Influence of media in youth &children around the world


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Influence of media in youth &children around the world

  1. 2. Types Of Media <ul><li>Television </li></ul><ul><li>Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Music Videos & Songs </li></ul><ul><li>Video Games </li></ul>
  2. 3. Outline <ul><li>Background: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early childhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential Skills youth Need </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Outline Cont’d <ul><li>Extent of use of media by American children and youth. </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of Media: Aspects of development affected. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that mediate influence of media. </li></ul><ul><li>What can we do to shape how our youth use the media? </li></ul>
  4. 5. Background <ul><li>Nature vs. Nurture debate is over! </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of environmental factors on development. </li></ul><ul><li>Environment and genetic influence. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Decade of the Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Erickson’s Childhood & Society </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of Medicine’s Neurons to Neighborhoods </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Brain and its reciprocal and dynamic relationship with the environment.: environment shapes and modifies the very architecture of the brain, as the brain influences how a person interacts with the environment. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Critical periods: essential brain function is established or a particular event occurs in the brain e.g pruning of dendrites. </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental plasticity: capacity of the brain to be influenced in its growth. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Lessons from Early Childhood Education: <ul><li>Stimulation sets course for optimal brain development regardless of inherited intelligence potential. </li></ul><ul><li>Need for appropriate and sufficient stimulation in infancy and preschool years. </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation and modeling are important social learning modalities. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Lessons from Early Childhood Education: <ul><li>Maria Montessori and the concept of the environment developing the “mental flesh” of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget and his schemata: internal mental representations that are brain’s recognition system to allow child to relate to the familiar and move towards understanding the unfamiliar. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Brain Research <ul><li>Neural networks : webs of interconnecting nerve fibers traversing the brain that develop in response to environmental stimulation. Density of neural connections greater with increased stimulation. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Brain Research <ul><li>Neuroscience mantra: “Neurons that fire together wire together.” </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in understanding associative memory. The more sensory systems that are recruited during an experience, the more reinforced is memory for that event. </li></ul><ul><li>If the pleasure center is activated, activity is reinforced. </li></ul>
  12. 13. SUMMARY <ul><li>Environment provides stimulation through its content and context. </li></ul><ul><li>Accesses the brain via the sensory systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and behavior are reinforced with gratifying experiences, especially if gratification is immediate and repetitive. </li></ul><ul><li>Media provides models to our youth. </li></ul>
  13. 14. What Do youth Need? <ul><li>Sense of mastery and competence. </li></ul><ul><li>To acquire self-regulation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>regulation of attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulation of affect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manage mood states and anxieties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manage impulsivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manage their overall behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. What Do youth Need? <ul><li>To develop a capacity to self soothe in the face of disappointment. </li></ul><ul><li>To develop frustration tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Delay gratification </li></ul><ul><li>To develop a motivational system that facilitates prosocial adaptation. </li></ul>
  15. 16. What Do Television and Media Have to Do with youth’s Development? <ul><li>Media Industry has a major presence in our youth’s lives in America. ( youth spend more time with the media than any other activity besides sleeping ). </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, television and other media function as a major “school” of social learning. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Kaiser Family Foundation Study: <ul><li>“ Documented a potentially revolutionary phenomenon in American society: the immersion of our very youngest children, from a few months to a few years old, in the world of electronic and interactive media….it is an issue that demands immediate attention from parents, educators, researchers and health professionals .” </li></ul>
  17. 18. Media Ownership in United States <ul><li>In 1950, only 10% of American homes had a television. By 1960, that percentage had grown to 90%. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, 99% of homes have a television set. </li></ul><ul><li>97% have VCR’s & DVD’s </li></ul><ul><li>70% have video game players </li></ul><ul><li>two thirds have personal computers </li></ul>
  18. 19. Seduction of the Media <ul><li>Multimedia environment of “sight and sound” with many “bells and whistles” is very exciting to kids. </li></ul><ul><li>Television causes youth to be sedentary and passive. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Seduction of the Media <ul><li>youth often eat & drink high fat, high calorie, low nutritious foods while viewing television, videos & playing at video arcades. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a climate of high gratification. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Just the Facts: <ul><li>American young people will spend 15,000 hours watching television by the time they graduate from high school, versus 12,000 hours spent in formal classroom instruction. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Media Usage as % Time <ul><li>Television 41% </li></ul><ul><li>Audio media (radio, CD’s and tapes) 24% </li></ul><ul><li>Videotapes and movies 14% </li></ul><ul><li>Print 9% </li></ul><ul><li>Video games 6% </li></ul><ul><li>Computers 6% </li></ul>
  22. 23. Time Spent Watching Television <ul><li>Age Hrs/Min per week </li></ul><ul><li>2-5 years 27:49 </li></ul><ul><li>6-11 years 23:29 </li></ul><ul><li>teenaged boys 21:16 </li></ul><ul><li>teenaged women 33:40 </li></ul><ul><li>*data from 1990 Nielson report on television </li></ul>
  23. 24. Demographics <ul><li>78% whites vs. 55% African-Americans and 48% Hispanics live in computer equipped households </li></ul><ul><li>59% boys’ homes vs. 32% girls’ homes contain a video game system </li></ul>
  24. 25. Demographics Cont’d <ul><li>African-American youth: 10 hours per day of media exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic youth: 9 hours </li></ul><ul><li>White youth: 7 hours </li></ul>
  25. 26. Just the facts... <ul><li>54% of youth in the United States have a television in their room. </li></ul><ul><li>50% have their own video game system </li></ul>
  26. 27. What are youth watching? <ul><li>Before age 18, the average American child will witness over 200,000 acts of violence, including 16,000 murders. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Eron’s Research 1972 <ul><li>Research which tracked the viewing habits of single individuals found that 8 year old boys who viewed the most violent programs were most likely to engage in aggressive, delinquent behaviors by age 18, and serious criminal behavior by age 30. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Science 2002 by Johnson <ul><li>707 individuals followed for 17 years </li></ul><ul><li>Random sample from northern New York </li></ul><ul><li>Significant association between the amount of time spent watching television during adolescence and early adulthood and the likelihood of subsequent aggressive acts </li></ul>
  29. 30. Rock Music and Music Videos <ul><li>What does the research tell us? </li></ul>
  30. 31. More recent research data <ul><li>247 students in an Australian high school were studied for musical preferences and psychological health and lifestyle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>74% of the girls preferred pop music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70% of the boys preferred rock/heavy metal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>significant association between preference for rock/heavy metal and suicidal thoughts, acts of deliberate self-harm, depression, delinquency, drug taking and family dysfunction </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Australian Research Cont’d <ul><li>A subgoup of these adolescents with pre-existing family problems for whom the music resonated with their own feelings stated that the music made them feel better. </li></ul><ul><li>Another subgroup, representing 11% of the study, stated that the music made them sadder. </li></ul>
  32. 33. What are the youth viewing? <ul><li>50% of MTV videos contain episodes of frank violence </li></ul><ul><li>20% of rap videos portray violence </li></ul><ul><li>a weapon was displayed in 19% of rap and rock videos </li></ul><ul><li>25% of MTV videos portray tobacco use </li></ul><ul><li>25% of MTV videos portray alcohol use </li></ul>
  33. 34. What are the youth viewing? <ul><li>Japanese Anime: a new phenomenon with American adolescents. </li></ul><ul><li>Themes of good vs evil as well as sexual ambiguity. </li></ul>
  34. 35. What are our youth Watching? <ul><li>15% of videos showed instances of interpersonal violence </li></ul><ul><li>In those videos, 80% of the time, the aggressor was an attractive role model </li></ul><ul><li>Males are 3 times as likely to be the aggressor </li></ul><ul><li>Females are most often the victims </li></ul><ul><li>African-Americans were over-represented as both aggressors and victims compared to actual demographics </li></ul>
  35. 36. Research Results <ul><li>Violent video game play was a predictor of delinquency </li></ul><ul><li>Positive correlation between violent video games and aggressive personality </li></ul><ul><li>Total time spent playing has a detrimental effect on grades </li></ul>
  36. 37. Aspects of youth’s Development Affected by Media <ul><li>Learning : amount of time spent reading </li></ul><ul><li>Attention span </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior (modeling, imitation e.g. WWF) </li></ul><ul><li>Affective states esp. in vulnerable kids. </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological arousal (excitatory states) </li></ul><ul><li>Perception of time & development of “patience”e.g. “internet time” </li></ul>
  37. 38. Aspects of youth’s Development Affected by Media <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Choices as consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Relationships (empathy) </li></ul><ul><li>Health Status (obesity, diabetes) </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeping behaviors </li></ul>
  38. 39. Aspects of youth’s Development Affected by Media: <ul><li>Sexual behaviors: earlier sexual debut for high TV viewers. </li></ul><ul><li>Drug, alcohol & tobacco use: associated with high users of various media. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-social vs. antisocial development related to viewing aggressive acts. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Factors that mediate influence of media: Family Variables <ul><li>Parents used to have role of being protective barrier between the outside world and their youth. </li></ul><ul><li>Media is now very intrusive into the home. </li></ul><ul><li>Family’s baseline functioning is important e.g. adults’ viewing behavior, substance use, domestic violence, mental illness. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Family Factors... <ul><li>Family culture of use of media technology. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it used for education of life events or specific topics ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to minimize interactions between and among family members? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do youth have entertainment centers in their bedrooms? </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. Factors that Mediate Influence of Media: Individual Characteristics <ul><ul><li>temperament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resilience, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>current psychosocial risk factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>psychological vulnerabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>developmental level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social connectedness </li></ul></ul>
  42. 44. Societal Factors…. <ul><li>First amendment right makes regulation of media industry very challenging. </li></ul><ul><li>Media industry has resisted making substantive changes that would protect youth and youth. </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising industry dominates all forms of media. </li></ul>
  43. 45. Societal Factors Cont’d…. <ul><li>Direct to consumer ( including youth and adolescents ) marketing: defines what is desirable and imparts status among peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Disposable income is high in United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Society glamorizes sex & violence . </li></ul><ul><li>youth of all ages are less supervised (latch key kids) by adults. </li></ul>
  44. 46. Adverse Side Effects of Media <ul><li>Technological advances have always been met with ambivalence throughout history. </li></ul><ul><li>With the progress these advances bring they also have adverse consequences, both calculated and unintended. </li></ul>
  45. 47. Adverse Side Effects of Media <ul><li>Television and other media have become the “techie blankie” and technological babysitter for many youth. </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet simulates friendships that do not help in the development of negotiation and compromise skills. </li></ul>
  46. 48. How Can We Respond? <ul><li>American Academy of Pediatric’s Media Matters Campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>We must become “media literate.” </li></ul><ul><li>Teach families how to use good judgement about the use of media in the home. </li></ul>
  47. 49. How Can We Respond? <ul><li>Public health approach: consider concept of early preventive intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach parents to match the media viewing/use to child’s developmental level. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider both the content and context within which TV and other media are being used. </li></ul>
  48. 50. Importance of the Media History <ul><li>to learn how a child spends his/her time </li></ul><ul><li>to begin to access a child’s inner world </li></ul><ul><li>to obtain information about self-soothing </li></ul><ul><li>to learn about parent availability and interactive style </li></ul>
  49. 51. How Can We Respond? <ul><li>Utilize parental controls on the Internet, know what our youth are watching, what videos they are playing, and use V-Chip on the television. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage discussion of violent, sexual, discriminatory, stereotypic, traumatic or otherwise disturbing themes seen in news, documentaries or other programs. </li></ul>
  50. 52. Conclusion... <ul><li>Environment plays a significant role in how youth learn and behave, and the adults they become. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that the environment influences actual brain development. </li></ul>
  51. 53. Conclusion cont’d... <ul><li>Television & other media have a powerful impact on major aspects of our youth’s development: </li></ul><ul><li>academic recreational </li></ul><ul><li>social health behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>moral </li></ul>
  52. 54. How Can We Respond? <ul><li>Most of all, let us utilize Television and other media to promote adaptive functioning in our youth. There is a lot that can be positive about the media. </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that youth who use TV in educational manner early in life, continue to do so into adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>Support parents’ role in shaping and managing the media environment for their children. </li></ul>