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Influence of media in  youth &children around the world
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Influence of media in youth &children around the world


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  • 1.  
  • 2. Types Of Media
    • Television
    • Computers
    • Internet
    • Music Videos & Songs
    • Video Games
  • 3. Outline
    • Background:
      • Early childhood
      • Brain Research
      • Essential Skills youth Need
  • 4. Outline Cont’d
    • Extent of use of media by American children and youth.
    • Influence of Media: Aspects of development affected.
    • Factors that mediate influence of media.
    • What can we do to shape how our youth use the media?
  • 5. Background
    • Nature vs. Nurture debate is over!
    • Importance of environmental factors on development.
    • Environment and genetic influence.
  • 6.
    • Decade of the Brain
    • Erickson’s Childhood & Society
    • Institute of Medicine’s Neurons to Neighborhoods
  • 7.
    • Brain and its reciprocal and dynamic relationship with the environment.: environment shapes and modifies the very architecture of the brain, as the brain influences how a person interacts with the environment.
  • 8.
    • Critical periods: essential brain function is established or a particular event occurs in the brain e.g pruning of dendrites.
    • Developmental plasticity: capacity of the brain to be influenced in its growth.
  • 9. Lessons from Early Childhood Education:
    • Stimulation sets course for optimal brain development regardless of inherited intelligence potential.
    • Need for appropriate and sufficient stimulation in infancy and preschool years.
    • Imitation and modeling are important social learning modalities.
  • 10. Lessons from Early Childhood Education:
    • Maria Montessori and the concept of the environment developing the “mental flesh” of the brain.
    • Piaget and his schemata: internal mental representations that are brain’s recognition system to allow child to relate to the familiar and move towards understanding the unfamiliar.
  • 11. Brain Research
    • Neural networks : webs of interconnecting nerve fibers traversing the brain that develop in response to environmental stimulation. Density of neural connections greater with increased stimulation.
  • 12. Brain Research
    • Neuroscience mantra: “Neurons that fire together wire together.”
    • Helps in understanding associative memory. The more sensory systems that are recruited during an experience, the more reinforced is memory for that event.
    • If the pleasure center is activated, activity is reinforced.
  • 13. SUMMARY
    • Environment provides stimulation through its content and context.
    • Accesses the brain via the sensory systems.
    • Learning and behavior are reinforced with gratifying experiences, especially if gratification is immediate and repetitive.
    • Media provides models to our youth.
  • 14. What Do youth Need?
    • Sense of mastery and competence.
    • To acquire self-regulation:
      • regulation of attention
      • regulation of affect
      • manage mood states and anxieties
      • manage impulsivity
      • manage their overall behaviors
  • 15. What Do youth Need?
    • To develop a capacity to self soothe in the face of disappointment.
    • To develop frustration tolerance
    • Delay gratification
    • To develop a motivational system that facilitates prosocial adaptation.
  • 16. What Do Television and Media Have to Do with youth’s Development?
    • Media Industry has a major presence in our youth’s lives in America. ( youth spend more time with the media than any other activity besides sleeping ).
    • Hence, television and other media function as a major “school” of social learning.
  • 17. Kaiser Family Foundation Study:
    • “ Documented a potentially revolutionary phenomenon in American society: the immersion of our very youngest children, from a few months to a few years old, in the world of electronic and interactive media….it is an issue that demands immediate attention from parents, educators, researchers and health professionals .”
  • 18. Media Ownership in United States
    • In 1950, only 10% of American homes had a television. By 1960, that percentage had grown to 90%.
    • Today, 99% of homes have a television set.
    • 97% have VCR’s & DVD’s
    • 70% have video game players
    • two thirds have personal computers
  • 19. Seduction of the Media
    • Multimedia environment of “sight and sound” with many “bells and whistles” is very exciting to kids.
    • Television causes youth to be sedentary and passive.
  • 20. Seduction of the Media
    • youth often eat & drink high fat, high calorie, low nutritious foods while viewing television, videos & playing at video arcades.
    • This is a climate of high gratification.
  • 21. Just the Facts:
    • American young people will spend 15,000 hours watching television by the time they graduate from high school, versus 12,000 hours spent in formal classroom instruction.
  • 22. Media Usage as % Time
    • Television 41%
    • Audio media (radio, CD’s and tapes) 24%
    • Videotapes and movies 14%
    • Print 9%
    • Video games 6%
    • Computers 6%
  • 23. Time Spent Watching Television
    • Age Hrs/Min per week
    • 2-5 years 27:49
    • 6-11 years 23:29
    • teenaged boys 21:16
    • teenaged women 33:40
    • *data from 1990 Nielson report on television
  • 24. Demographics
    • 78% whites vs. 55% African-Americans and 48% Hispanics live in computer equipped households
    • 59% boys’ homes vs. 32% girls’ homes contain a video game system
  • 25. Demographics Cont’d
    • African-American youth: 10 hours per day of media exposure
    • Hispanic youth: 9 hours
    • White youth: 7 hours
  • 26. Just the facts...
    • 54% of youth in the United States have a television in their room.
    • 50% have their own video game system
  • 27. What are youth watching?
    • Before age 18, the average American child will witness over 200,000 acts of violence, including 16,000 murders.
  • 28. Eron’s Research 1972
    • Research which tracked the viewing habits of single individuals found that 8 year old boys who viewed the most violent programs were most likely to engage in aggressive, delinquent behaviors by age 18, and serious criminal behavior by age 30.
  • 29. Science 2002 by Johnson
    • 707 individuals followed for 17 years
    • Random sample from northern New York
    • Significant association between the amount of time spent watching television during adolescence and early adulthood and the likelihood of subsequent aggressive acts
  • 30. Rock Music and Music Videos
    • What does the research tell us?
  • 31. More recent research data
    • 247 students in an Australian high school were studied for musical preferences and psychological health and lifestyle
      • 74% of the girls preferred pop music
      • 70% of the boys preferred rock/heavy metal
      • significant association between preference for rock/heavy metal and suicidal thoughts, acts of deliberate self-harm, depression, delinquency, drug taking and family dysfunction
  • 32. Australian Research Cont’d
    • A subgoup of these adolescents with pre-existing family problems for whom the music resonated with their own feelings stated that the music made them feel better.
    • Another subgroup, representing 11% of the study, stated that the music made them sadder.
  • 33. What are the youth viewing?
    • 50% of MTV videos contain episodes of frank violence
    • 20% of rap videos portray violence
    • a weapon was displayed in 19% of rap and rock videos
    • 25% of MTV videos portray tobacco use
    • 25% of MTV videos portray alcohol use
  • 34. What are the youth viewing?
    • Japanese Anime: a new phenomenon with American adolescents.
    • Themes of good vs evil as well as sexual ambiguity.
  • 35. What are our youth Watching?
    • 15% of videos showed instances of interpersonal violence
    • In those videos, 80% of the time, the aggressor was an attractive role model
    • Males are 3 times as likely to be the aggressor
    • Females are most often the victims
    • African-Americans were over-represented as both aggressors and victims compared to actual demographics
  • 36. Research Results
    • Violent video game play was a predictor of delinquency
    • Positive correlation between violent video games and aggressive personality
    • Total time spent playing has a detrimental effect on grades
  • 37. Aspects of youth’s Development Affected by Media
    • Learning : amount of time spent reading
    • Attention span
    • Behavior (modeling, imitation e.g. WWF)
    • Affective states esp. in vulnerable kids.
    • Physiological arousal (excitatory states)
    • Perception of time & development of “patience”e.g. “internet time”
  • 38. Aspects of youth’s Development Affected by Media
    • Motivation
    • Aggression
    • Choices as consumers
    • Interpersonal Relationships (empathy)
    • Health Status (obesity, diabetes)
    • Sleeping behaviors
  • 39. Aspects of youth’s Development Affected by Media:
    • Sexual behaviors: earlier sexual debut for high TV viewers.
    • Drug, alcohol & tobacco use: associated with high users of various media.
    • Pro-social vs. antisocial development related to viewing aggressive acts.
  • 40. Factors that mediate influence of media: Family Variables
    • Parents used to have role of being protective barrier between the outside world and their youth.
    • Media is now very intrusive into the home.
    • Family’s baseline functioning is important e.g. adults’ viewing behavior, substance use, domestic violence, mental illness.
  • 41. Family Factors...
    • Family culture of use of media technology.
      • Is it used for education of life events or specific topics ?
      • Used to minimize interactions between and among family members?
      • Do youth have entertainment centers in their bedrooms?
  • 42.  
  • 43. Factors that Mediate Influence of Media: Individual Characteristics
      • temperament
      • resilience,
      • current psychosocial risk factors
      • psychological vulnerabilities
      • developmental level
      • social connectedness
  • 44. Societal Factors….
    • First amendment right makes regulation of media industry very challenging.
    • Media industry has resisted making substantive changes that would protect youth and youth.
    • Advertising industry dominates all forms of media.
  • 45. Societal Factors Cont’d….
    • Direct to consumer ( including youth and adolescents ) marketing: defines what is desirable and imparts status among peers.
    • Disposable income is high in United States.
    • Society glamorizes sex & violence .
    • youth of all ages are less supervised (latch key kids) by adults.
  • 46. Adverse Side Effects of Media
    • Technological advances have always been met with ambivalence throughout history.
    • With the progress these advances bring they also have adverse consequences, both calculated and unintended.
  • 47. Adverse Side Effects of Media
    • Television and other media have become the “techie blankie” and technological babysitter for many youth.
    • The Internet simulates friendships that do not help in the development of negotiation and compromise skills.
  • 48. How Can We Respond?
    • American Academy of Pediatric’s Media Matters Campaign.
    • We must become “media literate.”
    • Teach families how to use good judgement about the use of media in the home.
  • 49. How Can We Respond?
    • Public health approach: consider concept of early preventive intervention.
    • Teach parents to match the media viewing/use to child’s developmental level.
    • Consider both the content and context within which TV and other media are being used.
  • 50. Importance of the Media History
    • to learn how a child spends his/her time
    • to begin to access a child’s inner world
    • to obtain information about self-soothing
    • to learn about parent availability and interactive style
  • 51. How Can We Respond?
    • Utilize parental controls on the Internet, know what our youth are watching, what videos they are playing, and use V-Chip on the television.
    • Encourage discussion of violent, sexual, discriminatory, stereotypic, traumatic or otherwise disturbing themes seen in news, documentaries or other programs.
  • 52. Conclusion...
    • Environment plays a significant role in how youth learn and behave, and the adults they become.
    • Remember that the environment influences actual brain development.
  • 53. Conclusion cont’d...
    • Television & other media have a powerful impact on major aspects of our youth’s development:
    • academic recreational
    • social health behaviors
    • moral
  • 54. How Can We Respond?
    • Most of all, let us utilize Television and other media to promote adaptive functioning in our youth. There is a lot that can be positive about the media.
    • Research shows that youth who use TV in educational manner early in life, continue to do so into adulthood.
    • Support parents’ role in shaping and managing the media environment for their children.
  • 55.