Areas of horticulture•Arboriculture is the study of, and the selection,planting, care, and removal of, individual trees,shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants.•Floriculture includes the production andmarketing of floral crops.•Landscape horticulture includes the production,marketing and maintenance of landscape plants.•Olericulture includes the production andmarketing of vegetables.•Fruticulture or Pomology includes the productionand marketing of fruits.•Viticulture includes the production and marketing Page 2
The cultivation of horticultural crops ispredominantly dependent upon human labour, sincecommercial cultivation is only on a limited scaleAnimal/power tiller or tractor-drawn mould boardploughs, disc ploughs, harrows, cultivatorsand rotavators, are available and used for landpreparation. Hand tools such as budding and graftingknife, pruning knife and Secateurs can be used forplant propagation and pruningHarvesting is the most labour intensive operationdue to delcate nature of fruits Page 4
breaking upearth, digging smallholes, especially forplanting andweeding, mixing infertilizer or otheradditives, andtransferring plants topots.
trowel1. A cathole trowel issimilar to a gardeningtrowel, but it wasspecifically designed fordigging catholes in thebackcountry. Catholetrowels are used bybackpackers, hikers andsome kinds of campers.
3.In archaeology brickor pointing trowels(usually 4" or 5" steeltrowels) are used toscratch the strata in anexcavation and allowthe colours of the soil tobe clear, so that thedifferent strata can beidentified, processed and
mix measuredproportions of theingredients for quickset plaster.
rounded ends used toapply coatings toconcrete, especiallyon swimming pooldecks.
used to apply adhesiveand grout when applyingceramic or stone tile toa surface.
moving bulkmaterials, such assoil, coal, gravel, snow,sand, or ore. Shovelsare extremely commontools that are usedextensively inagriculture, construction, and gardening.
blade set at an angleA general category ofshovel that includesmany types with agenerally squareoutline (rather thanbeing pointed like manyspades are). But there isno rigorous, always-enforced distinction
beaches, insandboxes, or inyards, gardens, lawns, and fields.
4. PRUNING AND SLASHING KNIVESPruning is a process of removing unwantedbranches or twigs of a plant or tree for providingaeration, lighting and frame work which help inobtaining higher yields. Pruning and slashing knivesare hand tools, which consists of a blade and tangjoined rigidly to the handle. The tip of the blade iseither hooked or curved in order to cutor slash the small branches or twigs of plant ortree by pulling action.
The blade is made from high carbon steel, toolsteel or alloy steel and hardened to 45-55HRC. The handle is made from good qualitywood or plastic. For operation the blade is engaged with thethin branch or twigs and pulled towards theoperatorto accomplish cutting. The blade is forged toshapeand cutting edge is sharpened.Uses:For cutting and slashing of thin branchesand twigs of plantation crops and orchards.
5.Lawn mowerA lawn mower is a machinethat uses a revolving bladeor TYPES OF to cut MOWER at an blades LAWN a lawneven length. employing a 1. Lawn mowers blade that rotates about a vertical axis are known as rotary mowers.
Rotary type Electric lawn mowers are suitable for any type nf nnpypn nr Plain grass lands available Four free wheel makes the machine to move freely on the Grass and the Adjustments on the Machine helps, you to adjust the height of the Grass as per your Requirements. Model : K R46 Motor : l 1 /2&2 H.P. Single Phase Motor Cutting w i d t h : 18" Cutting H e i g h t : 0 .50" to 4.25" Height of Cut Setting : Easy 7 Step Wire : 3 0mtrs. / 3Core Cable Weight : 50 Kgs. Approx. Handle : H andle with Switch Blades : 1 Pic Extra Blades Grass Box : Available (65 liters) Drive : Walk behind push type.
employing a blade assemblythat rotates about ahorizontal axis are known ascylinder or reel mowers.
Lawn Mowers ManualKamlesh wheel type lawn mower machine a very Fine hand holdmachine to operate without any Fuel.Kamlesh wheel type lawn mower machine equiped with highCarbon steel Blades to cut grass at even Surface and enhance thelook of your garden.High quality bearing in the machine helps to move the machinewith almost easy, that will keep you stress free.As per your wish you may adjust the height of your lawn. Solidrubber tyre Fitted to the lawn mowers help easy working on theuneven Surface and on the grass. Easy Manual System. Cast Iron Body. Cutting H e i g h t : 0.25" to 2.50 " Grass Box : A vailable Handle : Heavy Handle with grip
Model KM 12 KM 14 KM 16 KM 18Cutting 12" 14" 16" 18"widthWeight 22 kgs. 23 kgs. 24 kgs. 25 kgs. Approx Approx approx approx
6.HEDGE SHEARA hedge trimmer, shrubtrimmer, or hedgeshear, is a gardeningtool or machine used fortrimming(cutting, pruning) hedges
Shear1.Stand-alone hedge trimmers:Thepower source of stand-alone hedgetrimmers can be human power.gasoline, or electricity.Further subdivided into two categories:i. . Manual hedge trimmers (sometimes also called hedge shears, or hedge clippers) are
Specifications:Blade length (mm) : 150,200,250, and 300Blade thickness (mm) : 8Opening angle of blade (O) : 95Handle angle with blade (O) : 27-30Uses:The hedge shear is used for pruning and trimming ofhedge and giving it desired shape. It isalso used for cutting of shrubs and removing ofhaphazard growth in gardens and lawns.
.ii.Motorized hedge trimmers allow work to bedone faster and with less effort than manual ones.Their cutting mechanism is similar to that offinger-bar mowers. Powered trimmers aregenerally designed with safety devices such thatthey work only when both of the operators handsare on the handles. *Gasoline-powered trimmers tend to be more powerful but can be heavier and more difficult to start.
*Electrical trimmers tend to belighter and less powerful (thangasoline variants) as well as lesspolluting/noisy, yet still require anelectrical cord with most types (ifnot equipped with rechargeablebatteries).
Specifications (electric motormodel):Length (mm) : 860Width (mm) : 145Height (rom) : 180Power requirement (W) : 400Blade length (mm) : 510Blade strokes (per min) : 3700Blade gap (mm) : 16Weight (kg) : 2.4Uses:Hedge trimmer is used for trimming hedges, shrubsand brambles. It is also used forcontouring plants in desired shapes and sizes forenhancing the aesthetics of the garden.
Power tiller operated auger digger consists of a small framewith the provision to lower and raise the soil-workingelement. Drive is provided to the unit with the help of a set ofbevelPits can be dug up to adepth of 45 to 60 cm and the diameter of the posthole is 30cm. gears and belt pulleys.
SpecificationsOverall DimensionsLength (mm) 1070Width (mm) 1040Height (mm) 1980Weight (kg) 125Field capacity (holes/h) 40-50Power (hp) 8-10UsesSuitable for digging circular pitsfor planting saplings. It is alsosuitable for use in orchardsand forests due to itsmanoeuvrability
A garden hose is a flexibletube used to carry water.There are a number ofcommon attachmentsavailable for the end of thehose, such as sprayers andsprinklers (which are used toconcentrate water at onepoint or spread it over alarge area). Hoses are
commonly green andoften black, but canalso be found in avariety of other colors.Garden hoses aretypically made ofsynthetic rubber or softplastic, reinforced withan internal web offibers.
3.Pruning shearsPruning shears, also called hand pruners (inAmerican English), or secateurs are a type ofscissors for use with plants. They are strongenough to prune hard branches of trees andshrubs, sometimes up to two centimetres thick.They are used ingardening, arboriculture, farming, flowerarranging, and nature conservation where fine-scale habitat management is required.
equipment, used in smallgardens such as householdgardens and smallcommercial gardens, canprovide both primary andsecondary tillage. Forexample, a rotary tillerdoes both the "plowing" andthe "harrowing", preparinga smooth, loose seedbed.
TYPES OF GARDEN CULTIVATORSi.RototillerThe small rototiller is typically propelledforward via a (1–5 horsepower or 0.8–3.5kilowatts) petrol engine rotating the tines,and do not have powered wheels, thoughthey may have small transport/levelcontrol wheel(s).Rototilling is much faster than manualtilling, but notoriously difficult to handleand exhausting work.
ii.RotavatorUnlike the Rototiller, the self propelled HowardRotavator is equipped with a gearbox and drivenforward, or held back, by its wheels. The gearboxenables the forward speed to be adjusted while therotational speed of the tines remains constant whichenables the operator to easily regulate the extent towhich soil is engaged. These rotavators are generally more heavy duty, comein higher power (4–18 horsepower or 3–13 kilowatts)with either petrol or diesel engines
iii.Mini tillerMini tillers are a new type of smallagricultural tillers or cultivators used byfarmers or homeowners. These are alsoknown as power tillers or garden tillers.Compact, powerful and, mostimportantly, inexpensive, theseagricultural rotary tillers are providingalternatives to four-wheel tractors and inthe small farmers fields in developingcountries are more economical than four-wheel tractors.
5.Hoe (tool)A hoe is an ancient and versatileagricultural tool used to move smallamounts of soil. Common goals includeweed control by agitating the surface ofthe soil around plants, piling soilaround the base of plants(hilling), creating narrow furrows(drills) and shallow trenches forplanting seeds and bulbs, to chopweeds, roots and crop residues, andeven to dig or move soil, such as whenharvesting root crops like potatoes.
(scuffle, action, oscillating,swivel, or Hula-Ho) is a designthat is pushed or pulledthrough the soil to cut weedsjust under the surface. Itstool-head is a loop offlat, sharpened strap metal.It is not as efficient as achopping hoe for pulling orpushing soil.
that bends around to form astirrup like rectangleattached to the handle.Weeds are cut just below thesoil surface as the bade ispushed & pulled through thearea. The back and forthmotion is highly effectivewith cutting weeds in looseor breakable soil. Widths of