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  • 1. Teaching for Academic Learning Professor Bill Bauer EDUC 202 Marietta College Chapter 12 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 2. Overview     Motivation to Learn in School On TARGETT for Learning Teacher Expectations Strategies to Encourage Motivation and Thoughtful Learning Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 3. Concept Map for Chapter 11 Strategies for Motivation & Thoughtful Learning Motivation to Learn in School Motivation, Teaching, and Learning Teacher Expectations Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon On TARGETT for Learning
  • 4. Motivation to Learn in School  Goals for students:     Productive involvement State motivation Trait motivation Thoughtful learners Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 5. On TARGETT for Learning        Task motivation Autonomy Rewards Grouping Evaluation & feedback Time for learning Teacher expectations Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon See Table 11.2, Woolfolk, p. 404
  • 6. Tasks for Learning   Task operations: risk & ambiguity Task value      Attainment value Intrinsic or interest value Utility value Authentic tasks Problem-based learning Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 7. Doyle’s Task Operations AMBIGUITY RISK High High Low Comprehension Comprehension Opinion Opinion A M B I G U I T Y D oyle’s Ta sk Opera tio ns O non pi i C pr hni o om e e s n D f cuM or Ta k i i l em y s t r o R t ne ou i Si pl M or Tas m e em y k or R t ne ou i R K S I Low Difficult memory Difficult memory or difficult routine or difficult routine Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Simple memory Simple memory or simple routine or simple routine
  • 8. Supporting Autonomy and Recognizing Accomplishments  Supporting student choices     Bounded choices Student choice on feedback See Figure 11.2, Woolfolk, p. 409 Recognizing accomplishment    Authentic praise Personal improvement Cautions for use of rewards! Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 9. Grouping, Evaluation, & Time  Goal structures  Competitive Cooperative       Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon STAD TGT Individualistic Effects of evaluation Effects of time pressure
  • 10. Teacher Expectations     Pygmalion in the classroom Self-fulfilling prophecy Sustaining expectation effect Sources of expectations    IQ tests Sex differences Reputations Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 11. Perspective on Teacher Expectations “Students will rise to the level of expectation.” Jaime Escalante Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 12. Teacher Behaviors and Student Reactions  Instructional strategies   Teacher comments about expectations Teacher-student interaction differences     Quality and quantity of questions Amount of time to answer Number of teacher interruptions Nonverbal behaviors See Table 11.4, Woolfolk, p. 418, and Guidelines, p. 420 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 
  • 13. Reflection Questions    Think of a teacher that was particularly encouraging for you. What motivation strategies did that teacher employ? Do you have any biases or behaviors that may send messages to students that they lack competence? How will you monitor possible biases that you may have? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 14. Strategies to Encourage Motivation and Thoughtful Learning Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 15. Necessary Classroom Conditions  Organized classroom  Free from interruptions  Safe-to-fail environment  Challenging but reasonable work  Authentic, worthwhile tasks Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 16. Critical Student Questions    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Can I do it? Do I want to do it? What do I need to do to succeed?
  • 17. Building Confidence & Positive Expectations       Match tasks to student ability level Move in small steps Clear, specific, attainable learning goals Stress self-comparison Communicate that academic ability can be improved Model good problem solving Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 18. Seeing the Value of Learning     Younger students: intrinsic/interest value Older students: utility value Attainment value: achievable Intrinsic value     Tie class activities to student interests Arouse curiosity Make learning fun Use novelty and familiarity Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 19. Seeing the Value of Learning: Instrumental    Explain connections Provide incentives and rewards if needed Authentic tasks:   Ill-structured Real world problems Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 20. Staying Focused on the Task       Frequent opportunities to respond Have students create finished products Avoid heavy emphasis on grades and competition Reduce task risk without oversimplifying the task Model motivation to learn Teach particular learning tactics Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 21. Beginning Teachers & Motivation Approaches by Rank     Reward/punishment Attention-focusing Relevance Confidence-building See Figure 11.5, Woolfolk, p. 425 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 22. Beginning Teachers’ Motivation Strategies Reward/Punish Build Confidence Focus Attention Relevance Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 23. Student Views of Motivation     Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Know YOUR students Expect developmental differences Expect individual differences Use TARGETT to help meet the needs of YOUR students
  • 24. Honest Enthusiasm Is Contagious Western Michigan University Men’s Basketball Coach, 1975 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 25. Scenarios The next three slides highlight three scenarios based on real students. Reflect on each scenario. How will you apply the principles of motivation to help each student succeed? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 26. Heidi : 1st Grade  Very quiet: shy  Will not speak out loud in class  Will not maintain eye contact  Poor reading skills  Draws beautifully  Writes poetry Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 27. Josh : 4th Grade  ADHD  Child of divorce  Monday depression  Dad is ex-Marine drill sergeant  15% homework handed in  Loves class discussions Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 28. Adam : Junior High  Low grades  Physically big & athletic  Vandalism with police record  Interview: honest, intelligent, & witty  Helpful with other students  No homework handed in Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 29. Reflection Questions    What are ways of soliciting information about what motivates your students? If several members of the French Club are in your math class, how could you tie their interests in French with your math content? In your discipline, how will you connect content with real world, authentic tasks? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 30. Summary  Motivation to Learn in School  On TARGETT for Learning  Teacher Expectations  Strategies to Encourage Motivation and Thoughtful Learning Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 31. Review Questions       Define motivation to learn. What does TARGETT stand for? How do tasks affect motivation? What does it mean for students to “negotiate a task”? What are the three kinds of task value? Distinguish between bounded and unbounded choices. Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 32. Review Questions     How can recognition undermine motivation and a sense of self-efficacy? What determines whether a goal structure is cooperative, competitive, or individualistic? How does evaluative climate affect goalsetting? What are some effects of time on motivation? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 33. Review Questions     What are some sources of teacher expectations? What are the two kinds of expectation effects and how do they happen? What are the different avenues for communicating teacher expectations? What are four conditions that must exist in a classroom before any motivational strategies can be successful? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 34. Review Questions    What else can teachers do to motivate students? What are the most commonly used motivational strategies of beginning teachers? What can we learn from students about motivation? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  • 35. End Chapter 11 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon