Solved Question Papers   (With Chapter wise Reference)             Kannada-EnglishPhysicalScienceFirst EditionProf.L .R.Ku...
Physical Science  Solved Question Papers   (With Chapter wise Page Reference)         Prof. L.R.Kulkarni             Assoc...
Dedicated to             My ParentsShri. Ranganath Srinivas KulkarniSmt. Kaveribai Ranganath Kulkarni                     ...
Foreword      Prof. Laxman Ranganath Kulkarni is a veteran teacher educatorwith more than three decades of teaching experi...
Preface     In modern times, the future of every country depends on scientific& technological development. India is a deve...
Acknowledgements       It gives me immense pleasure to extend my acknowledgements to my belovedson Shri. Shrinidhi Kulkarn...
ContentsUnit – I Methods and Approaches of Teaching Physical ScienceUnit – II Uses and Management of Physical ScienceUnit ...
7|Page
Page                                  Questions                                                 Examination               ...
Unit – II Uses and Management of Physical ScienceUnit – III Concept and Importance of EvaluationShort Essay (5 Marks)¤Ã®£À...
      ®¨såÀ «gÀĪÀ G¥ÀPgtUÀ¼À AiÀiÁ¢AiÀÄ£ÀÄß £ÉÆÃrPÉÆAqÀÄ ªÉüÁ¥ÀwæPÉ vÀAiÀiÁj¸À®Ä                        À À       C£ÀÄP...
participate in and have an appreciation for the          and results of a demonstration.    methods of science.   Explora...
EAzÀÄ ªÀiÁzsåÀ «ÄPÀ ±Á¯ÉU¼À°è ¢£ÀªÀÇ ¨Á£ÀÄ° ¥ÁoÀUÀ½UÁV MAzÀÄ CªÀ¢üAiÀÄ£ÀÄß                                           À    ...
ºÀAvÀ 7    ¥ÀwAiÉÆAzÀÄ «zszÀ MAzÉÆAzÀÄ ¥À±ÉßUÉ vÀ¯Á JµÀÄÖ CAPÀUÀ¼À£Äß ¤ÃqÀ¨ÃPÁUÀĪÀzÀÄ                 æ                  ...
¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ ¸ÀÄvÀt ¥Àj¸ÀgÀzÀ «ªÀgÀuÉ:                       Û     ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀ±Á¯ÉAiÀÄÄ vÀgÀUÀw PÉÆÃuÉ, ¸ÀAVÃvÀ PÉÆÃuÉ...
     vÀ£ßÀ ªÀÈwÛAiÀÄ J®è ²PÀëPÀgÀ£ÀÄß UËgÀªÀ¢AzÀ PÁtĪÀ£ÀÄ.     DzÀ±ð «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ£ÀÄ «ZÁgÀ ¸ÀAQÃtð, «ZÁgÀ UÉÆö×, ¸ÁA¸...
     ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ ¸ÀÄvÀÛªÀÄÄvÀÛ®Ä ºÀ¹gÀÄ ¸À¸ÀåUÀ¼ÀÄ EgÀ¨ÃPÀÄ.        æ                                               ...
15. a. Write an essay on ’Guided-Discovery-Method’ of teaching physical science with reference to the       following:    ...
1. Explain the steps of demonstration method in physical science teaching. (2008)Ans:      Planning and Preparation:     ...
3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of ‘Inductive approach’? (2008) 5MAns:Advantages :      Develops scientific ...
 It becomes burden to the teacher.      Lecture-cum-demonstration Method:       Advantages:         It will make studen...
Example:Principle: Cooling is caused by evaporation.Confirmation by application: it can be confirmed by numerous applicati...
    ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£É ºÉZÀÄÑ ¥ÀjuÁªÀÄPÁjAiÀÄÆ ºÁUÀÆ PÀ°PÉAiÀÄÄ ºÀZÀÄÑ ¸ÀzÈÀ qsÀªÁVAiÀÄÆ       æ     DVgÀÄvÀÛzÉ.¥...
5. ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼À §UÉÎ ¸ÀAQë¥ÀÛ n¥Ààt §gɬÄj. (2009) 5 CAPÀ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ J®è «ªÀgÉU¼À£Äß M¼ÀUÉÆArgÀĪÀAvÀ...
      «zÁåyðUÀ¼ÀÄ EqÀĪÀ zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼Ä:                                  À         ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀzÀ £ÉÆÃmï§ÄPï: «zÁåyð vÁ£ÀÄ PÉÊ...
The Biographical method is used while narrating about the life of scientist which come across whileteaching Physical Scien...
    ªÀiÁ»wAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¨sÉâ¸ÀĪÀªÀ / ¤µÀàPÀë ªÀiÁ»w ¤ÃqÀĪÀªÀ (2006£Éà ¸Á°£À ¥À±ÉߥÀwæPÉAiÀÄ ¥À±Éß                          ...
    QèµÀÖ jÃwAiÀÄ C¸ÀªÀÄ¥ÀðPÀ «ªÀguÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ºÉÆA¢gÀĪÀ ¥ÀoÀå¥ÀĸÀÛPÀU¼ÀÄ.                                   À           ...
    ¥ÀÄ£À±ÑÉÃvÀ£À vÀg¨Ãw ²©gÀ: ²PÀëPÀgÄ ©qÀÄ«£À ªÉüÉAiÀÄ°è EAvÀºÀ C£ÉÃPÀ ¥ÀÄ£À±ÑÉÃvÀ£À                      À É         ...
      ºÉƸÀ ºÉƸÀ G¥ÀPgtUÀ¼À vÀAiÀiÁjPÉUÉ «zÁåyðUÀ¼À£Äß ¥ÉÆæÃvÁ컸ÀĪÀzÄ.                       À À                      ...
     There is possibility to draw the attention of all the pupils of the class simultaneously.     All students can see ...
      It has limited applicability as every information cannot be verified through the laboratory work.5. Explain the org...
Physical Science e-Question bank
Physical Science e-Question bank
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Physical Science e-Question bank

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Prof.L.R.Kulkarni
Kamala Baliga College of Education
Kumta

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Transcript of "Physical Science e-Question bank"

  1. 1. Solved Question Papers (With Chapter wise Reference) Kannada-EnglishPhysicalScienceFirst EditionProf.L .R.Kulkarni http://lrkulkarni.blogspot.com
  2. 2. Physical Science Solved Question Papers (With Chapter wise Page Reference) Prof. L.R.Kulkarni Associate Professor Kamala Baliga College of Education Kumta http://lrkulkarni.blogspot.com 1|Page
  3. 3. Dedicated to My ParentsShri. Ranganath Srinivas KulkarniSmt. Kaveribai Ranganath Kulkarni 2|Page
  4. 4. Foreword Prof. Laxman Ranganath Kulkarni is a veteran teacher educatorwith more than three decades of teaching experience. Prof. L.R.Kulkarni has been conscious teacher educator with aconstant eye for professional growth & positive changes in his work as amoulder of student teachers & his own colleague. A year back he has opened his own blog lrkulkarniblogspot.comwhich is useful to the budding teachers in the field of education. His blogis being extensively used by student teachers, teacher educators & schoolteachers. Now the creative mind of Prof. L.R.Kulkarni has come out with a“e – question bank on Physical science Teaching”. I wish him every success in the present & future endeavors. Maythe teaching fraternity derive maximum benefit out of the blog. With warm wishes Dr. Vishwanath. D. Kerur Retired Principal Kamala Baliga College Of Education, Kumta Presently NAAC peer Committee member 3|Page
  5. 5. Preface In modern times, the future of every country depends on scientific& technological development. India is a developing nation. Her future isvery much dependent on the progress of science & technology.Therefore it’s in the fitness of things that science teaching and learningshould be given special attention. The scientific attitude which Indianslack so much should be ingrained right from the childhood. Mostschools have no proper facilities. The same is in case of colleges ofteacher education. Science teachers should be thoroughly conversantwith the objectives of teaching, teaching process & in evaluationmethod. In evaluation system, now a day’s question banks are playing agreater role. So I taught of making available to our students e-questionbank. My e-question bank to start with covers only second semesterphysical science methods of teaching. In future, e question bank will be made available to all the subjectsfor the B.Ed course. However, suggestions for improvement are invitedfrom the readers and learners. Prof.L.R.Kulkarni B.sc., M.A., M.A., M.Ed. Associate Professor Kamla Baliga College of Education 4|Page
  6. 6. Acknowledgements It gives me immense pleasure to extend my acknowledgements to my belovedson Shri. Shrinidhi Kulkarni for taking the challenge of creating e – question bank &inserting into my blog. I sincerely thank my former Principal Dr. Vishwanath.D.Kerur for inspiring meto start up a innovative unique method of teaching – learning & evaluation. I extend my sincere thanks to our Principal & staff for supporting my blog. I also thank the following students of this year (2011 – 2012) for creation ofmanual question bank on second semester Physical science syllabus.Padmashree.B.M Maitri .HegdeAsha. Keni Malati. MogerAsma bi Wahab Namita. HegdeNaheeda Anjum Nayana. NaikRehana Kanvalli Ragavendra. NaikShweta. NaIK Sadhana. HegdeAmrutha. H.R Samprada. PalankarAsha. Shet Seema. NaikBhaskar. Naik Sheetal. BhandariDinesh. Naik Sherlin FernandesDivya Honnavar Shweta. N. GDivya.Naik Supriya. BhandariGayatri. Naik Swati. NayakC. Harsha Vasavi. BhatJyothi.D. Naik Vidyashree. NaikJyothi. S. Naik Zubeda nazneenKavya. Shanbhag 5|Page
  7. 7. ContentsUnit – I Methods and Approaches of Teaching Physical ScienceUnit – II Uses and Management of Physical ScienceUnit – III Concept and Importance of EvaluationUnit – IV Co-curricular Activities in Physical ScienceUnit – V Role and Functions of Physical Science Teacher 6|Page
  8. 8. 7|Page
  9. 9. Page Questions Examination No.Unit – I Methods and Approaches of Teaching Physical ScienceLong Essay (10 Marks)¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ zÁR¯ÉU¼ÉAzÀgÉãÀÄ? CªÀÅ KPÉ ªÀĺÀvÀé ÀºÉÆA¢ªÉ? CªÀÅUÀ¼£ÀÄß ¤ÃªÀÅ ºÉÃUÉ gÀQë¸ÀÄ«j ºÁUÀÆ §¼À¸ÀÄ«j? À 9 2006DzÀ±ð ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ CªÀ±åÀ PÀ ®PÀëtUÀ¼ÁªÀªÅÀ ? ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À À¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ°è vÉUÉzÄPÉƼÀÀÄzÁzÀ À ¸ÀÄgÀPëÀvÁ ªÀÄÄAeÁUÀævÁ 15 2007PÀæªÀÄUÀ¼ÁªÀªÅÀ ? «ªÀj¹j.Write an essay on ’Guided-Discovery-Method’ of teaching physicalscience with reference to the following:  Meaning 17 2007  Merits and Demerits  Teacher-RoleExplain the steps of demonstration method in physical science 18 2008teaching.critically analyse the advantages and disadvantages of followingmethods of teaching Physical Science:  Guided discovery method 19 2008  Lecture cum demonstration method  Individual instruction technique‘¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀĪÀÅ ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉUÉ Cw CUÀvÀåªÁzÀ WÀlPÀªÁVzÉ’ FºÉýPÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃd£À ªÀÄvÀÄÛ PÉÊUÉƼÀÄîªÀ PÁAiÀÄðUÀ½AzÀ 21 2009¸ÀªÄyð¹. ÀCritically analyse meaning, merits and demerits of the followingmethods of teaching physical science. 29 2010  Demonstration Method  Laboratory MethodCritically analyse the difference between Inductive approach andDeductive approach with reference to following:  Meaning 31 2011  How and when to use  Merits and DemeritsShort Essay (5 Marks)Distinguish between ‘Demonstration method’ and ‘Laboratory 10 2006Method’.¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ CªÀ±åÀ PÀvÉ K£ÀÄ? CzÀgÀ ¸ÀÄvÀÛt ¥Àj¸ÀgÀª£ÀÄß À«ªÀj¹. 13 2006¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ°è ‘¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀ±Á¯É’AiÀÄ ¥ÁvÀ檣ÀÄß «ªÀj¹. À 15 2007What are the merits and demerits of ‘Lecture Demonstration Method’? 16 2007What are the advantages and disadvantages of ‘Inductive approach’? 19 2008How to make use of deductive approach? Explain with suitable 20 2008example.¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ zÁR¯ÉU¼À §UÉÎ ¸ÀAQë¥ÀÛ n¥Ààt §gɬÄj. À 23 2009Write an essay on ‘Biographical method of Teaching’ with reference to 24 2009its meaning, need, context of use and merits.¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀ±Á¯Á zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ªÀåªÀ¹ÜvÀªÁV ªÀVÃðPÀj¹ ¸ÀAQë¥ÀÛ n¥Ààt§gɬÄj. 26 2010Explain the organizational steps in problem solving approach. 31 2011 8|Page
  10. 10. Unit – II Uses and Management of Physical ScienceUnit – III Concept and Importance of EvaluationShort Essay (5 Marks)¤Ã®£ÀPÉë «£Áå¸ÀzÀ ºÀAvÀU¼ÁªÀªÅÀ ? ¸ÀAQë¥ÀÛzÀ°è «ªÀj¹. À 12 2006, 2007Unit – IV Co-curricular Activities in Physical ScienceLong Essay (10 Marks) 2006, 2008, 2011Unit – V Role and Functions of Physical Science TeacherLong Essay (10 Marks)¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ£À ¥ÁvÀæzÀ PÀÄjvÀÄ F PɼÀV£À «µÀAiÀÄPÉÌ ¸ÀA§A¢ü¹zÀAvɤ§AzsÀª£ÀÄß §gɬÄj. À  ªÀiÁ»w ©vÀÛj¸ÀĪÀª£ÁVÀ 11  gÉÃrAiÉÆà ºÁUÀÆ n.«. PÁAiÀÄðPÀæªÀÄUÀ¼À ¸Á»vÀå §gÀºÀUÁgÀ£ÁV  gÀ¸¥Àæ±ßÉ ¥ÀArvÀ£ÁV À¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPgÀ PÀÄjvÀÄ F PɼÀV£À CA±ÀUÀ¼À£Áßzsj¹, «ªÀıÁðvÀäPªÁV À À À«±Éèö¹j.  CªÀgÄ JzÀÄj¸ÀÄwÛgÀĪÀ ¸ÁªÀiÁ£Àå ¸ÀªÄ¸ÉåUÀ¼Ä À À À 26 2010  CªÀgÀ ªÀÈwÛ ¨É¼ÀªtÂUÉUÉ EgÀĪÀ CªÀPÁ±ÀU¼ÀÄ (ªÀiÁUÀðUÀ¼ÀÄ) À À  «zÁåyðUÀ¼°è D¸ÀQÛ ¥ÉÆõÀuÉ ÀShort Essay (5 Marks)DzÀ±ð ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ²PÀëP£À UÀÄt®PÀëtUÀ¼À£ÀÄß «ªÀj¹j. À À 14 2006, 2008ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ªÀiÁ»wAiÀÄ£ÀÄß «zÁåyðUÀ½UÉ ¥ÀæZÀÄgÀ ¥Àr¸ÀĪÀ°è ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPgÀ À¥ÁvÀ檣ÀÄß «ªÀj¹. À 25 2009«zÁåyðUÀ¼°è ¸ÀÈd£À²Ã®vÉ ¨É¼É¸®Ä ¤ÃªÀÅ vÉUÉzÀÄPÉƼÀÄîªÀ ZÀlĪÀnPÉU¼À£ÀÄß À À ÀZÀað¹. 28 20102. ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼ÉAzÀgÉãÀÄ? CªÀÅ KPÉ ªÀĺÀvÀé ºÉÆA¢ªÉ? CªÀÅUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ¤ÃªÀźÉÃUÉ gÀQë¸ÀÄ«j ºÁUÀÆ §¼À¸Ä«j?(2006) 10 CAPÀ À ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ PÁAiÀÄðPÉÌ ¸ÀA§A¢ü¹zÀAvÉ, ¨sËvÀ±Á¸ÀÛç ºÁUÀÆ gÀ¸ÁAiÀÄ£À±Á¸ÀÛçzÀ°è æ«zÁåyðUÀ¼ÀÄ ºÁUÀÆ ²PÀëPÀgÄ PÉ®ªÉÇAzÀÄ ¥ÀÄgÁªÉUÀ¼À£Äß EqÀ¨ÃPÁUÀÄvÀÛzÉ. EªÀÅUÀ½UÉ ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À À À É¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ JAzÀÄ PÀgÉAiÀÄĪÀgÀÄ. æªÀĺÀvéÀ: EªÀÅUÀ¼ÀÄ ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀ PÁAiÀÄðPÉÌ ¨ÉÃPÁzÀAvÀºÀ G¥ÀPgtUÀ¼ÀÄ EzÉAiÉÆà E®èªÉÇà JA§ÄzÀ£Äß æ À À À w½¸ÀÄvÀÛªÉ. ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀ±Á¯ÉUÉ JµÀÄÖ G¥ÀPgtUÀ¼À£Äß Rjâ¸À¯ÁVzÉ JA§ÄzÀ£Äß w½¸ÀÄvÀÛzÉ. æ À À À À F zÁR¯ÉUÀ½AzÀ Rjâ¹zÀ G¥ÀPÀgÀtUÀ¼À ¨É¯É, AiÀiÁªÀ ªÀÄAqÀ½(PÀA¥À¤)¬ÄAzÀ Rjâ¸À¯ÁVzÉ JA§ ªÉÆzÀ¯ÁzÀ «ªÀgU¼À£Äß w½AiÀħºÀÄzÁVzÉ. À À À ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ zÁR¯ÉUÀ½AzÀ ¯ÉÆúÀzÀ ªÀ¸ÀÄÛU¼ÀÄ J¶ÖªÉ? UÁf£À ªÀ¸ÀÄÛU¼ÀÄ J¶ÖªÉ æ À À JA©vÁå¢ «ªÀgÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ®¨såÀ ªÁUÀÄvÀÛzÉ. 9|Page
  11. 11.  ®¨såÀ «gÀĪÀ G¥ÀPgtUÀ¼À AiÀiÁ¢AiÀÄ£ÀÄß £ÉÆÃrPÉÆAqÀÄ ªÉüÁ¥ÀwæPÉ vÀAiÀiÁj¸À®Ä À À C£ÀÄPÀÆ®ªÁUÀÄvÀÛzÉ. ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀzÀ ªÉüÉAiÀÄ°è ºÁ¼ÁzÀ G¥ÀPgtUÀ¼ÀÄ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ SÁ°AiÀiÁzÀ gÁ¸ÁAiÀĤPÀUÀ¼À §UÉÎ æ À À ¸ÀA¥ÀÆt𠫪ÀgÀ ¥ÀqAiÀħºÀÄzÁVzÉ. É ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀ±Á¯ÉUÉ ¤ÃrzÀ ºÀtªÀ£Äß GvÀÛªÀĪÁV RZÀÄð ªÀiÁqÀ¯ÁVzÉAiÉÆà CxÀªÁ E®èªÉà æ À ºÁUÀÆ ºÀtPÁ¹£À ¹ÜwAiÀÄÄ GvÀÛªÀĪÁVzÉAiÉÄà JA§ÄzÀ£Äß CjvÀÄPÉƼÀî®Ä £ÉgÀªÁUÀÄvÀÛzÉ. À AiÀiÁªÀ AiÀiÁªÀ vÀgUwUÀ½UÉ AiÀiÁªÀ AiÀiÁªÀ ²PÀëPÀgÄUÀ¼ÀÄ ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀPÁAiÀÄð PÉÊUÉÆArzÀÝgÀÄ À À À JA§ÄzÀ£Äß ¸ÀÄ®¨sªÁV w½AiÀħºÀÄzÀÄ. À À ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀ±Á¯Á PÉʦr¬ÄAzÀ «zÁåyðUÀ½UÉ ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀªÀ£Äß ºÉÃUÉ PÉÊUÉƼÀî¨ÉÃPÀÄ, AiÀiÁªÀ jÃw æ À ªÀÄÄ£ÉßZÀÑjPÉ ªÀ»¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ JA§AvÀºÀ «ªÀgªÀ¤ß ¤ÃqÀÄvÀÛzÉ. À «zÁåyðAiÀÄÄ JµÀÄÖ ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀ vÀgÀUÀwUÉ ºÁdjgÀĪÀ£Ä ºÁUÀÆ CªÀ£Ä ¥ÀqzÀ ±ÉæÃt JµÀÄÖ À À É JA§ÄzÀ£Äß w½AiÀħºÀÄzÁVzÉ. ÀgÀPÀëuÉ ºÁUÀÆ §¼ÀPÉ: ±Á±ÀévÀ zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼À£Äß ¯Áå«Ä£ÉõÀ£ï ªÀiÁr¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. À ±Á±ÀévÀª®èzÀ zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß CZÀÄÑPÀmÁÖV GvÀÛªÀÄ UÀÄtªÀÄlÖzÀ PÀqvÀU¼À°è C£ÀÄPÀæªÄªÁV À À À À EqÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. ¤ÃgÀÄ CxÀªÁ ¨ÉAQ¬ÄAzÀ AiÀiÁªÀÅzÉà C£ÁºÀÄvÀUÀ¼ÁUÀzAvÉ JZÀjPɪÀ»¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. À Ñ wAUÀ½UÉƪÉÄäAiÀiÁzÀgÆ zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ¸ÀéZÀÒUÉƽ¸À¨ÃPÀÄ. £Áå¥sÀ۰ãï UÀĽUÉU¼À£Äß ºÁQlÄÖ À É À À ¸ÀAgÀQë¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. zÁR¯É ¥ÀĸÀÛPÀzÀ°è ¥ÀwAiÉÆAzÀÄ ¥ÀÄlUÀ½UÉ PÀæªÀĸÀASÉåUÀ¼À£ÀÄß £ÀªÀÄÆ¢¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. æ zÁR¯É ¥ÀĸÀÛPÀU¼À£ÀÄß GvÀÛªÀÄ PÀ¥ÁlÄUÀ¼À°è ªÀåªÀ¹ÜvÀªÁV EnÖg¨ÃPÀÄ. À À É PÀ©âtzÀ PÀ¥ÁlÄUÀ¼ÁVzÀÝgÉ ¥ÉÃAmï ªÀiÁr¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß DUÁUÉÎ ªÀåªÀ¹ÜvÀ jÃwAiÀÄ°è vÀ¥Á¸ÀuÉ ªÀiÁqÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. zÁR¯É ¥ÀĸÀÛPÀU¼À°è §gÉAiÀÄĪÁUÀ CZÀÄÑPÀmÁÖV vÀ¦®èzÀAvÉ §gÉAiÀĨÉÃPÀÄ. À MAzÀÄ ªÉÃ¼É zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼À ¥ÀÄlUÀ¼ÀÄ ºÀjzÀ CxÀªÁ £ÀµÖÀ ºÉÆA¢zÀ ¥ÀPëÀzÀ°è ªÀÄÄSÁåzsÁå¥ÀPÀ¤AzÀ ¥ÀªÀiÁtÂÃPÀj¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. æ6. Distinguish between ‘Demonstration method’ and ‘Laboratory Method’. (2006) 5MAns: Laboratory Method Demonstration Method It helps students understand complex, abstract  It helps the students to show or illustrate a ideas. procedure, process or phenomenon. It helps students by giving an opportunity to  All students may not be able to see the details 10 | P a g e
  12. 12. participate in and have an appreciation for the and results of a demonstration. methods of science. Exploratory laboratory activities allow students  Demonstrations allow the teachers to guide to explore an idea, concept or principles without thinking and channelize learning in desired structured procedures. direction. This method of teaching is student centred.  This method of teaching is teacher centred. It stresses the science process skills of observing,  It improves the observational and reasoning classifying measuring, inference, predicting, skills of the students. interpreting data and experimenting. Scope for ‘Learning by doing’.  No scope for ‘Leaning by doing’.9. ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ£À ¥ÁvÀzÀ PÀÄjvÀÄ F PɼÀV£À «µÀAiÀÄPÉÌ ¸ÀA§A¢ü¹zÀAvÉ ¤§AzsÀªÀ£ÀÄß §gɬÄj. æ 1) ªÀiÁ»w ©vÀÛj¸ÀĪÀªÀ£ÁV 2) gÉÃrAiÉÆà ºÁUÀÆ n.«. PÁAiÀÄðPÀæªÀÄUÀ¼À ¸Á»vÀå §gÀºUÁgÀ£ÁV À 3) gÀ¸À¥Àæ±Éß ¥ÀArvÀ£ÁV (2006, 2008, 2011) ªÀiÁ»w ©vÀÛj¸ÀĪÀªÀ: PÀA¥ÀÆålgï AiÀÄÄUÀz°è «eÁÕ£ÀzÀ ªÀĺÀvÀéªÀÅ ºÉZÁÑUÄvÁÛ £Àq¢zÉ. EAzÀÄ J®èjUÀÆ À À É ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ªÀÄ£ÉÆèsÁªÀ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¸ÀvåÀ ªÁzÀ, ¤µÀàPëÀ¥ÁvÀªÁzÀ ªÀiÁ»w ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. ºÁUÁV ¢£Éà ¢£Éà eÁÕ£À¸ÉÆàÃlªÁUÀÄvÀÛ°zÉ. CzÀPÁÌV «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ£ÀÄ ¤µÀàPëÀ¥ÁvÀªÁzÀ ¸ÀvåÀ ªÁzÀ ªÀiÁ»wAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ªÀiÁrPÉÆlÄÖ ªÀÄPÀ̼À£Äß GvÀÛªÀÄ dªÁ¨ÁÝjAiÀÄÄvÀªÁzÀ £ÁUÀjPÀgÀ£ÁßV ªÀiÁqÀĪÀzÄ DVzÉ. À À EAzÀÄ AiÀÄĪÀPgÄ ºÉƸÀ ºÉƸÀ eÁÕ£À ¥ÀqAiÀÄĪÀzÄ Cw CªÀ±ÀåPÀ. EzÀPÉÌ ¸ÀjAiÀiÁzÀ vÀg¨Ãw À À É À À É ºÉÆA¢zÀ ²PÀëPÀgÀ CªÀ±ÀåPÀvÉ EzÉ. «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀgÀÄ vÀªÄä «µÀAiÀÄzÀ ªÉÄÃ¯É ¥Àæ¨ÄvÀé ºÉÆA¢gÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. «zÁåyðUÀ½UÉ À sÀ É ¸ÉßûvÀ£ÁVgÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ, ¸ÀºÁ£ÀĨsÆwAiÀÄļÀîªÀ£ÀÄ, ºÉƸÀ ºÉƸÀ ¸ÀA±ÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß PÉÊUÉƼÀîvÀPÀÌAvÀºÀ À ªÀÄ£ÉÆèsÁªÀ£, ªÀÄPÀ̼À C©ügÀÄa ºÁUÀÆ D¸ÀQÛAiÀÄ£ÀÄß CjvÀÄPÉƼÀÄîªÀ£ÁVgÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. EzÀgÉÆA¢UÉ É É «zÁåyðUÀ¼À°è ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ªÀÄ£ÉÆèsÁªÀ ºÁUÀÆ ªÀiË®åUÀ¼À£Äß ¨É¼É¸À®Ä ¸ÀºÁAiÀÄ ªÀiÁqÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. À ºÁUÁV ²PÀëPÀgÀÄ DUÁUÉÎ C¨sÁå¸À ¥ÀªÁ¸ÀU¼À£ÀÄß, PÉëÃvÀæ ¥ÀæªÁ¸ÀUÀ¼À£Äß, PÁSÁð£ÉUÀ¼À£Äß, æ À À À G¢ÝªÄUÀ¼À£Äß ¨sÃn PÉÆlÄÖ ºÁUÀÆ ªÀÄPÀ̽UÉ ¥ÀªÁ¸À K¥Àðr¹ «zÁåyðUÀ¼À eÁÕ£ÀªÀ£ÀÄß É À É æ ºÉaѸÀ®Ä ¸ÀºÁAiÀÄ ªÀiÁqÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀgÄ GvÁì»AiÀÄÆ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ PÀ°PÉUÉ ªÀÄPÀ̼À£Äß ¥ÉÆæÃvÁ컸ÀĪÀgÁVgÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. À À É ¹zÁÞAvÀ ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀU¼À ªÀÄÆ®PÀ ¥ÁævÀåQëPÉ ªÀiÁr ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ¸ÀvåÀ UÀ¼À£Äß æ À À vÉÆÃj¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. ªÀÄPÀ̼ÀÄ ¸ÀAvÉÆõÀ¢AzÀ ¸ÀQæAiÀĪÁV ¥Á¯ÉÆμÀÄîªÀAvÉ ªÀiÁqÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ¥ÀzÀ±ð£ÀUÀ¼À£Äß, gÀ¸À¥æ±Éß, ZÀZÁðUÉÆÃ¶× ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¥Àæ§AzsÀ ¸ÀàzÉð ªÀÄÄAvÁzÀªÅÀ UÀ¼À£Äß K¥Àðr¹, æ À À À s À ªÀÄPÀ̼À eÁÕ£ÀªÀ£ÀÄß ºÉaѸÀ®Ä ««zsÀ ªÀÄÆ®UÀ½AzÀ ªÀiÁ»wAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¸ÀAUÀ»¹ ªÀÄPÀ̼À eÁÕ£ÀzÀ æ QëwdªÀ£Äß ºÉaѸÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. MmÁÖgÉ «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ vÀvÀéeÁÕ¤AiÀiÁV, «eÁÕ¤AiÀiÁV, ¸ÉßûvÀ£ÁV À ªÀwð¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. gÉÃrAiÉÆà ºÁUÀÆ n.«. PÁAiÀÄðPÀªÀÄUÀ¼À ¸Á»vÀå §gÀºUÁgÀ£ÁV: æ À 11 | P a g e
  13. 13. EAzÀÄ ªÀiÁzsåÀ «ÄPÀ ±Á¯ÉU¼À°è ¢£ÀªÀÇ ¨Á£ÀÄ° ¥ÁoÀUÀ½UÁV MAzÀÄ CªÀ¢üAiÀÄ£ÀÄß À MzÀV¹gÀÄvÁÛg. DzÀÝjAzÀ ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ ¨Á£ÀÄ°AiÀÄ°è ºÁUÀÆ n.«.AiÀÄ°è §gÀĪÀ É ¥ÁoÀUÀ¼À£Äß CªÀ¯ÉÆÃQ¸À¨ÃPÀÄ, CªÀÅUÀ¼À£Äß vÀAiÀiÁj¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ CªÀÅUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ¥À¸ÀÄÛvÀ ¥Àr¸ÀĪÀ À É À æ PÀ¯É CªÀ£À°ègÀ¨ÉÃPÁUÀÄvÀÛzÉ. EAvÀºÀ PÁAiÀÄðPÀæªÄUÀ¼À£Äß ¥ÀjtÂvÀ ²PÀëPÀgÄ vÀAiÀiÁj¹gÀÄvÁÛg. À À À É CªÀÅUÀ¼À ¸Á»vÀåzÀ ºÀ¸ÀÛ¥ÀæwAiÀÄ£ÀÄß vÀAiÀiÁj¹, CªÀÅUÀ¼À£Äß gÉÃrAiÉÆÃzÀ°è ¥À¸ÁgÀ ªÀiÁqÀÄvÁÛgÉ. À æ EAzÀÄ ««zsÀ jÃwAiÀÄ ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ CzsåÀ AiÀÄ£À ºÁUÀÆ ªÀiÁUÀðzÀ±ð£ÀzÀ C£ÀĨsªÀzÀ CªÀ±ÀåPÀvÉ À À «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀjVzÉ. DzÀÝjAzÀ ¥ÀæwAiÉƧ⠲PÀëPÀgÀÄ ªÀiÁUÀðzÀ±ð£À ¥ÀqzÀÄ CxÀªÁ C£ÀĨsÀªÀUÀ¼À£Äß À É À ¥ÀqzÀÄ, gÉÃrAiÉÆà ºÁUÀÆ n.«.UÀ¼À ¥ÁoÀUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ¥Àæ¸ÀÄÛvÀ¥r¸ÀĪÀzÄ Cw CªÀ±ÀåPÀ. É À À gÀ¸À¥Àæ±Éß ¥ÀArvÀ£ÁV: ¥À¥ÀAZÀzÁzÀåAvÀ ²PÀët PÉëÃvÀæzÀ°è gÀ¸À¥æ±Éß PÁAiÀÄðPÀªÀÄUÀ¼ÀÄ MAzÀÄ jÃwAiÀÄ PÀ°PÉAiÀÄ æ À æ ªÁvÁªÀgÀtªÀ£Äß ¸ÀȶֹzÉ. gÀ¸À¥æ±Éß PÁAiÀÄðPÀæªÄzÀ°è PÉüÀĪÀ ¥À±ÉßUÀ¼ÀÄ, «zÁåyðUÀ¼ÀÄ vÀªÄä À À À æ À «eÁÕ£À CzsåÀ AiÀÄ£ÀzÀ°è UÀ½¹zÀ eÁÕ£ÀªÀ£ÀÄß Dzsj¸ÀÄvÀÛªÉ. gÀ¸À¥æ±ÉßUÀ½UÉ GvÀÛj¸ÀĪÀ ¸ÁªÀÄxÀåðªÀÅ À À «eÁÕ£À AiÉÆÃZÀ£Á ±ÀQÛ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ KPÁUÀævÁ ªÀÄlÖ EªÀÅUÀ¼À ¸ÀÆZÀåAPÀª£ÀÄß DzsÀj¸ÀÄvÀÛzÉ. À AiÉÆÃZÀ£ÉAiÀÄ°è AiÀıÀ¸ÀÄì ¥ÀqAiÀÄ®Ä ªÀÄPÀ̽UÉ «eÁÕ£À±Á¸ÀÛçªÀÅ MAzÀÄ ¥ÀªÀÄÄR PÉëÃvÀæªÁVzÉ. É æ «µÀAiÀÄzÀ ¥Àj¥ÀÆtð eÁÕ£À, DvÀ䫱Áé¸À EªÀÅUÀ½AzÀ ªÀÄPÀ̼ÀÄ G¥ÀAiÀÄÄPÀÛvÁ ªÀiË®å, £ÉÊwPÀ ªÀiË®å ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¨Ë¢ÞPÀ ªÀiË®åUÀ¼À£Äß ¥ÀqAiÀÄÄvÁÛg. ¥ÀwAiÉÆAzÀÄ ±Á¯ÉAiÀÄÆ ¥ÁæxÀ«ÄPÀ À É É æ ºÀAvÀz°èzÀÝgÀÆ gÀ¸À¥æ±Éß PÁAiÀÄðPÀªÀÄUÀ¼À£Äß UÀÄgÀÄw¹ CªÀg£ÀÄß ¥ÉÆæÃvÁ컹zÁUÀ ªÀiÁvÀæ CªÀgÀ À À æ À À ¸ÀÆPÀÛªÁzÀ ¨sÁªÀ£U½UÉ fêÀPÆlÖAvÁUÀÄvÀÛzÉ. EA¢£À ¥À¥ÀAZÀzÀ°è ¥Àæw¨sÁªÀAvÀ ªÀÄPÀ̼À£Äß É À É æ À ¥ÀvÛɺÀZÀÄѪÀzÄ, CªÀjUÉ ¸ÀÆPÀÛ ªÀiÁUÀðzÀ±ð£À, ¥ÉÆæÃvÁìºÀ ¤ÃqÀĪÀzÄ ºÁUÀÆ CªÀgÀ£Äß À À À À ¸ÀÆPÀÛªÁzÀ ºÀÄzÉÝUÀ½UÉ Dj¸ÀĪÀzÄ, CªÀgÀ PÉÆqÀÄUÉU¼À£Äß ¸ÀªiÁdPÉÌ G¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀªÁUÀĪÀAvÉ À À À À ªÀiÁqÀĪÀzÄ vÀÄA¨Á CªÀ±åÀ PÀª¤¹zÉ. «eÁÕ£ÀzÀ°è ¥Àw¨sÁªÀAvÀg£ÀÄß ¥ÀvÛɺÀZÀÄѪÀ°è vÀÄA¨Á ¸ÀgÀ¼À À É æ À ºÁUÀÆ ¸ÀÆPÀÛªÁzÀ «zsÁ£ÀªÉAzÀgÉ «eÁÕ£À gÀ¸À¥æ±Éß PÁAiÀÄðPÀªÀÄUÀ¼À£Äß £Àq¸ÀĪÀzÀÄ. À æ À É8. ¤Ã®£ÀPÉë «£Áå¸ÀzÀ ºÀAvÀUÀ¼ÁªÀªÀÅ? ¸ÀAQë¥ÀÛzÀ°è «ªÀj¹. (2006, 2007) 5 CAPÀ ¤Ã®£ÀPëÉ «£Áå¸ÀzÀ ºÀAvÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ºÀAvÀ 1 ªÀiË®åªÀ£ÀÄß ¤zsðj¸À¨ÉÃPÁzÀ PÀ°PÁ ¥s°vÀU¼À£ÀÄß ¥ÀnÖ ªÀiÁqÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. £ÀAvÀgÀ EªÀÅUÀ¼À£Äß À À À À eÁÕ£À, P˱À®å, C£ÀéAiÀÄ, w¼ÀĪÀ½PÉ «¨sÁUÀUÀ¼À°è «AUÀr¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. ºÀAvÀ 2 eÁÕ£À, P˱À®å, C£ÀéAiÀÄ, w¼ÀĪÀ½PÉ ¨ÉÆâü¹zÀ ¥ÀoÀåªÀ¸ÀÄÛU¼À ¥ÀnÖAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ªÀiÁqÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. À É ºÀAvÀ 3 ¥À±ÉߥÀwæPÉAiÀÄ°è AiÀiÁªÀ ¥ÀæPÁgÀzÀ ¥Àæ±ÉßUÀ¼ÀÄ EgÀ¨ÃPÀÄ JA§ÄzÀ£ÀÄß ¤zsÀðj¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. æ É ºÀAvÀ 4 ¢éªÀÄÄR ZËPÀlÖ£ÀÄß ¹zÀÞ¥r¹ ZËPÀnÖ£À ªÉÄîÎqAiÀÄ°è ¥ÀæxÀªÄ ¸Á°£À°è PÀ°PÁ À É À ¥s°vÀU¼À ¥ÀzsÁ£À CA±ÀU¼À£Äß §gÉAiÀĨÉÃPÀÄ. CzÀgÀ CrAiÀÄ°è ¥Àæ±ßÉ AiÀÄ «zsU¼À£Äß À À æ À À À À À ¸ÀÆa¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. ºÀAvÀ 5 ZËPÀnÖ£À JqÀUÀqAiÀÄ ªÉÆzÀ®£ÉAiÀÄ ¥ÀnÖAiÀÄ°è ¥ÀoÀåªÀ¸ÀÄÛU¼À£Äß §gÉAiÀÄĪÀzÄ. É À À À ºÀAvÀ 6 PÀ°PÁ ¥sÀ°vÀU¼À ¥ÀwªÀUðPÉÌ JµÉÖµÀÄÖ CAPÀU¼À£Äß ¤ÃqÀ¨ÉÃPÁUÀĪÀzÀÄ JA§ÄzÀ£Äß À æ À À À À ¤zsðj¹ DAiÀiÁ ªÀUÀðzÀ ºÉ¸Àj£À ¥ÀPÌÀ zÀ°è £ÀªÀÄÆ¢¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. À 12 | P a g e
  14. 14. ºÀAvÀ 7 ¥ÀwAiÉÆAzÀÄ «zszÀ MAzÉÆAzÀÄ ¥À±ÉßUÉ vÀ¯Á JµÀÄÖ CAPÀUÀ¼À£Äß ¤ÃqÀ¨ÃPÁUÀĪÀzÀÄ æ À æ À É JA§ÄzÀ£Äß wêÀiÁð¤¸ÀĪÀzÄ. À À ºÀAvÀ 8 ¥Àw «zsPÉÌ EgÀĪÀAvÀºÀ MlÆÖ CAPÀUÀ¼À£Äß ¯ÉPÌÀ ªÀiÁqÀĪÀzÄ. £ÀAvÀgÀ wêÀiÁð£ÀªÀ£Äß æ À À À À ZËPÀnÖ£À PɼÀUÀqAiÀÄ §®UÀqÉ EgÀĪÀAvÀºÀ ªÀÄƯÉAiÀÄ ZËPÀnÖ£°è MlÆ ÖCAPÀUÀ¼À É À ¥ÀPÌÀ zÀ°è §gÉAiÀĨÉÃPÀÄ. £ÀAvÀgÀ CAPÀªÀ£Äß §gÉzÀÄ ¥ÀPÌÀ zÀ°è CzÀgƼÀUÀqÉ ¥À±ÉßUÀ¼À À É æ ¸ÀASÉåAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¸ÀÆa¸ÀĪÀzÀÄ. ºÀAvÀ 9 ¥ÀwAiÉÆAzÀÄ ¥ÀPÁgÀzÀ ¥Àæ±ÉßUÀ¼À£Äß PÀ°PÁ ¥s°vÀU¼À ¥Àw ªÀUÀðPÉÌ ¸ÀÆPÀÛªÁzÀ jÃwAiÀÄ°è æ æ À À À æ ºÀAZÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. »ÃUÉ ºÀAZÀĪÁUÀ ¥ÀwAiÉÆAzÀÄ ªÀUÀðPÉÌ ¤UÀ¢ ªÀiÁrzÀAvÀºÀ CAPÀUÀ¼À£Äß æ À UÀªÀÄ£Àz°èqÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. À ºÀAvÀ 10 ¥Àw PÀ°PÁ ¥s°vÀUÀ¼À ªÀUðzÀ ºÀ®ªÁgÀÄ ¥À±ÉßUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ¥ÀoÀåªÀ¸ÀÄÛU½UÉ ¸ÀÆPÀÛ jÃwAiÀÄ°è æ À À æ À ºÀAaPÉ ªÀiÁr CzÀPÌÉ ¤UÀ¢¥Àr¹zÀ ZËPÀU¼À°è £ÀªÄÆ¢¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. À À ºÀAvÀ 11 ¥À±ÉßUÀ¼À£Äß ¤Ã®£ÀPëÉAiÀÄ DzsÁgÀzÀ ªÉÄÃ¯É gÀa¹zÀ £ÀAvÀgÀ ¥ÀwAiÉÆAzÀÄ ¥À±ÉßAiÀÄÄ AiÀiÁªÀ æ À æ æ PÀ°PÁ ¥sÀ°vÀPÉÌ ¸ÀA§A¢ü¹zÉ J£ÀÄߪÀÅzÀ£Äß ¥Àj²Ã°¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. À¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ CªÀ±ÀåPÀvÉ K£ÀÄ? CzÀgÀ ¸ÀÄvÀÛt ¥Àj¸ÀgÀªÀ£ÀÄß «ªÀj¹. (2006) 5 CAPÀ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ°è ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ CªÀ±ÀåPÀvÀ: É ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß Cwà ¥ÀjuÁªÀÄPÁj ºÁUÀÆ ¸ÀªÄxÀðUÉƽ¸À®Ä ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À À ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ CªÀ±ÀåPÀvÉ EzÉ. æ J®è «zÁåyðUÀ¼À°è ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ªÀÄ£ÉÆèsÁªÀ£AiÀÄ£ÀÄß ªÀÄÆr¸À®Ä ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀĪÀÅ CªÀ±ÀåPÀ. É «zÁåyðUÀ¼Éà ¸ÀévÀB ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀ PÉÊUÉÆAqÀÄ ¥ÀqzÀ eÁÕ£ÀªÀÅ GvÀÌøµÀÖªÁVgÀÄvÀÛzÉ. DzÀÝjAzÀ É ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀ±Á¯ÉAiÀÄÄ CªÀ±ÀåPÀ. æ ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀ±Á¯ÉAiÀÄÄ «zÁåyðUÀ¼À°è C£ÀéAiÀÄ ¸ÁªÀÄxÀåð, ¥ÁæAiÉÆÃVPÀ vÀAvÀæU¼ÀÄ, gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀv, æ À É QæAiÀiÁ²Ã®vÉ, «ªÉÃZÀ£Á ±ÀQÛ, ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ªÀÄ£ÉÆèsÁªÀ, D¸ÀQÛ, ¸ÀägÀuÉ, ¸ÀÈd£À²Ã®vÉ E£ÀÆß ªÀÄÄAvÁzÀ CA±ÀU¼À£Äß ¨É¼É¸À®Ä ¸ÀºÁAiÀÄPÀ. À À ¸ÀAUÀwUÀ¼À£Äß ¨Á¬Ä¥ÁoÀ ªÀiÁqÀĪÀzQÌAvÀ®Æ ¥ÁæAiÉÆÃVPÀªÁV À À ¸ÀévÀB PÀAqÀgÉ ªÀÄPÀ̼ÀÄ CªÀÅUÀ¼À£Äß §ºÀÄPÁ® £É£À¦£À°èlÄÖPƼÀî®Ä C£ÀÄPÀÆ®ªÁUÀĪÀzÀÄ. À É vÁwéPÀ «ZÁgÀU¼À£Äß MgÉUÉ ºÀZÀ®Ä ºÁUÀÆ ¸ÀvÀåzÀ ±ÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉUÉÊAiÀÄ®Ä ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄ CªÀ±ÀåPÀ. À À Ñ ¥ÀPÀÈw «eÁÕ£Àª£ÀÄß ¥ÁæAiÉÆÃVPÀªÁV w½AiÀÄ®Ä CªÀ±åÀ PÀ. æ À ‘ªÀiÁqÀÄvÁÛ PÀ°’ JA§ vÀvéÀ C£ÀĸÀj¹ «³ÀAiÀÄ ¥Àæ¸ÀÄÛvÀ¥Àr¸À®Ä CªÀ±åÀ PÀ. ¸ÀvÁå£ÉéõÀuÉUÉ ¥ÉÆæÃvÁìºÀ ¤ÃqÀ®Ä ºÁUÀÆ ¥ÁæAiÉÆÃVPÀ P˱À®å ¨É¼É¸À®Ä ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄ æ CªÀ±ÀåPÀ. «zÁåyUÀ¼À°è DvÀ䫱Áé¸À, zÀPëÀvÉ ºÉaѹ CªÀg£ÀÄß ±ÉÆÃzsÀPÀgÀ£ÁßV ªÀiÁqÀ®Ä ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄ À æ CªÀ±ÀåPÀ. 13 | P a g e
  15. 15. ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ ¸ÀÄvÀt ¥Àj¸ÀgÀzÀ «ªÀgÀuÉ: Û ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀ±Á¯ÉAiÀÄÄ vÀgÀUÀw PÉÆÃuÉ, ¸ÀAVÃvÀ PÉÆÃuÉ, PÉÊUÁjPÁ PÉÆÃuÉU½AzÀ zÀÆgÀ«gÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. æ À É DlzÀ ªÉÄÊzÁ£À ªÀÄvÀÄÛ PÀlÖqÀzÀ ªÀÄÄRå zÁég¢AzÀ®Æ zÀÆgÀzÀ°ègÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. À PÀlÖqÀzÀ ªÀÄÄRåzÁégÀ¢AzÀ zÀÆgÀzÀ°èzÀÝgÉ ¸ÁªÀðd¤PÀgÀ UÀzÀÝ® ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ªÀÄzsåÀ ¥ÀæªÃ±ÀU½AzÀ®Æ É À zÀÆgÀ«gÀ®Ä ¸ÁzsåÀ .12. DzÀ±Àð ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ£À UÀÄt®PÀëtUÀ¼À£ÀÄß «ªÀj¹j. (2006, 2008)DzÀ±Àð ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ£À UÀÄt®PÀëtUÀ¼ÀÄ: DzÀ±Àð «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ£Ä vÀ£ßÀ «µÀAiÀÄ ªÀÈwÛ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ «zÁåyðUÀ¼À §UÉUÉ UËgÀªÀ ¨sÁªÀ£AiÀÄ£ÀÄß À É ºÉÆA¢gÀĪÀ£Ä. À DzÀ±Àð «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ£Ä ªÀÄPÀ̼À ªÀÄ£ÉÆèsÁªÀª£ÀÄß ¸ÀàµÀÖªÁV CjwgÀĪÀ£Ä. À À À DzÀ±Àð ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ²PÀPÀ£Ä «zÁåyðUÀ¼À zÉÊ»PÀ DgÉÆÃUÀå, ªÀiÁ£À¹PÀ DgÉÆÃUÀå, C©ügÄa, ë À À D¸ÀQÛ, ªÀÄ£ÉÆèsÁªÀ ªÉÊAiÀÄQÛPÀ ©ü£ßÀ vÉ ªÀÄÄAvÁzÀªÀÅUÀ¼À£Äß w½¢gÀĪÀ£ÀÄ. À «zÁåyðUÀ¼À ªÀAiÉÆêÀÄlÖ ºÁUÀÆ ªÀÄ£ÉÆêÀÄlÖPÀÌ£ÄUÀÄtªÁV ¥ÀƪÀð vÀAiÀiÁjAiÉÆA¢UÉ À ¥ÁoÀª£ÀÄß ¨ÉÆâü¸ÀĪÀ£Ä. À À DzÀ±Àð ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ£ÀÄ «µÀAiÀÄzÀ ªÉÄÃ¯É ¸ÁPÀµÀÄÖ ¥À¨ÄvÀé ºÉÆA¢gÀĪÀ£ÀÄ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ DzsĤPÀ æ sÀ À eÁÕ£ÀªÀ£ÀÄß w½¢gÀĪÀ£Ä. À DzÀ±Àð «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ£Ä ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ªÀÄ£ÉÆèsÁªÀ£AiÀÄ£ÀÄß ºÉÆA¢gÀĪÀ£Ä ºÁUÀÆ «zÁåyðUÀ¼À°è À É À ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ªÀÄ£ÉÆèsÁªÀ£AiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¨É¼É¸ÀĪÀ£Ä. É À DzÀ±Àð «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ£Ä «zÁåyðUÀ½UÉ vÀvéÀ±Á¸ÀÛçdÕ, ªÀiÁUÀðzÀ±ðPÀ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ UɼÉAiÀÄ£ÁVgÀĪÀ£Ä. À À À DzÀ±Àð ²PÀëPÀ£ÀÄ ¥ÁoÀ¨ÉÆÃzs£ÉAiÀÄ°è ««zsÀ ¥ÁoÉÆÃ¥ÀPgtUÀ¼À£Äß §¼À¹ ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£AiÀÄ£ÀÄß À À À À É ¥ÀjuÁªÀÄPÁjUÉƽ¸ÀĪÀ£Ä. À ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£AiÀÄ£ÀÄß ««zsÀ ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ¥ÀzÀÞwAiÀÄ£ÀÄß C£ÀĸÀj¹ ¨ÉÆâü¹ ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£Á PÁAiÀÄðªÀ£ÀÄß É ¸ÀzÈÀ qsÀUÉƽ¸ÀĪÀ£ÀÄ. «eÁÕ£ÀzÀ ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀĪÀ£Äß ¸ÀªÄ¥ÀðPÀªÁV DzÀ±ð «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ §¼À¸ÀĪÀ£Ä. æ À À À À «eÁÕ£ÀªÀ£ÀÄß EvÀgÀ «µÀAiÀÄUÀ¼ÉÆA¢UÉ ¸ÀºÀ ¸ÀA§A¢üÃPÀj¹, «µÀAiÀĪÀ£ÀÄß ¸Àg¼ÀUÉƽ¹ DzÀ±Àð À «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ£ÀÄ ¨ÉÆâü¸ÀĪÀ£Ä. À DzÀ±Àð «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ£ÀÄ ºÀ®ªÁgÀÄ vÀAvÀæUÀ¼À£ÀÄß, ªÀÄÄ£ÉßZÀÑjPÉUÀ¼À£Äß C£ÀĸÀj¹ G¥ÀPÀgÀtUÀ¼À£Äß À À ªÀåªÀ¹ÜvÀ£ÁV §¼À¸ÀĪÀ£Ä. À DzÀ±Àð ²PÀëPÀ£ÀÄ ²¸ÀÄÛ, ¥ÁæªiÁtÂPvÉ, QæAiÀiÁ²Ã®vÉ, «£ÀAiÀĪÀAwPÉ ªÀÄÄAvÁzÀ M¼ÉîAiÀÄ UÀÄtUÀ¼À£Äß À À À ºÉÆA¢gÀĪÀ£Ä.À 14 | P a g e
  16. 16.  vÀ£ßÀ ªÀÈwÛAiÀÄ J®è ²PÀëPÀgÀ£ÀÄß UËgÀªÀ¢AzÀ PÁtĪÀ£ÀÄ. DzÀ±ð «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ£ÀÄ «ZÁgÀ ¸ÀAQÃtð, «ZÁgÀ UÉÆö×, ¸ÁA¸ÀÌøwPÀ ¸ÀªiÁgÀA¨s, À À À PÁgÁåUÁgÀU¼À°è ¨sÁUÀªÀ»¸ÀĪÀ£Ä. À À¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ°è ‘¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀ±Á¯É’AiÀÄ ¥ÁvÀªÀ£ÀÄß «ªÀj¹.(2007) æ2006£Éà ¸Á°£À ¥À±ÉߥÀwæPÉAiÀÄ ¥Àæ±ßÉ ¸ÀASÉå gÀ GvÀgªÀ£Äß UÀªÄ¤¹. æ Û À À ÀDzÀ±Àð ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ CªÀ±ÀåPÀ ®PÀëtUÀ¼ÁªÀªÀÅ? ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ°èvÉUÉzÀÄPÉƼÀÀÄzÁzÀ ¸ÀÄgÀPÀëvÁ ªÀÄÄAeÁUÀævÁ PÀªÀÄUÀ¼ÁªÀªÀÅ? «ªÀj¹j. (2007) 10 CAPÀ æDzÀ±Àð ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ ®PÀëtUÀ¼ÀÄ: ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀĪÀÅ AiÉÆÃUÀåªÁzÀ ¸ÀܼÀª£ÀÄß ºÉÆâgÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. æ À É ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀĪÀÅ ¸ÀjAiÀiÁzÀ C¼ÀvÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ºÉÆA¢gÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. æ É ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄ 45‛ GzÀÝ 25‛ CUÀ® G¼ÀîzÁÝVgÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. æ É ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀĪÀÅ æ 40 «zÁåyðUÀ¼ÀÄ «ÃQë¸ÀĪÀAvÉ 20 «zÁåyðUÀ¼ÀÄ ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀ æ ªÀiÁrªÀAwgÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀĪÀÅ J®è ¸Ázs£À ¸À®PÀguÉU¼À£Äß ºÉÆA¢gÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. æ À À À À ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀĪÀÅ 8‛ GzÀÝ 4‛ CUÀ® 3.5‛ JvÀÛgÀ C¼ÀvAiÀÄ ¥ÁævÀåQëPÁ ªÉÄÃdÄUÀ¼À£ÀÄß æ É ºÉÆA¢gÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀĪÀÅ ¸ÀjAiÀiÁzÀ UÁ½, ¨É¼ÀPÄ, ¤ÃgÀÄ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ «zÀÄåvï ªÀÄÄAvÁzÀ ªÀåªÀ¸ÉÜUÀ¼À£ÀÄß æ À ºÉÆA¢gÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. DzÀ±Àð ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀĪÀÅ ¥ÀæxÀªÀÄ aQvÁì ¥ÉnÖUAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ºÉÆA¢gÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. É ¥ÁævÀåQëPÁ ªÉÄÃf£À »A¨sÁUÀzÀ°è zÉÆqÀØzÁzÀ PÀ¥Äà ºÀ®UÉ EgÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. À DzÀ±Àð ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀĪÀÅ vÀÆUÀĪÀ vÀPÌÀ rUÀ½UÉ ¥ÀævÉåÃPÀªÁzÀ PÉÆÃuÉ ºÉÆA¢gÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. É DzÀ±Àð ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ°è æ PÀnÖU¬ÄAzÀ É ªÀiÁrzÀ ¥ÁævÀåQëPÁ ªÉÄÃdÄUÀ¼ÀÄ ºÁUÀÆ PÁ®ÄªÀÄuÉ(¸ÀÆÖ®Ä)UÀ½gÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. É DzÀ±Àð ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ UÉÆÃqÉUÀ¼À£Äß ¸ÀÄtÚ-§tÚUÀ½AzÀ ¯Éæ¹gÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. À É ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀ±Á¯ÉAiÀÄ £É®ªÀÅ ¹ªÉÄAn¤AzÀ ªÀiÁrzÀÄÝ, ¸Àé®à E½eÁgÁVgÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. æ DzÀ±Àð ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ°è «zÀÄåvï ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ±ÁRzÀ ¥ÀÆgÉÊPÉ ¸ÀjAiÀiÁVgÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. É ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀ±Á¯ÉUÉ ºÉÆA¢PÉÆAqÀAvÉ vÀAiÀiÁjPÁ ºÁUÀÆ ¸À®PÀgÀuÉUÀ¼À ¸ÀAUÀºÀ PÉÆoÀr EgÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. æ æ DzÀ±Àð ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀĪÀÅ EAUÀÄ §ZÀÑ®ÄUÀ¼À£Äß ºÉÆA¢gÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. æ À ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄ ¥ÀvÉåÃPÀªÁV EgÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. æ 15 | P a g e
  17. 17.  ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ ¸ÀÄvÀÛªÀÄÄvÀÛ®Ä ºÀ¹gÀÄ ¸À¸ÀåUÀ¼ÀÄ EgÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. æ É¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ°è vÉUÉzÀÄPÉƼÀî¨ÉÃPÁzÀ ¸ÀÄgÀPÀëvÁ PÀªÀÄUÀ¼ÀÄ: æ CVß ±ÁªÀÄPÀ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ªÀÄgÀ¼ÀÄ EgÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. É PÀÈvÀPÀ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ £ÉʸÀVðPÀ UÁ½ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¨É¼ÀPÄ EgÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. À £É® ©gÀĸÁVgÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. É ¥ÀxÀªÄ aQvÁì ¥ÉnÖUÉ EgÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. æ À É ¤Ãj£À ¸Ë®¨sÀå EgÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. É C¤®(UÁå¸ï) PÉƼÀªÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ¥Àj²Ã®£É ªÀiÁqÀÄvÁÛ EgÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. É gÁ¸ÁAiÀĤPÀU¼À£Äß eÁUÀævɬÄAzÀ §¼À¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. À À AiÀiÁªÀÅzÉà gÁ¸ÁAiÀĤPÀ ªÀ¸ÀÄÛU¼ÀÄ «zÁåyðUÀ¼À PÉÊUÉ ¹UÀĪÀAvÉ EqÀ¨ÁgÀzÀÄ. À14. What are the merits and demerits of ‘Lecture Demonstration Method’? (2007)Lecture Demonstration Method is considered to be a method superior to lecture method as it combines theadvantages of both the lecture method and the demonstration method. In this method both teacher andtaught are active participants in the process of teaching.Merits: All shortcomings of lecture method are removed. All plus points of demonstration method are included. The students get the clear picture of the topic. It is a psychological method as students take active interest in the learning process. It is useful for all students of varying abilities. It is an economical method as compared to purely student-centred methods. It leads the students from concrete experiences to abstract concepts. It encourages students’ participation in learning. It trains mental faculties such as power of observation, reasoning and drawing inferences.Demerits: The students do not get a chance to make use of apparatus independently. They do not perform experiments, but only observe it. Each child is not able to observe and collect proper data. This method is not economically feasible. It does not provide first-hand experience to the students. It does not provide for individual differences. It caters to the needs of average students. It does not develop manual and manipulative skills and cannot be a substitute for laboratory method. If not very attentive, the students fail to observe minute details of the demonstration. 16 | P a g e
  18. 18. 15. a. Write an essay on ’Guided-Discovery-Method’ of teaching physical science with reference to the following: i. Meaning ii. Merits and Demerits iii. Teacher-Role (2007) 10MAns:Meaning: This is systematic study of physical science under the guidance of physical science teacher.J.S.Brunes, the originator of this method, “In this method the students discover new facts/knowledge in anoriginal manner as per their mental level, age, class and the other related facts. The facts are explained in amanner by which they give a sense of new facts.” It deals with the initial stages of development of research work conducted in connection with aninvention. The students are placed in the situation in which they are able to see how the faith of curiousinventor changes with facts related to new discoveries and inventions from time to time, how one principleleads to the other or principle change into another.Merits: It makes students explore and help them becoming conversant with method of exploration. It makes use of observation, thought and perception and develops these senses. It helps in understanding social and scientific facts rather than learning them. It helps in development of creative thinking. It is helpful in achieving the high level objectives of knowledge and expression. The students are able to discover new knowledge and try to retain it permanently. They develop the qualities of analysis and synthesis. They are able to understand how several changes can be brought about with the help of scientific invention. They are able to learn how one principle is converted to another and new principle is formed. It is an interesting method for students. The knowledge acquired by it is permanent.Demerits: It is not applicable to all subjects or topics. The process of teaching is slow. The students remain active but do not get a chance to become sharp. It is more useful for brilliant students.Role of Teacher: He should be guide, friend and philosopher. He should have thorough knowledge of subjects. To conduct research or discovery equipment should be provided. 17 | P a g e
  19. 19. 1. Explain the steps of demonstration method in physical science teaching. (2008)Ans: Planning and Preparation: A great care should be taken by the teacher while planning and preparing demonstration method. He should keep the following points in mind:  Subject matter.  Questions to be asked.  Apparatus required for the experiment. The teacher should prepare his lesson plan which includes the principle to be explained, list of experiments to be demonstrated and the type of questions to be asked from the students. The apparatus should be arranged in a systematic order on the demonstration table. Introduction of the lesson: It is always considered more useful to introduce the lesson in a problematic way which would make students realise the importance of the topic. A good experiment when carefully demonstrated is likely to leave an everlasting impression on the young mind of the pupil. The teacher can introduce the lesson by asking the questions related to that topic. Presentation: To make the demonstration interesting the teacher may not be rigid to remain within the prescribed course rather he should make the demonstration as much as broad based as is possible. For widening of his demonstration the teacher may think of various useful application of the principle. He can also take example and illustrations from other allied branches of science. The demonstration should be presented in a clear voice and the teacher should speak slowly with correct pronunciation. He should avoid the use of any bombastic and ambiguous terms. Performance of experiments: The experiment should be presented by the teacher in a model way. He should work in a tidy, clean and orderly manner while demonstrating an experiment. The following points should be kept in mind:  Experiments should be simple and speedy.  The experiment should work and their results should be clear and striking.  Experiments be properly spaced throughout the lesson.  Keep some reserve apparatus on the demonstration table. Black board summary: A summary of the important results and principles be written on the blackboard. The blackboard should be frequently used for drawing necessary sketches and diagrams. The blackboard summary should be written in a neat, clean and legible way. Supervision: Students be asked to take the complete notes of the blackboard summary including the sketches and diagrams drawn. The teacher should check the student notebook frequently, going to the seats of the students. 18 | P a g e
  20. 20. 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of ‘Inductive approach’? (2008) 5MAns:Advantages : Develops scientific attitude. Develops scientific thinking among the students. Develops the skill of observation and critical thinking among the students. Develops self-confidence and self-dependence. Makes classroom instructions interesting. A logical method based on – ‘Learning by doing’. Generates the habit of intelligent thinking among the students. It sustains students’ interest because they move from known to unknown.Disadvantages: A slow and lengthy method. It is time consuming and laborious method. It cannot be applied to all the topics of physical science. Insufficient data leads to hasty and wrong conclusions. Conclusions need to be verified by deductive approach. This method can be used only when there are rules to be learnt.16. b. critically analyse the advantages and disadvantages of following methods of teaching Physical Science: i. Guided discovery method ii. Lecture cum demonstration method iii. Individual instruction technique (2008) 10MAns: Guided Discovery Method: Advantages:  Student will gain first-hand experience.  Scientifically sound method.  Sort of training in discovery.  Self-study is possible.  It develops scientific attitude.  There will be a close relationship between teacher and pupil. Disadvantages:  Well-equipped library and laboratory is not present in all the schools.  Lack of trained teachers.  Time bond is there in classroom.  Textbooks are not written to do discovery method. 19 | P a g e
  21. 21.  It becomes burden to the teacher. Lecture-cum-demonstration Method: Advantages:  It will make students absorb the knowledge and they will understand how an experiment is conducted.  It is economical compared to Laboratory.  This is semi-psychological method.  It is a safe method to students.  No doubts will remain in the minds of the pupil as explanations are given time to time.  It saves time money and energy.  Retention will be more. Disadvantages:  It is not purely scientific method.  It will not provide first-hand experience.  Process and product skill are partially developed.  This is a teacher centred method not a child centred one.  ‘Learning by observation’ instead of ‘Learning by doing’. Individual Instruction technique: Advantages:  It provides for a learning environment that encourages the child to be motivated intrinsically.  It permits each child to progress at his own pace.  It helps each child to learn according to his interests, abilities and mode of learning.  It increases experiences for investigating by each child. Disadvantages:  It requires a small class.  It needs increased time for the teacher to prepare and collect materials.  Materials for it are not available easily.  It is too costly compared to other methods.  It requires well-equipped science laboratory as well as other physical facilities.How to make use of deductive approach? Explain with suitable example. (2008) 5MAns: Deductive approach is opposite of Inductive approach. In this approach learner proceeds fromgeneral to particular, from abstract to concrete. In this, facts are deduced or analysed by the application ofestablished formula or experimentation. In this case, the formula is accepted by the learner as a dulyestablished facts. In this approach teacher announces the topic of the day and he also gives the relevantformula/rule/ law/principle etc. The law/formula is also explained to the students with the help of someexamples, which are solved on the blackboard. From these, students get the idea of use or application ofconcerned law/ principle/formula. Then the problems are given to the students who solve the problemsfollowing the same method as explained to them earlier by the teacher. Students also memorise the resultsfor future application 20 | P a g e
  22. 22. Example:Principle: Cooling is caused by evaporation.Confirmation by application: it can be confirmed by numerous application, such as, by wearing wet clothes,observing feeling after taking bath, by applying alcohol on your hand etc.‘¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀĪÀÅ ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉUÉ Cw CUÀvåÀ ªÁzÀ WÀlPÀªÁVzÉ’ F ºÉýPÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄߥÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃd£À ªÀÄvÀÄÛ PÉÊUÉƼÀÄîªÀ PÁAiÀÄðUÀ½AzÀ ¸ÀªÀÄyð¹. (2009) 10 CAPÀ ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£ÀªÀÅ ¥ÀæwAiÉÆAzÀÄ PÉëÃvÀæPÀÆÌ ªÁ妹 C°è ªÀĺÀvéÀzÀ ¸ÁÜ£ªÀ£Äß ºÉÆA¢zÉ. À À¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£ÀªÀÅ ªÀiÁ£ÀªÀ¤UÉ Cw CªÀ±åÀ PÀªÁzÀÄzÁVzÉ. ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¥ÀjuÁªÀÄPÁjºÁUÀÆ ¸ÀªÀÄxÀðUÉƽ¸À®Ä ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ CªÀ±ÀåPÀv¬ÄzÉ. J®è «zÁåyðUÀ¼À°è ɪÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ªÀÄ£ÉÆèsÁªÀ£AiÀÄ£ÀÄß ªÀÄÆr¸À®Ä ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄ CªÀ±åÀ PÀ. É¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄ zÀ ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃd£ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ: ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀ±Á¯ÉAiÀÄÄ ‘ªÀiÁqÀÄvÁÛ PÀ°’ JA§ vÀvéÀªÀ£Äß M¼ÀUÉÆArzÉ. æ À ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄ¢AzÀ vÁwéPÀ «ZÁgÀU¼À£Äß MgÉUÉ ºÀaÑ ¸ÀvåÀ zÀ ±ÉÆÃzs£É ªÀiÁqÀ§ºÀÄzÀÄ. æ À À À ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀ±Á¯ÉAiÀÄÄ ªÀiÁ£À¹PÀ ZÀlĪÀlÄPÉU¼À£Äß M¼ÀUÉÆArzÉ. æ À À «zÁåyðUÀ¼À D¯ÉÆÃZÀ£É, AiÉÆÃZÀ£É, vÁQðPÀ ±ÀQÛ ªÀÄ£ÉÆèsÁªÀ ªÀÄÄAvÁzÀªÅÀ UÀ¼À£Äß À ªÀÈ¢Þ¸ÀĪÀzÄ. À ¥ÁæAiÉÆÃVPÀ PÁAiÀÄðUÀ½AzÀ «zÁåyðUÀ¼À°è ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ªÀÄ£ÉÆèsÁªÀ£AiÀÄÄ ¨É¼ÀAiÀÄÄvÀÛzÉ. É ¥ÁæAiÉÆÃVPÀ PÁAiÀÄðªÀÅ ªÀÄUÀÄ PÉÃA¢ævÀªÁzÀÄzÀÄ. ¸ÀvÁå£ÉéõÀuÉUÉ ¥ÉÆæÃvÁìºÀ ¤ÃqÀÄvÀÛzÉ. ¥ÁæAiÉÆÃVPÀ PÁAiÀÄðªÀÅ ªÀÄ£ÉÆêÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀªÁV ¸ÀĨszÀªÁVzÉ. À æ EzÀÄ «zÁåyðUÀ¼À°è PÀ°AiÀÄÄ«PÉAiÀÄ°è D¸ÀQÛAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¨É¼É¸ÀÄvÀÛzÉ. EzÀÄ «zÁåyðUÀ¼À°è ¸ÀA±ÉÆÃzsÀ£Á ªÀÄ£ÉÆèsÁªÀ£AiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¨É¼É¸ÀÄvÀÛzÉ. «zÁåyðUÀ¼À£Äß É À ±ÉÆÃzsÀPÀgÀ£ÁßV ªÀiÁqÀÄvÀÛzÉ. ºÀ®ªÁgÀÄ ¥ÁæAiÉÆÃVPÀ PÁAiÀÄðUÀ½AzÀ «zÁåyðUÀ¼À°è DvÀ䫱Áé¸À ºÁUÀÆ zÀPëÀvÉ ºÉZÀÄѪÀzÄ. À ¥ÁæAiÉÆÃVPÀ PÁAiÀÄðªÀÅ ¥Àæw¨sÁªÀAvÀ «zÁåyðUÀ½UÉ AiÉÆÃUÀåªÁzÀÄzÀÄ. 21 | P a g e
  23. 23.  ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£É ºÉZÀÄÑ ¥ÀjuÁªÀÄPÁjAiÀÄÆ ºÁUÀÆ PÀ°PÉAiÀÄÄ ºÀZÀÄÑ ¸ÀzÈÀ qsÀªÁVAiÀÄÆ æ DVgÀÄvÀÛzÉ.¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀ ZÀlĪÀnPÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß PÉÊUÉƼÀÄîªÀ CA±ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ: ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ°è «zÁåyðUÀ¼ÀÄ PÉêÀ® PÀ°AiÀÄĪÀzÉÆAzÉà C®è vÀªÄä PÀ°PÁ C£ÀĨsªÀU¼À£Äß æ À À À À ±Á±ÀévÀªÁV fêÀ£À ¥ÀAiÀÄðAvÀ ºÉÆvÉÆÛAiÀÄÄåvÁÛgÉ. PÀªÀħzÀÞªÁV ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀUÀ¼À°è ¥ÁæAiÉÆÃVPÀ PÀ°PÁ£ÀĨsªÀUÀ¼ÀÄ zÉÆgÉvÀzÝÉ Ã DzÀgÉ æ æ À §ºÀıÀB J¯Áè «zÁåyðUÀ¼ÀÄ zÀPÀë £ÁUÀjPÀgÀÄ AiÀıÀ¹é ªÀåQÛU¼ÁUÀĪÀzgÀ°è ¸ÀAzÉúÀ«®è. À À E°è eÁÕ£À ¸ÀA¥ÁzÀ£, P˱À®åUÀ¼À ¨É¼ÀªtÂUÉ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ C¨sÁå¸À, ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ¥ÀzÀÞwUÀ¼À°è vÀg¨Ãw, É À À É ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ¥ÀæªÈÀ wÛUÀ¼À ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ªÀÄ£ÉÆèsÁªÀUÀ¼À CAPÀÄgÀªÁUÀÄvÀÛzÉ. ªÀÄÆvÀð ªÀÄvÀÄÛ CªÀÄÆvÀð ¥ÀjPÀ®à£ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ gÀÆ¥À vÀ¼ÉAiÀÄÄvÀÛªÉ. PÀ°vÀ eÁÕ£ÀzÀ C¼ªÀÀrPÉAiÀiÁUÀÄvÀÛzÉ. ¸ÀªÄ¸ÉåUÀ¼À ¥ÀjºÁgÀ ªÀiÁrPÉƼÀÄîªÀ ¸ÁªÀÄxÀåð, AiÀÄÄPÀÛ wêÀiÁð£ÀUÀ¼À£Äß PÉÊUÉƼÀÄîªÀ ¸À±PÀÛvÉ À À À ¨É¼ÉAiÀÄÄvÀÛzÉ. ªÀiÁ£ÀªÀ fêÀ£PÀÆÌ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¸ÀfêÀ ¤fÃðªÀ ¥Àj¸ÀgÀPÀÆÌ EgÀĪÀ ¤PÀl ¥ÀgÀ¸ÀàgÀ ¸ÀA§AzsU¼À À À À ¥ÀÆtð UÀæ»PÉAiÀiÁUÀÄvÀÛzÉ. Erà «±ÀézÀ°è ªÀiÁ£ÀªÀ CxÀªÁ ªÀåQÛAiÀÄ ¥ÁæAiÉÆÃVPÀ C£ÀĨsªÀUÀ¼ÀÄ, ¨sËwPÀ, ¨Ë¢ÞPÀ, ¨sÁªÀ£ÁvÀäP, À À ªÀÄ£ÉÆêÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ, ¸ÁªÀiÁfPÀ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¥Àj¸ÀgÁvÀäPÀ «PÁ¸ÀUÀ½UÉ ¸ÉÆÃ¥Á£ÀUÀ¼ÁV «zÁåyðAiÀÄÄ vÀ£ßÀ fêÀ£zÀ°è C¼Àªr¹ ªÀiÁ£À¹PÀ ªÀÄlÖz°èAiÀiÁzÀgÀÆ, «±ÁévÀä ¨sÁªÀªÀ£Äß vÀ¼ÉzÄ ªÀiÁ£À«ÃAiÀÄ À À À À À ªÀvð£ÉUÀ¼À ²¯ÁªÀÄÆwðAiÀiÁV zÉʪÀvéÀzÀ CxÀªÁ ¸ÁwéPÀv£ÀzÀ ªÀiÁUÀðzÀ²ðAiÀiÁVzÉ. À À ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£ÀªÀÅ ¸ÀvåÀ ¸ÀAUÀwUÀ½AzÀ PÀÆrzÀ MAzÀÄ ªÀåªÀ¹ÜvÀªÁzÀ eÁÕ£À. F eÁÕ£ÀªÀ£ÀÄß PÉêÀ®vÁwéPÀªÁV ¥ÀqzÀgÉ ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃd£À«®è. ¥ÁæAiÉÆÃVPÀªÁVqÉzÀ eÁÕ£ÀªÅÀ CxÀðAiÀÄÄvÀªÀÇ, É¥ÀjuÁªÀÄPÁjAiÀiÁzÀÄzÀÄ DVgÀÄvÀÛzÉ. PÉüÀĪÀzQÌAvÀ £ÁªÀÅ £ÉÆÃrzÀÝ£Äß £ÀA§ÄvÉÛêÉ. £ÉÆÃrzÀQÌAvÀ À ÀªÀiÁrzÀÝ£Äß E£ÀÆß ºÉZÀÄÑ £ÀA§ÄvÉÛêÉ. CAzÀgÉ ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ°è «zÁåyðUÀ¼Éà ¸ÀévÀB ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀ ÀPÉÊUÉÆAqÀÄ ¥ÀqzÀ eÁÕ£ÀªÀÅ GvÀÌøµÀÖªÁVgÀÄvÀÛzÉ. «zÁåyðUÀ¼À°è C£ÀéAiÀÄ ¸ÁªÀÄxÀåð, ¥ÁæAiÉÆÃVPÀ ÉvÀAvÀæUÀ¼ÀÄ, gÀZ£ÁvÀäPvÉ, QæAiÀiÁ²Ã®vÉ, «ªÉÃZÀ£Á ±ÀQÛ, ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ªÀÄ£ÉÆèsÁªÀ, D¸ÀQÛ, ¸ÀägÀuÉ, À À¸ÀÈd£À²Ã®vÉ E£ÀÆß C£ÉÃPÀ CA±ÀUÀ¼À£Äß ¨É¼É¸ÀĪÀzÉà ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ UÀÄjAiÀiÁVzÉ. À ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄ¢AzÀ ªÀåQÛAiÀÄ ¸ÀªÀðvÉÆêÀÄÄR ¨É¼ÀªÀtÂUÉ ¸ÁzsåÀ . ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À «µÀAiÀĪÀÅ æªÀåªÀ¹ÜvÀªÁzÀ CzsåÀ AiÀÄ£ÀzÀ «µÀAiÀĪÁVgÀĪÀzjAzÀ EzÀgÀ ¨ÉÆÃzs£ÉUÉ ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀĪÀÅ Cwà À ÀCUÀvÀåªÁzÀ WÀlPÀªÁVzÉ JAzÀÄ ºÉüÀ¯ÁUÀÄvÀÛzÉ. 22 | P a g e
  24. 24. 5. ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼À §UÉÎ ¸ÀAQë¥ÀÛ n¥Ààt §gɬÄj. (2009) 5 CAPÀ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ J®è «ªÀgÉU¼À£Äß M¼ÀUÉÆArgÀĪÀAvÀºÀ ¥ÀĸÀÛPÀU¼Éà ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ. æ À À À æ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼À°è 2 «zsÀ: 1. ²PÀëPÀgÄ EqÀĪÀ zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ 2. «zÁåyðUÀ¼ÀÄ EqÀĪÀ æ ÀzÁR¯ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ. ²PÀëPÀgÀÄ EqÀĪÀ zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:  G¥ÀPÀgÀtUÀ¼À gÉf¸ÀÖgï: J®è G¥ÀPÀgÀtUÀ¼À «ªÀgÀ §gÉAiÀÄĪÀzÀÄ.  ±Á±ÀévÀ ªÀ¸ÀÄÛUÀ¼À gÉf¸ÀÖgï: ¨Á½PÉ §gÀĪÀ, ºÁ¼ÁUÀzÀ ªÀ¸ÀÄÛU¼À «ªÀgÀ §gÉAiÀÄĪÀzÀÄ. À  MqÉAiÀÄĪÀ ªÀ¸ÀÄÛUÀ¼À gÉf¸ÀÖgï: MqÉzÄ ºÁ¼ÁUÀĪÀ ªÀ¸ÀÄÛUÀ¼À «ªÀgÀ §gÉAiÀÄĪÀzÀÄ. À  ªÀåAiÀĪÁV ºÉÆÃUÀĪÀ ªÀ¸ÀÄÛUÀ¼À gÉf¸ÀÖgï: RZÁðUÀĪÀ ªÀ¸ÀÄÛU¼À «ªÀgÀ §gÉAiÀÄĪÀzÀÄ. À  «zÁåyðUÀ¼ÀÄ ¥ÀqÉzÀ ªÀ¸ÀÄÛUÀ¼À gÉf¸ÀÖgï: «zÁåyðUÀ¼ÀÄ ¥ÀqÉzÀ ªÀ¸ÀÄÛU¼À «ªÀgÀ §gÉAiÀÄĪÀzÀÄ. À  ºÁdj ¥ÀĸÀÛPÀzÀ gÉf¸ÀÖgï: «zÁåyðUÀ¼À ºÁdjUÀ¼À£ÀÄß §gÉ¢qÀĪÀzÄ. À±Á±ÀévÀ ªÀ¸ÀÄÛUÀ¼À gÉf¸ÀÖgï£À ªÀiÁzÀj: wAUÀ¼ÀÄ / «ªÀgU¼ÀÄ À À PÀA¥À¤AiÀÄ MqÉzÀ ªÀ¸ÀÄÛU¼À PÉÊAiÀÄ°ègÀĪÀ À ²PÀëPÀgÀ ¸À» ¢£ÁAPÀ zÀgÀUÀ¼À «ªÀgÀ ¸ÀASÉå ªÀ¸ÀÄÛU¼À ¸ÀASÉå ÀMqÉAiÀÄĪÀ ªÀ¸ÀÄÛUÀ¼À gÉf¸ÀÖgï£À ªÀiÁzÀj: ¢£ÁAPÀ MqÉzÀ «zÁåyðAiÀÄ ªÀ¸ÀÄÛ ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ªÀ¸ÀÄÛ«£À «ªÀgÀ ¸À» MqÉAiÀÄ®Ä ²PÀëPÀgÀ ¸À» «¨sÁUÀ PÁgÀtzÀ «ªÀgÀ ªÀÄÄRå¸ÀÜgÀ ¸À» 23 | P a g e
  25. 25.  «zÁåyðUÀ¼ÀÄ EqÀĪÀ zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼Ä: À  ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀzÀ £ÉÆÃmï§ÄPï: «zÁåyð vÁ£ÀÄ PÉÊUÉÆAqÀ ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀzÀ «ªÀgÀ §gÉ¢qÀĪÀzÀÄ.  ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀzÀ PÉʦr: ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£ÀzÀ J®è ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀzÀ «ªÀgÀ §gÉ¢qÀĪÀzÄ. À  ¤jÃPÀëuÁ £ÉÆÃmï§ÄPï: ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀ PÉÊUÉÆAqÁUÀ CªÀÅUÀ¼À ¤jÃPÀëuÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ºÁUÀÆ ¯ÉPÁÌZÁgÀ æ ªÀiÁr CªÀ£Äß §gÉ¢qÀĪÀzÀÄ. À6. Write an essay on ‘Biographical method of Teaching’ with reference to its meaning, need, context ofuse and merits. (2009)Ans:Biographical Method: “Living, intelligent biography should connect, somehow, to the central concerns of civilisation. Oursis science-based one.” - Andrew Marr The biographical method involves the study, use and collection of personal-life documents, stories,accounts and narrations which describe turning point moments in individuals’ life. (Sir Issac Newton, theapple falling on his head; Archimedes, bathing in a tub). The subject matter of the biographical method isthe life experiences of a person. When written in the first person, it is called an autobiography, life story orlife history. When written by another person, observing the life in question, it is called a Biography. Thismethod would rely upon the subjective verbal and written expressions of meaning given by the individualsburg studied, these expressions being the windows into the inner life of the person.Merits: Life stories of Raman, Bose, Abdul Kalam, Faraday etc. would be really useful and interesting to students. It would enable the students to look into their life and perhaps dream big. Like in the Historical Method, the link between science and values can be clearly brought out by the teacher. Experiences of the scientists could inspire students to reach great heights. Skilful use examples from life stories show deficiencies in current research procedures and the new dimensions that further analysis can add.Need: To enable the students to look into their life. To link between science, society and values can be clearly brought out. To inspire the students to reach great heights. To enable the students for skilful use of examples from life stories.Context of use: 24 | P a g e
  26. 26. The Biographical method is used while narrating about the life of scientist which come across whileteaching Physical Science.For Example: While dealing with ‘The Universe’ chapter we come across Galileo Galilei in IX standardtextbook.Similarly, Sir Issac Newton, while dealing with Newton’s laws of motion in VIII standard.9. What is ‘Inquiry Method’? Explain its merits and demerits. (2009) 5MAns:Inquiry Method: Inquiry method, as the word implies, relates to the inquiry about the topic. In this method thestudent is an active learner. He subjects every information or fact to ruthless inquiry in order to know thefact for himself and to test its validity, hi puts to rove the theories proposed by his teachers.Merits: Teaching science through inquiry method leads to unfolding of child’s mind, instead of stuffing it with dead material. Curiosity is an innate urge of human beings whether young or old, educated or illiterate; everyone has the desire to know the unknown. This urge of curiosity has been responsible for all the discoveries and inventions. Inquiry teaching has a supplementary character. It supplements the existing set of knowledge by throwing open flood-gates of knowledge to be picked in both hands by the students. Inquiry method supplies impetus to work with double zeal. The students feel themselves in extraordinary high spirit with the topic. They take lessons just like play. Inquiry method blesses the students with extra energy to face new challenges. It is both rewarding and gratifying. It is only through this way of teaching that ever developing subjects like science can be judiciously taught. Inquiry technique ensures sublimation of natural endowments. Besides being responsible for growth of civilization, spirit of inquiry infuses bits of good moral values.Demerits: In this method the teacher does not give readymade notes. There is no single and ultimate method to arouse inquiry. The objects or problems chosen for the purpose must be familiar with the students’ previous knowledge.14. ªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ªÀiÁ»wAiÀÄ£ÀÄß «zÁåyðUÀ½UÉ ¥ÀæZÀÄgÀ ¥Àr¸ÀĪÀ°è ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀgÀ ¥ÁvÀæªÀ£ÀÄß «ªÀj¹. (2009) 5 CAPÀªÉÊeÁÕ¤PÀ ªÀiÁ»wAiÀÄ£ÀÄß «zÁåyðUÀ½UÉ ¥ÀæZÄgÀ ¥Àr¸ÀĪÀ°è ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀgÀ ¥ÁvÀæ: À 25 | P a g e
  27. 27.  ªÀiÁ»wAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¨sÉâ¸ÀĪÀªÀ / ¤µÀàPÀë ªÀiÁ»w ¤ÃqÀĪÀªÀ (2006£Éà ¸Á°£À ¥À±ÉߥÀwæPÉAiÀÄ ¥À±Éß æ æ ¸ÀASÉå 9gÀ GvÀÛgªÀ£Äß UÀªÄ¤¹.) À À À ¨Á£ÀÄ° ºÁUÀÆ zÀÆgÀzÀ±Àð£ÀUÀ¼À ¥ÁoÀUÀ¼À£ÀÄß §gÉAiÀÄĪÀzÀÄ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¥Àæ¸ÀÄÛv¥Àr¸ÀĪÀzÀÄ (2006£Éà À ¸Á°£À ¥Àæ±ÉߥÀwæPAiÀÄ ¥Àæ±Éß ¸ÀASÉå 9gÀ GvÀÛgÀª£ÀÄß UÀªÄ¤¹.) É À À gÀ¸À¥Àæ±Éß ¥Àæ¸ÀÄÛvÀUÁgÀ (2006£Éà ¸Á°£À ¥Àæ±ßÉ ¥ÀwæPAiÀÄ ¥À±Éß ¸ÀASÉå 9gÀ GvÀÛgÀª£ÀÄß UÀªÄ¤¹.) É æ À À ¥Àj¸ÀgÀPÁÌV PÁ¼ÀfAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ªÀ»¸ÀÄ«PÉ: ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀ «eÁÕ¤AiÀiÁV, aAvÀP£ÁV, §gÀºUÁgÀ£ÁV, PÀ¯ÁPÁgÀ£ÁV ¥Àj¸ÀgÀzÀ À À PÁ¼ÀfAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ªÀ»¸À¨ÃPÀÄ. É «zÁåyðUÀ¼À°è ªÀÄÆqsÀ£ÀA©PÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ºÉÆÃUÀ¯Ár¹ ¸ÀAzÀ¨ÉsÆÃðavÀªÁV ªÀÄ¼É ¤Ãj£À PÉÆAiÀÄÄè, ¤Ãj£À ¸ÀzâÀ¼ÀP, ¨s«µÀåwÛ£À°è ¤Ãj£À C¨sÁªÀ ºÁUÀÆ É À ¥Àj¸ÀgÀ «£Á±À¢AzÀ DUÀĪÀ vÉÆAzÀgÉUÀ¼À£Äß ZÀað¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. À6. ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀ±Á¯Á zÁR¯ÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ªÀåªÀ¹ÜvÀªÁV ªÀVÃðPÀj¹ ¸ÀAQë¥ÀÛ n¥Ààt §gɬÄj. (2010) 5 CAPÀ2009£Éà ¸Á°£À ¥Àæ±ßÉ ¥ÀwæPAiÀÄ ¥Àæ±ßÉ ¸ÀASÉå 5gÀ GvÀÛgÀª£ÀÄß UÀªÄ¤¹. É À À13. ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀgÀ PÀÄjvÀÄ F PɼÀV£À CA±ÀUÀ¼À£ÁßzsÀj¹, «ªÀıÁðvÀäPÀªÁV «±Éèö¹j.  CªÀgÀÄ JzÀÄj¸ÀÄwÛgÀĪÀ ¸ÁªÀiÁ£Àå ¸ÀªÀĸÉåUÀ¼ÀÄ  CªÀgÀ ªÀÈwÛ ¨É¼ÀªÀtÂUÉUÉ EgÀĪÀ CªÀPÁ±ÀUÀ¼Ä (ªÀiÁUÀðUÀ¼ÀÄ) À  «zÁåyðUÀ¼À°è D¸ÀQÛ ¥ÉÆõÀuÉ (2010) 10 CAPÀ ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£Á ºÁUÀÆ PÀ°PÁ ¥ÀQæAiÉÄAiÀÄ°è ²PÀëPÀ ¥ÀzsÁ£À ªÀÄvÀÄÛ dªÁ¨ÁÝjAiÀÄÄvÀ ªÀåQÛAiÀiÁVgÀÄvÁÛ£É. æ æDzÀÝjAzÀ ²PÀëPÀ¤UÉ J®è ¸ËPÀAiÀÄðUÀ¼À£Äß ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£UÉ ¥ÀÆgÀPÀªÁzÀÄzÀÝ£Äß MzÀV¹zÁUÀ ªÀiÁvÀæ CªÀ¤AzÀ À É ÀGvÀÛªÀÄ ¥ÀæwQæAiÉÄ ¥ÀqAiÀÄ®Ä ¸ÁzsÀå. EAzÀÄ §ºÀ¼ÀµÄÖ ²PÀëPÀgÄ ºÀ®ªÁgÀÄ ¸ÀªÄ¸ÉåUÀ¼À£ÀÄß É À À ÀJzÀÄj¸ÀÄwÛzÁÝgÉ. F ¸ÀªÄ¸ÉåUÀ¼À »£É߯ÉAiÀįÉèà CªÀgÄ PÁAiÀÄðªÀ£ÀÄß ªÀiÁqÀÄwÛzÁÝgÉ. D ¸ÀªÄ¸ÉåUÀ¼ÀÄ F À À ÀPɼÀV£ÀAwªÉ: ±Á¯ÉAiÀÄ ¨sËwPÀ PÉÆgÀvU¼ÁzÀ ±Á¯Á PÀlÖqÀ, ¸ÀªÄ¥ÀðPÀ ªÀUÀðPÉÆÃuÉ, ±ËZÁ®AiÀÄ, DlzÀ É À À ªÉÄÊzÁ£À, ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄ ªÀÄÄAvÁzÀªÅÀ UÀ½AzÀ DPÀµðuÁgÀ»vÀªÁVªÉ. À ¨É¼ÉAiÀÄÄwÛgĪÀ d£À¸ÀASÉå¬ÄAzÁV, DyðPÀ zÀĹÜw¬ÄAzÁV ¸ÀjAiÀiÁzÀ ¦ÃoÉÆÃ¥ÀPgtUÀ¼À À À À PÉÆgÀvÉ. 26 | P a g e
  28. 28.  QèµÀÖ jÃwAiÀÄ C¸ÀªÀÄ¥ÀðPÀ «ªÀguÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ºÉÆA¢gÀĪÀ ¥ÀoÀå¥ÀĸÀÛPÀU¼ÀÄ. À À ¥ÀoÀå¥ÀĸÀÛPÀzÀ°ègÀĪÀ J¯Áè «µÀAiÀÄUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÀzÀ ªÀÄÆ®PÀ æ «ªÀj¸À®Ä ¸ÀÆPÀÛ ¥ÀAiÉÆÃUÁ®AiÀÄzÀ, G¥ÀPgtUÀ¼À ªÀÄvÀÄÛ gÁ¸ÁAiÀĤPÀUÀ¼À PÉÆgÀvÉ. æ À À QQÌjzÀ vÀgÀUÀwAiÀÄ ¥ÀjuÁªÀÄ¢AzÁV «zÁåyðUÀ¼À §UÉÎ ªÉÊAiÀÄQÛPÀ PÁ¼Àf PÀrªÉÄ. ¥ÀjuÁªÀÄPÁj ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉUÉ ¸ÀÆPÀÛ ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉÆÃ¥ÀPgÀtUÀ¼À PÉÆgÀvÉ. À ¨sËvÀ«eÁÕ£À ¸Á»vÀåzÀ DzsÁgÀ CxÀªÁ DPÀgÀ UÀAxÀUÀ¼À, UÀæAxÁ®AiÀÄUÀ¼À PÉÆgÀvÉ. æ ¸ÀªÄ¥ÀðPÀªÁzÀ «eÁÕ£À ¸ÀAWÀzÀ ¸ÀAWÀl£É E®è¢gÀĪÀzÄ. À À ªÀÄÄSÉÆåÃ¥ÁzsÁåAiÀÄgÀÄ, EvÀgÀ ²PÀëPÀgÄ ºÁUÀÆ ¸ÁªÀðd¤PÀgÀ ¸ÀºPÁgÀzÀ vÉÆAzÀgÉ. À À ºÀ®ªÁgÀÄ ±Á¯ÉUÀ¼À°è ªÉüÁ¥ÀnÖAiÀÄ C¸ÀªÄ¥ÀðPÀªÁzÀ ºÉÆAzÁtÂP¬ÄAzÀ ²PÀëPÀgÀÄ vÉÆAzÀgÉUÉ À É M¼ÀUÁUÀÄvÁÛgÉ. ¥ÀoÀå¥ÀĸÀÛPÀ §zÀ¯ÁzÁUÀ ²PÀëPÀjUÉ ¥ÀÄ£À±ÉÃvÀ£À vÀgÀ¨ÉÃwAiÀÄ£ÀÄß PÉÆqÀ¢gÀĪÀzÀÄ. Ñ ºÀ½îUÀ½UÉ ºÉÆÃUÀ®Ä ¸ÁjUÉ ªÀåªÀ¸ÉÜAiÀÄ PÉÆgÀvÉ ºÁUÀÆ ºÀ½îAiÀÄ°è ªÁ¹¸À®Ä ªÁ¸ÀzÀ ªÀÄ£ÉUÀ¼À PÉÆgÀvÉ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ CAxÀ ¸ÀܼÀU¼À°è ¥ÀZ°vÀ «zÀåªÀiÁ£ÀU¼À PÉÆgÀvÉ PÀAqÀħgÀĪÀzÀÄ. À æ À À «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀg°è ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀ ¤ªÀð»¸À®Ä ¨ÉÃPÁUÀĪÀ P˱À®åzÀ PÉÆgÀvÉ. À «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀg°è ºÉƸÀ vÀAvÀæeÁÕ£ÀzÀ §UÉÎ Cj«£À PÉÆgÀvÉ. À«eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀgÀ ªÀÈwÛ ¨É¼ÀªÀtÂUÉUÁV PÁAiÀÄðPÀæªÀÄUÀ¼ÀÄ (CªÀPÁ±ÀUÀ¼Ä): À ‚¨sÁgÀwÃAiÀÄ ¸ÀA¸ÀÌøw ºÁUÀÆ ªÀiË®åUÀ¼ÉÆA¢UÉ «eÁÕ£ÀªÀ£ÁßzsÀj¹zÀ ²PÀët ªÀiÁvÀæªÃ gÁ³ÀÖçzÀ É¥ÀUw, gÀPëÀuÉ ºÁUÀÆ eÁ£ÀåvÀéPÉÌ §Ä£Á¢ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¥À§Ä® ¸ÁzsÀ£À JA§ÄzÀÄ ¤¸ÀìA±ÀAiÀĪÁzÀ ªÀiÁvÀÄ.‛ æ À æ - ¨sÁgÀwÃAiÀÄ ²PÀët DAiÉÆÃUÀ 1964-66 «ZÁgÀUÉÆö×UÀ¼ÀÄ: «eÁÕ£À «µÀAiÀÄzÀ ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£AiÀÄ ¸ÀªÄ¸ÉåUÀ¼À PÀÄjvÁV ºÀ«ÄäPÆAqÀ «ZÁgÀ É À É ¸ÀAQÃtð, «ZÁgÀ UÉÆÃ¶× ºÁUÀÆ ¸À¨sÉ ¸ÀªÀiÁgÀA¨sU¼À°è ¨sÁUÀªÀ»¸À¨ÃPÀÄ. C°è ²PÀëPÀgÄ À À É À ¸ÀªÄ¸ÉåAiÀÄ PÀÄjvÁzÀ ZÀZð, «±ÉèõÀuÉ, wêÀiÁð£À ªÀÄÄAvÁzÀ CA±ÀUÀ¼À PÀÄjvÀÄ «µÀAiÀÄ À É «¤ªÀÄAiÀÄ ªÀiÁrPÉƼÀî¨ÉÃPÀÄ. 27 | P a g e
  29. 29.  ¥ÀÄ£À±ÑÉÃvÀ£À vÀg¨Ãw ²©gÀ: ²PÀëPÀgÄ ©qÀÄ«£À ªÉüÉAiÀÄ°è EAvÀºÀ C£ÉÃPÀ ¥ÀÄ£À±ÑÉÃvÀ£À À É À vÀg¨ÃwUÀ½UÉ ºÁdgÁUÀ¨ÃPÀÄ. C°è ±ÉæõÀ× ¥ÀjtÂvÀjAzÀ ºÉƸÀ ¸ÀA±ÉÆÃzsÀ£UÀ¼À CvÁåzsÀĤPÀ À É É É ªÀiÁ»wUÀ¼À «µÀAiÀÄ PÀÄjvÁV PÁAiÀiÁðUÁgÀ PÉÊUÉƼÀî¨ÉÃPÀÄ ºÁUÀÆ DzsĤPÀ G¥ÀPÀgÀtUÀ¼À À ªÀiÁ»wAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¥ÀqÉAiÀĨÉÃPÀÄ. PÁAiÀiÁðUÁgÀU¼ÀÄ: C£ÉÃPÀ ²PÀët DAiÉÆÃUÀU¼ÀÄ, ªÀÄAqÀ½UÀ¼ÀÄ, ²PÀët PÉëÃvÀæPÉÌ ¸ÀA§A¢ü¹zÀAvÉ À À ¥ÀoÀåPÀªÀÄ, ¥ÀoÀå¥ÀĸÀÛPÀ, ªÀiË®åªÀiÁ¥À£À NgÉU¼ÀÄ, ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£ÆÃ¥ÀPgtUÀ¼ÀÄ, ¥ÁoÀzÀ AiÉÆÃd£É æ À É À À ªÉÆzÀ¯ÁzÀ aµÀAiÀÄzÀ PÀÄjvÁV PÁAiÀiÁðUÁgÀ ªÀiÁqÀĪÀzÄ. À «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀgÀ C¨sÁå¸À ªÀÄAqÀ½: «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀgÄ «eÁÕ£À ²PÀëPÀgÀ C¨sÁå¸À ªÀÄAqÀ½AiÀÄ°è ¸À¨sÉ À ¸ÉÃj «eÁÕ£À «µÀAiÀÄzÀ ¸ÀªÀĸÉåUÀ¼À DzsĤPÀ ªÀiÁ»wUÀ¼À §UÉÎ ZÀZÉð £Àq¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. À É ¯ÉÃR£ÀUÀ¼À C¨sÁå¸À: «eÁÕ£À, NCERT, DSERT ºÁUÀÆ ²PÀët PÁ¯ÉÃdÄUÀ¼À «¸ÀÛgÀt E¯ÁSÉ ºÉÆgÀr¸ÀĪÀ ²PÀët PÀÄjvÀÄ ¯ÉÃR£À ¥ÀPÀluÉ, ¤AiÀÄvÀPÁ°PÀU¼À£Äß vÀ£ßÀ ªÀÈvÀÛ ¥ÀwæPU¼À£Æßâ æ À À É À É ºÉaÑ£À eÁÕ£À ¥ÀqÉzÄPÉƼÀî¨ÉÃPÀÄ. À«zÁåyðUÀ¼À°è D¸ÀQÛ ¥ÉÆõÀuÉUÉ C£ÀĸÀj¸ÀĪÀ PÀæªÀÄUÀ¼ÀÄ: ²PÀëPÀgÀÄ «zÁåyðUÀ¼À ¥Àæ±ßÉ UÀ½UÉ ªÀÄ£ÀßuÉ ¤ÃqÀĪÀzgÀ ªÀÄÆ®PÀ À ²PÀëPÀ «zÁåyðUÀ½UÉ ºÉƸÀ «µÀAiÀĪÀ£Äß ºÀ¼ÉAiÀÄzÀgÆA¢UÉ ¸ÉÃj¹ ¨ÉÆâü¸ÀĪÀzgÀ ªÀÄÆ®PÀ. À É À ºÉƸÀ G¥ÀPÀgÀtUÀ¼À vÀAiÀiÁjPÉUÉ ¥ÉÆæÃvÁìºÀ ¤ÃqÀĪÀ ªÀÄÆ®PÀ. «zÁåyðUÀ½UÉ ¸Àé ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀ PÉÊUÉƼÀî®Ä CªÀPÁ±À ¤ÃqÀĪÀzÀgÀ ªÀÄÆ®PÀ. ºÉƸÀ ºÉƸÀ jÃwAiÀÄ°è ¨ÉÆÃzsÀ£É ªÀiÁqÀĪÀzgÀ ªÀÄÆ®PÀ «zÁåyðAiÀÄ°è D¸ÀQÛ ºÉaѸÀ§ºÀÄzÀÄ. À ºÉƸÀ ¸ÀA±ÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉUÀ¼À §UÉÎ ¯ÉÃR£ÀUÀ¼À£ÀÄß «zÁåyðUÀ½AzÀ ¸ÀAUÀ»¸ÀĪÀzÄ. æ À ²PÀët vÀdÕjAzÀ ¥Àæw¨sÁªÀAvÀ «zÁåyðUÀ½UÉ ¸ÀàzsÁðvÀäPÀ vÀg¨Ãw ¤ÃqÀĪÀzgÀ ªÀÄÆ®PÀ. À É À «zÁåyðUÀ¼À°è ¸ÀàzÁðvÀäPÀ ¥ÀjÃPÉëUÀ¼À£Äß K¥Àðr¸ÀĪÀzgÀ ªÀÄÆ®PÀ. s À À15. «zÁåyðUÀ¼À°è ¸ÀÈd£À²Ã®vÉ ¨É¼É¸®Ä ¤ÃªÀÅ vÉUÉzÀÄPÉƼÀÄîªÀ ZÀlĪÀnPÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ZÀað¹. (2010) À«zÁåyðUÀ¼À°è ¸ÀÈd£À²Ã®vÉ ¨É¼É¸®Ä vÉUÉzÀÄPÉƼÀî¨ÉÃPÁzÀ ZÀlĪÀnPÉU¼ÀÄ: À À «zÁåyðUÀ½UÉ ¸ÀévÀB ¥ÀæAiÉÆÃUÀU¼À£Äß ªÀiÁr £ÉÆÃqÀĪÀzPÉÌ CªÀPÁ±À ¤ÃqÀĪÀzÄ. À À À À 28 | P a g e
  30. 30.  ºÉƸÀ ºÉƸÀ G¥ÀPgtUÀ¼À vÀAiÀiÁjPÉUÉ «zÁåyðUÀ¼À£Äß ¥ÉÆæÃvÁ컸ÀĪÀzÄ. À À À À §UɧUÉAiÀÄ ¥À±ÉßUÀ¼ÀÄ ºÁUÀÆ ¸ÀªÄ¸ÉåUÀ¼À ªÀÄÆ®PÀ «zÁåyðUÀ½UÉ «ZÁgÀ ªÀiÁqÀĪÀAvÉ æ À ¥ÉÆæÃvÁ컸ÀĪÀzÄ.À vÀgUwAiÀÄ°è «ZÁgÀ ¥ÀæZÉÆÃzÀPÀ ¥Àæ±ÉßUÀ¼À£Äß PÉüÀĪÀzÄ. À À À À «zÁåyðUÀ¼À ¥Àæ±ßÉ UÀ¼ÀÄ ºÁUÀÆ «ZÁgÀU½UÉ ªÀÄ£ÀßuÉ PÉÆqÀĪÀzÄ. À À «zÁåyðUÀ½UÉ ¸ÀAVÃvÀ, £ÁlPÀ, ¨sÁµÀt, avÀæPÀ¯É ªÀÄÄAvÁzÀ ¸ÀàzÉðUÀ¼À£Äß K¥Àðr¸ÀĪÀzÄ. s À À «zÁåyðUÀ¼À°ègÀĪÀ ªÀÄÆ®¥Àw¨sÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß UÀÄgÀÄw¹, ¥Àæ±ÀA¹¹, ¥ÉÆæÃvÁ컸ÀĪÀzÄ. æ À ¸ÀvÁå£ÉéõÀuÉUÉ «zÁåyðUÀ¼À£Äß ¥ÉÆæÃvÁ컸ÀĪÀzÄ. À À®å15. a. Critically analyse meaning, merits and demerits of the following methods of teaching physical science. i. Demonstration Method ii. Laboratory Method (2010) 10MAns:Meaning of Demonstration method: A demonstration is a technique designed to show or illustrate a procedure, process orphenomenon. Demonstrations are concrete experiences that can be used for structuring future informationfor students; when used discriminately, science demonstrations are effective and provide excellent atinduction for science with and lessons.Merits of Demonstration Method: It is appropriate for small classes. The experiment is conducted by the teacher so there is no, or less breakage of apparatus. It is less time consuming. Students learn by seeing and observing. The sight and hearing sense of the students’ is more active. The students develop the power of observation, thinking and reasoning. The students are able to understand the principles clearly and the knowledge acquired is permanent. The teaching is effective if the numbers of apparatus are less. There is possibility of using more sophisticated apparatus. More difficult experiments can be undertaken. More hazardous experiments may be attempted. There is possibility to demonstrate manipulative and allied practical skills. 29 | P a g e
  31. 31.  There is possibility to draw the attention of all the pupils of the class simultaneously. All students can see the same operation and techniques simultaneously.Demerits of Demonstration Method: The students do not get a chance to perform experiments. Some students are not able to observe properly. Sometimes the teacher is not able to perform the experiment properly and this creates a lot of doubts about the subject in the minds of the students. Only general knowledge about science can be demonstrated. The concept of learning by doing has no place in this method. It fails impart training in the scientific attitudes among the students.Meaning of Laboratory Method: Laboratory method usually involves carrying out experiments by either individuals or in smallgroups. According to Dr. Mangal “Students are encouraged to derive the laws and principles of sciencethemselves by actually performing the experiments. The students are given all necessary materials andequipment in the laboratory along with proper instructions for carrying out their experiments with theirown initiative and effort, then they carry on the experiments and record the observation and infer theirown results. They learn by their own experience, observation, testing and verification. The teachersupervises their work and also guides them wherever needed.”Merits of Laboratory Method: The students to find out the qualitative or quantitative solutions to their problems. Students learn by ‘Learning by Doing’ method; which is the best method. It follows the child centred method. It is based on important maxims of teaching/learning, such as known to unknown, simple to complex and concrete to abstract etc. It helps in developing scientific attitude, scientific outwork and scientific temper. It makes students active and alert. It provides training in scientific method. Students become systematic in their day today affairs. It paves the way for the exploration, experimentation and verification of scientific facts and principles. As it provides concrete and direct self-experience, the knowledge becomes clear and permanent. Students learn the practical skills and proficiency in handling scientific apparatus and equipment. It assists in providing good virtues like honesty, truthfulness and dignity of labour etc. It helps in developing the habit of thinking, reasoning and problem solving. It helps in inculcating the spirit of discovery.Demerits of Laboratory Method: It is expensive and uneconomical. It takes more time to require at certain conclusions. It requires strenuous efforts on the part of the teacher and students. The speed of learning and teaching in this method is a demerit. 30 | P a g e
  32. 32.  It has limited applicability as every information cannot be verified through the laboratory work.5. Explain the organizational steps in problem solving approach. (2011)Ans:The steps to be followed are as below: Identifying and defining the problem: Students come across several situations where they can apply skills and knowledge to a problem that motivates them to participate in exploring. These problems can be stem from daily life or from the background literature on some topic or from the place of the work of the student. Problems must be chosen so that the student can partially but not completely understand them in terms of old ideas and sufficient time must be allowed for the student to grapple with the situations, possibly with appropriate hints to put the ideas together himself. Formulating the hypothesis: The student should focus on hypothesizing the relationship between two or more variables or difference between two treatments. A review of literature would give students more content information; various possible causes of the problem may be listed. Next the students are asked to outline a laboratory procedure to test out their proposed solution. Testing hypothesis by collecting and evaluating data: Students are permitted to enter the laboratory to conduct their tests and note down observations. The teacher’s job at this juncture is to ensure that the students work carefully and collect accurate data. Interpreting results: All inferences bearing on the data at hand must be considered tentatively. This phase of problem- solving demands an unusual amount of guidance from the teacher. Interpretation of data should be based on proper use of techniques and charts, graphs, tables can be used to record the data. Drawing conclusion: The students are asked to determine if their results substantiate the expected solution. Conclusion drawn on the basis of data should be accurately reported after proper interpretation. Findings should be reported concisely and recommendations for further work should be mentioned. The students should be able to make generalisations and apply it to their daily life.15. a. Critically analyse the difference between Inductive approach and Deductive approach with reference to following: i. Meaning ii. How and when to use iii. Merits and Demerits (2011) 10M Ans: Aspects Inductive Method Deductive Method 31 | P a g e

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