Material Handling

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  • 1. Material handling
    • Defined as the art and science of moving, packing and storing of substances in any form.
      • Creation of time and place utility
      • Movement and storage of material at the lowest possible cost through the use of proper methods and equipments.
      • Lifting, shifting and placing of materials which effect a saving in money, time and place
      • Art and science of conveying, elevating, positioning, transporting, packaging and storing of materials
  • 2. Importance of M H
    • Efficient material handling is important to manufacturing operations. Materials sent by vendors must be unloaded, moved through inspections and production operations to stores and finally to the shipping department.
    • These movements do not add value to the product but they do add value to the cost
  • 3.
    • Material handling analysis is a subset of plant layout. Method study, plant layout and material handling are all part of the design of a production facility
    • Material handling system and plant layout enhance effectiveness of each other.
    • Efficient operation of appropriate material handling methods reduces costs and enables maximum capabilities to be derived from a given production facility
  • 4. Objectives
    • Main objective is to reduce the number of handlings as well as the overall cost of material handling equipment and reducing the distances through which the materials are handled.
    • The other objectives:
  • 5.
    • Lower unit material handling costs
    • Reduction in manufacturing cycle time through faster movement of materials and by reducing the distance through which the materials are moved. Reduction in manufacturing cycle time results in reduced work –in –progress inventory costs.
    • Improved working conditions and greater safety in movement of materials
    • Contribute to better quality by avoiding damage to products by inefficient handling
    • Increased storage capacity through better utilisation of storage areas
    • Higher productivity at lower manufacturing cost
  • 6. Material handling principles
    • Eliminate handling
      • If not, make handling distance as short as possible
    • Keep moving
      • If not, reduce the time spent at terminal points of a route as short as possible
    • Use simple patterns of material flow
      • The simplest path is a straight line, if not, avoid back tracking, cross overs
    • Carry pay loads both ways
      • If not, minimise time spent on transport empty by changing speed in return route
    • Carry full loads
      • -- If not, decrease carrying capacity by lowering the speed
    • Use gravity
      • If not use, use a cheaper power source
  • 7. Material handling costs
    • Cost of owning and maintaining the equipment
    • Cost of operating the system
      • This is generally elusive
  • 8.
    • The product will not be worth any more to the customer simply because it was moved
    • Reduction of the cost
      • Eliminating the handling itself whenever, wherever possible.
      • Mechanising, largely by power conveyors, whatever handling still remains
      • Making the necessary handling more efficient.
  • 9. Organisation for materials handling
    • The structure varies with industry, type of manufacturing process, the product manufactured, its bulk and its value
    • In small firms, it may be one of the functions assigned to the plant engineer, purchasing manager or production manager.
    • Big firms , a separate dept. itself is developed to study procedures and devise better handling techniques. When thus organised, they form part of industrial engineering division.
  • 10. Unit load concept
    • Unit load is a number of items, or bulk material, so arranged that the mass can be picked up and moved as a single object, too large for manual handling.
    • Advantages:
    • Disadvanatages:
      • Cost of unitising & de unitising
      • Equipment
      • Bare weight of unitising medium
      • Problem of returning empty pallet
      • Transfer equipment often not available at both ends of the move
  • 11. Flow pattern
    • When drawn on paper, the flow pattern becomes a flow chart, which will help locate needless criss crossing and back tracking of material movements. Once unwanted movements are known, steps can be taken to eliminate or reduce such moves.
  • 12.  
  • 13. Advantages of a good flow pattern
    • Increased efficiency of production
    • Better utilisation of floor space
    • Simplified handling activities
    • Better equipment utilisation, less idle time
    • Reduced in-process time
    • Reduced in-process inventory
    • More efficient utilisation of work force
    • Reduced product damage
    • Reduced walking distance
    • Minimal accident hazards
    • Basis for an efficient layout
    • Faster supervision
  • 14.
    • Minimal back tracking
    • Smooth production flow
    • Improved scheduling process
    • Reduced crowded conditions
    • Better house keeping
    • Logical work sequencing
  • 15. Factors affecting selection of M H Equipments
    • Production problem
      • Volume of production, class of materials, layout of plant
    • Capabilities of handling equipments available
      • Adaptability, flexibility, load capacity, power, speed, space requirement, supervision requirement, ease of maintenance, environment, cost
    • The human element involved
      • safety
  • 16. Types of material handling equipments
    • Conveyors
      • Belt conveyors, Chain conveyors, Roller conveyors, Pneumatic conveyors, bucket conveyors, screw conveyors, pipeline conveyors, vibratory conveyors, chute or gravity conveyors.
          • Do not require operators, inexpensive to operate
    • Cranes, Elevators and Hoists
      • Cranes – overhead rails or ground rails or wheels
      • Elevators – between floors – vertically
      • Hoists - vertically, horizontally – limited area – electric or chain hoist
    • Industrial trucks
  • 17.  
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  • 23. Miscellaneous Handling equipments
    • Pipe lines
    • Automatic transfer devices
    • Automatic Guided vehicles
      • No operators, flexibility in paths, signals through wires on floor. A remote control computer reqd.
    • Industrial Robots
      • Built in control – can be programmed – hence very versatile