2012Viral Marketing D.Malathy @ Chithra, PG student Department of Management Studies Sri ManakulaVinayagar Engineering College, Puducherrry. Vishmitha031990@gmail.com Ph no: 9487578187 1/1/2012
to the spread of viruses or computerAbstract: viruses (cf. memes and memetics). It can be delivered by word of mouth On the Internet, viral marketing is or enhanced by the network effectsany marketing technique that induces Web of the Internet. Viral marketing maysites or users to pass on a marketing take the form of video clips,message to other sites or users, creating a interactive Flash games, advergames,potentially exponential growth in the ebooks, brandable software, images,messages visibility and effect. One example or text messages.of successful viral marketing is Hotmail, acompany, now owned by Microsoft, that The ultimate goal of marketers interested inpromotes its service and its own advertisers creating successful viral marketing programsmessages in every users e-mail notes. is to create viral messages that appeal to individuals with high social networking Some marketing people prefer terms potential (SNP) and that have a highother than viral marketing. Web, probability of being presented and spread byalternatives, including other terms in current these individuals and their competitors inuse. Among those suggested have been: their communications with others in a short period of time.avalanche marketingbuzz marketing The term "viral marketing" has also beencascading style marketing used pejoratively to refer to stealthcentrifugal marketing marketing campaigns—the unscrupulous useexponential marketing of astroturfing online combined withfission marketing undermarket advertising in shopping centersgrass roots marketing to create the impression of spontaneousorganic marketing word of mouth enthusiasm.propogation marketingreferral marketing (borrowing a term longused in marketing prior to the Web)ripple marketingself-perpetuation marketing Historyself-propogation marketingwildfire marketing The emergence of "viral marketing," as an approach to sales, has been tied to theIntroduction: popularization of the notion that ideas spread like viruses. The field that developed Viral marketing, viral advertising, around this notion, memetics, peaked in or marketing buzz are buzzwords popularity in the 1990s. As this then began referring to marketing techniques to influence marketing gurus, it took on a that use pre-existing social networks life of its own in that new context. to produce increases in brand awareness or to achieve other There is debate on the origination and the marketing objectives (such as popularization of the specific term viral product sales) through self- marketing, though some of the earliest uses replicating viral processes, analogous of the current term are attributed to the
FunctioningHarvard Business School graduate TimDraper and faculty member Jeffrey Rayport.The term was later popularized by Rayportin the 1996 Fast Company article "The According to marketing professors AndreasVirus of Marketing," and Tim Draper and Kaplan and Michael Haenlein, to make viralSteve Jurvetson of the venture capital firm marketing work, three basic criteria must beDraper Fisher Jurvetson in 1997 to describe met, i.e., giving the right message to theHotmails practice of appending advertising right messengers in the right environment:to outgoing mail from their users. 1. Messenger: Three specific types ofAmong the first to write about viral messengers are required to ensure themarketing on the Internet was the media transformation of an ordinary messagecritic Douglas Rushkoff. The assumption is into a viral one: market mavens, socialthat if such an advertisement reaches a hubs, and salespeople. Market mavens"susceptible" user, that user becomes are individuals who are continuously"infected" (i.e., accepts the idea) and shares ‘on the pulse’ of things (informationthe idea with others "infecting them," in the specialists); they are usually among theviral analogys terms. As long as each first to get exposed to the message andinfected user shares the idea with more than who transmit it to their immediateone susceptible user on average (i.e., the social network. Social hubs are peoplebasic reproductive rate is greater than one— with an exceptionally large number ofthe standard in epidemiology for qualifying social connections; they often knowsomething as an epidemic), the number of hundreds of different people and haveinfected users grows according to an the ability to serve as connectors orexponential curve. Of course, the marketing bridges between different subcultures.campaign may be successful even if the Salespeople might be needed whomessage spreads more slowly, if this user- receive the message from the marketto-user sharing is sustained by other forms maven, amplify it by making it moreof marketing communications, such as relevant and persuasive, and thenpublic relations or advertising. transmit it to the social hub for further distribution. Market mavens may notBob Gerstley was among the first to write be particularly convincing inabout algorithms designed to identify people transmitting the information.with high Social Networking Potential. 2. Message: Only messages that are bothGerstley employed SNP algorithms in memorable and sufficiently interestingquantitative marketing research. In 2004, the to be passed on to others have the potential to spur a viral marketingconcept of the alpha user was coined to phenomenon. Making a message moreindicate that it had now become possible to memorable and interesting or simplyidentify the focal members of any viral more infectious, is often not a matter ofcampaign, the "hubs" who were most major changes but minor adjustments.influential. Alpha users could be targeted for 3. Environment: The environment isadvertising purposes most accurately in crucial in the rise of successful viralmobile phone networks, as mobile phones marketing – small changes in theare so personal. environment lead to huge results, and people are much more sensitive to
environment. The timing and context of investors. Early investors enthusiastically the campaign launch must be right. recruit their friends, generating exponential growth until the pool of available investorsWhereas Kaplan, Haenlein and others is tapped out and the scheme collapses.reduce the role of marketers to crafting theinitial viral message and seeding it, futurist Early in its existence (perhaps between 1988and sales and marketing analyst Marc and 1992), the television show MysteryFeldman, who conducted IMT Strategies’ Science Theater 3000 had limitedlandmark viral marketing study in 2001, distribution. The producers encouragedcarves a different role for marketers which viewers to make copies of the show on videopushes the ‘art’ of viral marketing much tapes and give them to friends in order tocloser to ‘science. expand viewership and increase demand for the fledgling Comedy Central network.Feldman points out that when marketers take During this period the closing creditsa disciplined approach to viral marketing by included the words "Keep circulating thetargeting, measuring and continually tapes!"optimizing their campaigns based oncampaign metrics, viral marketing In 2000, Slate.com described TiVostransforms the customer into a new sales unpublicized gambit of giving free systemschannel, a new lead generation channel and to web-savvy enthusiasts to create "viral"a new awareness generating channel. word of mouth, pointing out that a viralFeldmans innovative reconceptualization of campaign differs from a publicity stunt.viral marketers went a long way towards Both the second and third games in the Halomaking "viral marketing" a strategy that series were preceded with viral marketing insales and marketing directors at Fortune 500 the form of an alternate reality game called Iand Global 1000 companies could Love Bees for the second game, and Iris forlegitimately invest in. This disciplined the third game.approach to Viral Marketing that Feldmanfirst carved out, pointed the way towards Burger King has used several marketingmeasuring the ROI of every viral marketing campaigns. Its The Subservient Chickencampaign and thus making a real business campaign, running from 2004 until 2007,case for investing in viral marketing. The was an example of viral or word-of-mouthcustomer-as-a-sales-channel approach to marketing. Burger Kings launched itsviral marketing went on to become the "Whopper Sacrifice" campaign in 2009.foundation for an explosion of technologyenabled viral marketing services offered The Blendtec viral video series Will Itonline, offline and in blended hybrid Blend? debuted in 2006.. In the show, Tomapproaches. Dickson, the Blendtec founder, attempts to blend various unusual items in order to showNotable examples off the power of his blender. Will it Blend? has been nominated for the 2007 YouTube award for Best Series, winner of .NetThe Ponzi scheme and related investment Magazines 2007 Viral Video campaign ofpyramid schemes are early examples of viral the year and winner of the Bronze level Cliomarketing. In each round, investors are paid Award for Viral Video in 2008.interest from the principal deposits of later
Cadburys Dairy Milk 2007 Gorilla The 2008 film Cloverfield was firstadvertising campaign was heavily publicized with a teaser trailer that did notpopularised on YouTube and Facebook advertise the films title, only its release date: "01·18·08." Elements of the viralThe 2007 concept album Year Zero by Nine marketing campaign included MySpaceInch Nails employed a viral marketing pages created for fictional characters andcampaign, including the band leaving USB websites created for fictional companiesdrives at concerts during NINs 2007 alluded to in the film.European Tour. This was followed up withan alternate reality game using series of The Big Word Project, launched in 2008,interlinked websites revealing clues and aimed to redefine the Oxford Englishinformation about the dystopian future in Dictionary by allowing people to submitwhich the album is set. their website as the definition of their chosen word. The project, created to fund In 2007, World Wrestling Entertainment two Masters students educations, attractedpromoted the return of Chris Jericho with a the attention of bloggers worldwide, andviral marketing campaign using 15-second was featured on Daring Fireball and Wiredcryptic binary code videos. The videos Magazine.contained hidden messages and biblicallinks related to Jericho, although speculationexisted throughout WWE fans over whomthe campaign targeted. The text "Save Us" The marketing campaign for the 2008 filmand "2nd Coming" were most prominent in The Dark Knight combined both online andthe videos. The campaign spread throughout real-life elements to make it resemble anthe internet with numerous websites, though alternate reality game. Techniques includedno longer operational, featuring hidden mass gatherings of Joker fans, scavengermessages and biblical links to further hint at hunts around the world, detailed andJerichos return. intricate websites that let fans actually participate in "voting" for political offices in In 2007, Portuguese football club Sporting Gotham City, hidden phone numbers andPortugal integrated a viral feature in their websites in the queue lines of The Darkcampaign for season seats. In their website, Knight roller coasters at Six Flags Greata video required the user to input his name America and Six Flags Great Adventure,and phone number before playback started, and even a Gotham News Network that haswhich then featured the coach Paulo Bento links to other Gotham pages such as Gothamand the players waiting at the locker room Rail, a Gotham travel agency, and politicalwhile he makes a phone call to the user candidates pages. The movie also marketstelling him that they just cant start the heavily off of word of mouth from theseason until the user buys his season ticket. thousands of Batman fans.Flawless video and phone callsynchronization and the fact that it was a In 2009 American rapper Eminem heavilytotally new experience for the user led to promoted his new album Relapse (album)nearly 200,000 pageviews phone calls in with the fictional rehabilitation centerless than 24 hours. Popsomp Hills (pronounced: Pop some pills) by shooting the music video for the song 3 a.m. (Eminem song) in the building of the
rehabilitation center. He mentions Popsomp Multiple forms of print and directHills in various tracks on Relapse (album) marketingand his newest album Recovery. He also Outbound/inbound call center servicesmocks some other rehabilitation centers like Target marketing Web servicesthe Brighton Rehabilitation Center in the Search engine optimization (SEO) websong Underground with the line Two developmentweeks in Brighton, I aint enlightened. Social media interconnectivityAfter the Eminem campaign, the Television & radiorehabilitation center had many more visits. VMS target marketing is based on threeBetween December 2009 and March 2010 a important principles:series of seven videos were posted toYouTube under the name "iamamiwhoami" 1. Social profile gatheringleading to speculation that they were a 2. Proximity market analysismarketing campaign for a musician. In 3. Real-time key word density analysisMarch 2010, an anonymous package wassent to an MTV journalist claiming to By applying these three importantcontain a code which if cracked would give disciplines to an advertising model, a VMSthe identity of the artist. The seventh video, company is able to match a client with theirentitled y, appears to feature the Swedish targeted customers at a cost effectivesinger Jonna Lee. advantage.On July 14, 2010, Old Spice launched the The Internet makes it possible for afastest growing online viral video campaign campaign to go viral very fast. However,theever, garnering 6.7 million views after 24 Internet and in particular, social mediahours, ballooning over 23 million views technologies do not make a brand viral; theyafter 36 hours. Old Spices agency created a just enable people to tell other people faster.bathroom set in Portland, OR and had their The Internet can, so to speak, make a brandTV commercial star, Isaiah Mustafa, reply to famous overnight.186 online comments and questions fromwebsites like Twitter, Facebook, Reddit, Social networking growthDigg, Youtube and others. The campaignran for 3 days. Two thirds of the world’s Internet population now visit a social network orViral marketing has also been used to bring blog site weekly. 220+ million people visitabout flash mobs. the top 25 social networks each month. Facebook has 500+ million active users.Methods Time spent visiting Social media sites now exceeds time spent emailing. 52% of people who find news online forward it on through Customer participation & polling social networks, email, or posts. 59% of services adults polled state that they use their cell Industry-specific organization phone to remain connected with their social contributions network. Internet search engines & blogs Mobile smartphone integration
Conclusion:Viral Marketing can be effectively used topromote business activities. Et act as anmedia between the suppliers and thecustomers.