2. Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory<br />The theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain.<br /> The key elements to this theory are referred to as following-<br /> 1. Valence (V)<br /> 2. Instrumentality (I)<br /> 3. Expectancy (E)<br />
3. Valence<br /><ul><li>The term refers to the emotional orientation people hold with respect to outcomes (rewards).
4. Valence may vary from -1 to +1.
5. Valence is negative if the individual prefers not attaining an outcome compared with attaining it.
6. Valence is zero if the individual is indifferent to the outcome.
7. Valence is positive if the individual has the strong preference to the outcome.
8. The Valence of the individual must be positive if motivation were to take place.</li></li></ul><li>Instrumentality<br /><ul><li>The Instrumentality refers to the belief that the first level outcome will lead to the second level outcome .
9. The value of Instrumentality varies from 0 to 1. If an employee sees that promotions are based on performance, instrumentality will be rated high.
10. A low estimate of instrumentality will be made if the employee fails to see such linkage between performance and reward.</li></li></ul><li>Expectancy<br /><ul><li>Expectancy refers to the belief that an effort will lead to completion of a task.
11. The value of Expectancy varies between 0 to 1.
12. If an employee sees no chance that effort will lead to the desired performance, the expectancy is zero.
13. On the other hand if the employee is confident that the task will be completed , the expectancy has a value of 1.</li></li></ul><li>Motivational Force<br />
14. Managerial Implications of Expectancy theory<br /> According to Expectancy theory-<br /> Motivation= Valence x Instrumentality x Expectancy<br />
15. Influence of components in Expectancy theory of motivation<br />