2 of 55Topics to Explore1. Trait Theories2. Psychoanalytic Theory3. Social-Cognitive Theories4. Humanistic Theories
3 of 55 Personality: Some TermsPersonality: a person’s internally based characteristic way ofacting and thinkingCharacter: Personal characteristics that have been judged orevaluatedTemperament: Hereditary aspects of personality, includingsensitivity, moods, irritability, and distractibilityPersonality Trait: Stable qualities that a person shows in mostsituationsPersonality Type: People who have several traits in common
5 of 55 Personality TheoriesPersonality Theory: System of concepts, assumptions, ideas,and principles proposed to explain personality.
6 of 55 Types of Personality TheoriesTrait Theories: Attempt to learn what traits make up personalityand how they relate to actual behaviorPsychodynamic Theories: Focus on the inner workings ofpersonality, especially internal conflicts and strugglesHumanistic Theories: Focus on private, subjective experienceand personal growthSocial-Cognitive Theories: Attribute difference in personality tosocialization, expectations, and mental processes
8 of 55 Scoring the PTQOn the score sheet, for each item, circle the term youcircled on the questionnaire for that item. If you circled“heredity” for item 1, circle “heredity” under both X andY on the answer sheet.Add up the number of items circled in each column.The column with the greatest number of items circledrepresents the type of personality theory closest to yourown views.
10 of 55 Jung’s Theory of Two TypesCarl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist who was a Freudian disciple,believed that we are one of two personality types:• Introvert: Shy, self-centered person whose attention isfocused inward• Extrovert: Bold, outgoing person whose attention is directedoutward
12 of 55 Eysenck’s Three Factor TheoryHans Eysenck, English psychologist, believed that there arethree fundamental factors in personality:• Introversion versus Extroversion• Emotionally Stable versus Unstable (neurotic)• Impulse Control versus Psychotic
14 of 55 Eysenck’s Theory, continuedThe first two factors create 4 combinations, related to the fourbasic temperaments recognized by ancient Greeks:• Melancholic (introverted + unstable): sad, gloomy• Choleric (extroverted + unstable): hot-tempered, irritable• Phlegmatic (introverted + stable): sluggish, calm• Sanguine (extroverted + stable): cheerful, hopeful
15 of 55 Cattell: Source & Surface TraitsRaymond Cattell: from Devon, England, believed that therewere two basic categories of traits: • Surface Traits: Features that make up the visible areas of personality • Source Traits: Underlying characteristics of a personalityCattell also constructed the 16PF, a personality test identifying16 personality factors (source traits).
20 of 55 Evaluation of Trait Theories• Are traits as pervasive as trait theories claim? Is someoneshy always or does it depend on the situation?• Are traits as enduring and unchangeable as trait theoriesclaim? Can we change our traits? If so, how easily?• Are traits affected by social and cultural upbringing? Or areour personalities formed at birth and unchanging thereafter?
22 of 55 Freud’s Psychoanalytic TheorySigmund Freud, M.D.,a Viennese physician who thought hispatients’ problems were more emotional than physical.Freud began his work by using hypnosis and eventuallyswitched to psychoanalysis.Freud had many followers: Jung and Adler, to name a few.More than 100 years later, his work is still influential and verycontroversial
24 of 55 The Id, Ego, and SuperegoId: Innate biological instincts and urges; self-serving &irrational• Totally unconscious• Works on Pleasure Principle: Wishes to have its desires(pleasurable) satisfied NOW, without waiting and regardlessof the consequencesEgo: Executive; directs id energies• Partially conscious and partially unconscious• Works on Reality Principle: Delays action until it is practicaland/or appropriate
The Id, Ego, and Superego, 25 of 55 continuedSuperego: Judge or censor for thoughts and actions of theego• Superego comes from our parents or caregivers; guiltcomes from the superego• Two parts - Conscience: Reflects actions for which a person has been punished (e.g., what we shouldn’t do or be) - Ego Ideal: Second part of the superego; reflects behavior one’s parents approved of or rewarded (e.g., what we should do or be)
26 of 55 Levels of AwarenessConscious: Everything you are aware of at a given momentPreconscious: Material that can easily be brought intoawarenessUnconscious: Holds repressed memories and emotions andthe id’s instinctual drives
28 of 55 Cause of AnxietyEgo is always caught in the middle of battles between superego’sdesires for moral behavior and the id’s desires for immediategratification Neurotic Anxiety: Caused by id impulses that the ego can barely control Moral Anxiety: Comes from threats of punishment from the superegoDefense mechanism: a process used by the ego to distortreality and protect a person from anxiety
29 of 55 Examples of Defense MechanismsRegression: Ego seeks the security of an earlier developmentalperiod in the face of stress.Displacement: Ego shifts unacceptable feelings from one object toanother, more acceptable object.Sublimation: Ego replaces an unacceptable impulse with asocially acceptable oneReaction Formation: Ego transforms an unacceptable motive orfeeling into its opposite.Projection: Ego attributes personal shortcomings, problems, andfaults to others.Rationalization: Ego justifies an unacceptable motive by giving afalse acceptable (but false) reason for behavior
31 of 55A Little Exercise, continued See in class!
32 of 55A Little Exercise, continued See in class!
33 of 55 Personality DevelopmentAccording to Freud, personality develops in stages; everyonegoes through same stages in same order. Majority ofpersonality is formed before age 6Erogenous Zone: Area on body capable of producingpleasureFixation: Unresolved conflict or emotional hang-up caused byoverindulgence or frustration
Stages of 34 of 55 Personality DevelopmentOral Stage: Ages 0-1. Most of infant’s pleasure comes from stimulationof the mouth. If a child is overfed or frustrated, oral traits will develop. • Oral Dependent Personality: Gullible, passive, and need lots of attention. Fixations create oral-aggressive adults who like to argue and exploit others. • Erogenous zone: mouth (oral)Anal Stage: Ages 1-3. Attention turns to process of elimination. Childcan gain approval or express aggression by letting go or holding on. Egodevelops. Harsh or lenient toilet training can make a child either: • Anal Retentive: Stubborn, stingy, orderly, and compulsively clean • Anal Expulsive: Disorderly, messy, destructive, or cruel • Erogenous zone: anus
Stages of Personality 35 of 55 Development, continuedPhallic Stage: Ages 3-6. Child now notices and is physically attractedto opposite sex parent. Can lead to:• Oedipus Conflict: For boys only. Boy feels rivalry with his father forhis mother’s affection. Boy may feel threatened by father (castrationanxiety). To resolve, boy must identify with his father (i.e., becomemore like him and adopt his heterosexual beliefs).• Electra Conflict: Girl loves her father and competes with hermother. Girl identifies with her mother more slowly because shealready feels castrated.Erogenous zone: phallus
Stages of Personality 36 of 55 Development, continuedLatency: Ages 6-Puberty. Psychosexual development is dormant.Same sex friendships and play occur here.Genital Stage: Puberty-on. Realization of full adult sexuality occurshere; sexual urges re-awaken.
Evaluation of 37 of 55 Psychoanalytic Theory• Freud overemphasized sexuality and placed little emphasison other aspects of the child’s experience.• Freud’s theory is largely untestable. Particularly, theconcept of the unconscious is unprovable.• According to Freud, the only way that people inpsychological distress can get relief is to undergo lengththerapy, to identify unresolved conflicts from infancy andchildhood.• Freud’s view of people is overly negative and pessimistic.
39 of 55 Bandura’s TheorySelf-system: the set of cognitive processes by which a personobserves, evaluates, and regulates his/her behavior. Banduraproposed that what we think of as personality is a product of thisself-system.Children observe behavior of models (such as parents) in theirsocial environment. Particularly if they are reinforced, childrenwill imitate these behaviors, incorporating them into personality.Bandura also proposed that people observe their own behaviorand judge its effectiveness. Self-efficacy: a judgment of one’seffectiveness in dealing with particular situations.
Rotter’s Theory of 40 of 55 Locus of ControlJulian Rotter: American psychologist, began as a Freudian!His personality theory combines learning principles, modeling,cognition, and the effects of social relationshipsExternal locus of control: perception that chance orexternal forces beyond personal control determine one’s fateInternal locus of control: perception that you control yourown fate.Learned Helplessness: a sense of hopelessness in which aperson thinks that he/she is unable to prevent aversive events
Evaluation of 42 of 55 Social-Cognitive Theories• Social-cognitive theories tend to be overly-mechanical.• Overemphasizes environmental influences; gives little or noconsideration to the possibility of innate personalitydifferences or the effects of genetics.• Does not recognize internal human qualities such as hope,aspiration, love, self-sacrifice
44 of 55 HumanismHumanism: Approach that focuses on human experience,problems, potentials, and idealsHuman Nature: Traits, qualities, potentials, and behaviorpatterns most characteristic of humansFree Choice: Ability to choose that is NOT controlled bygenetics, learning, or unconscious forcesSubjective Experience: Private perceptions of reality
45 of 55 Maslow’s Theory• Abraham Maslow is considered father of the humanistic movement. He observed the lives of (purportedly) healthy and creative people to develop is theory.• Hierarchy of needs: the motivational component of Maslow’s theory, in which our innate needs, which motivate our actions, are hierarchically arranged.• Self-actualization: the fullest realization of a person’s potential
Characteristics of 48 of 55 Self-Actualized People• Efficient perceptions of reality• Comfortable acceptance of self, others, and nature• Spontaneity• Task Centering• Autonomy• Continued freshness of appreciation• Fellowship with humanity• Profound interpersonal relationships• Comfort with solitude• Non-hostile sense of humor• Peak experiences
49 of 55 Some Self-Actualized People• Albert Einstein • Abraham Lincoln• Ralph Waldo Emerson • Eleanor Roosevelt• William James • Albert Schweitzer• Thomas Jefferson • Mahatma Gandhi
50 of 55 Carl Roger’s Self TheoryCarl Rogers: American psychologist; believed that personalityformed as a result of our strivings to reach our full humanpotential.Fully Functioning Person: Lives in harmony with his/her deepestfeelings and impulsesSelf-Image: Total subjective perception of your body andpersonalityConditions of Worth: behaviors and attitudes for which otherpeople, starting with our parents, will give us positive regard.Unconditional Positive Regard: Unshakable love and approvalPositive Self-Regard: Thinking of oneself as a good, lovable,worthwhile person
52 of 55Evaluation of Humanistic Theories• Many of the Humanists’ claims are untestable.• Humanists may have an overly-positive, rosy view ofhumankind. They do not look at the “dark side.”• For the Humanists, the cause of all our problems lies not inourselves, but in others.• Maslow’s characterization of self-actualized individuals isvery biased toward a certain philosophical position.• Most of the people Maslow identified as self-actualized hadrather serious psychological problems.
55 of 55 Interpreting the Briggs-MyerExtraversion: sociability, energized Intraversion: territorial, enjoys being by people, lonely when alone alone, private, drained by people (75%) (25%)Sensation: practical, trusts facts; Intuition: innovative, fantasizes; learns through ex-perience; future more attractive than the wants to deal with what’s real presentThinking: prefers the objective, Feeling: prefers the subjective, logical, analytical personal, valuesJudging: prefers closure, wants Perceiving: resists closure, wants deadlines, feels more comfortable more & more data; values the once a decision has been made. open-ended; pressure to decide stressful