine a route to the node. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 61 / 64
  • 62. How can I add to NS2? Adding Protocols to NS2 is possible Need to create the C++ class Need to create the OTcl Linkage More info at: http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/tutorial/index.html Tutorial about how to add a simple protocol to NS2 Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 62 / 64
  • 63. REFERENCES A. Ahmed, N. Fisal, ”A real-time routing protocol with load distribution in wireless sensor networks”, Elsevier Computer Communication Journal 31 (2008) 3190-3203. A Ahmed, ”An enhanced real time routing protocol with load distribution for mobile wireless sensor networks”, Elsevier Computer Communication February 19 (2013) 1459-1473. G. M. Arau jo, L.B. Becker, ”A network conditions aware geographical forwarding protocol for real-time applications in mobile wireless sensor networks”, in: AINA 2011 IEEE International Conference, 2011,pp. 3845. http://www.tcl.tk/man/tcl8.5/tutorial/tcltutorial.html http://www.tcl.tk/man/tcl8.6/TclCmd/contents.html http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns.html Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 63 / 64
  • 64. Thank You .. Vishnu Kumar Prajapati M.Tech CSE(Advanced Networks) (ABV IIITM-G)WSN March 25, 2014 64 / 64

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