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Vroom's ppt
Vroom's ppt
Vroom's ppt
Vroom's ppt
Vroom's ppt
Vroom's ppt
Vroom's ppt
Vroom's ppt
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Vroom's ppt

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  • 1. Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory<br />
  • 2. Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory<br />The theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain.<br /> The key elements to this theory are referred to as following-<br /> 1. Valence (V)<br /> 2. Instrumentality (I)<br /> 3. Expectancy (E)<br />
  • 3. Valence<br /><ul><li>The term refers to the emotional orientation people hold with respect to outcomes (rewards).
  • 4. Valence may vary from -1 to +1.
  • 5. Valence is negative if the individual prefers not attaining an outcome compared with attaining it.
  • 6. Valence is zero if the individual is indifferent to the outcome.
  • 7. Valence is positive if the individual has the strong preference to the outcome.
  • 8. The Valence of the individual must be positive if motivation were to take place.</li></li></ul><li>Instrumentality<br /><ul><li>The Instrumentality refers to the belief that the first level outcome will lead to the second level outcome .
  • 9. The value of Instrumentality varies from 0 to 1. If an employee sees that promotions are based on performance, instrumentality will be rated high.
  • 10. A low estimate of instrumentality will be made if the employee fails to see such linkage between performance and reward.</li></li></ul><li>Expectancy<br /><ul><li>Expectancy refers to the belief that an effort will lead to completion of a task.
  • 11. The value of Expectancy varies between 0 to 1.
  • 12. If an employee sees no chance that effort will lead to the desired performance, the expectancy is zero.
  • 13. On the other hand if the employee is confident that the task will be completed , the expectancy has a value of 1.</li></li></ul><li>Motivational Force<br />
  • 14. Managerial Implications of Expectancy theory<br /> According to Expectancy theory-<br /> Motivation= Valence x Instrumentality x Expectancy<br />
  • 15. Influence of components in Expectancy theory of motivation<br />

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