Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
History 2 Collectivism
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

History 2 Collectivism


Published on

Published in: News & Politics

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


    • Can be described as an anti-liberal political ideology
    • Rise of collectivism was a result of the damage done to liberalism by WWI
    • Collectivist developments were active responses to the failures of liberalism
  • 2. Basic Difference Between the Ideals of Liberalism and Collectivism
    • Liberalism favors maximum freedom for each individual, personal freedom in society
    • Collectivism favors active social planning and direction to promote the general welfare of all members of society
  • 3. Collectivism Took Many Forms:
    • Communism in Russia
    • Fascism in Italy and Germany
    • Capitalist Welfare State in Britain and the United States
  • 4. Mass Culture and the Rise of Modern Dictators
    • Creating a homogeneous culture within a population
    • Homogeneous: Of the same or similar nature; of uniform structure or composition throughout
  • 5.
    • Trend began with WWI, uniting a population against a common enemy
    • Homogenizing media instruments which expanded their influence during the 1920’s: radio, film, newspapers
  • 6. Potential of Mass Media
    • Enhancing democracy by creating an informed citizenry
    • Providing tools for dictatorship, making it possible for authoritarian rulers to control the masses
  • 7. Fascism in Italy and Germany
    • Origin of the word : Italian word is fascismo, derived from fascio (bundle or group)
    • Founded in 1919 : By the Italian Benito Mussolini
  • 8. Mussolini’s Entry for the Italian Encyclopedia
    • “ Fascism combats the whole complex system of democratic ideology, and repudiates {rejects} it, whether in its theoretical premises or in its practical application.”
  • 9.
    • “ Fascism denies that the majority, by the simple fact that it is a majority, can direct human society; it denies that numbers alone can govern by means of a periodical consultation,”
  • 10.
    • “ and it affirms the immutable {undeniable}, beneficial, and fruitful inequality of mankind, which can never be permanently leveled through the mere operation of a mechanical process such as universal suffrage…”
  • 11. The Great Depression and Its Effects on Society
    • Triggered by the U.S. stock market crash of 1929
    • U.S. cut back on loans and called in debts
    • Spawned a global depression
  • 12. 1) Unemployment during the 1930’s
    • Cities with heavy industry hardest hit
    • Created a general sense of fear in society
    • In agriculture industry, foreclosures on farm lands
  • 13. 2) Social Life and Gender Roles are Strained
    • Women sometimes forced to take low paying jobs
    • Men often left home unemployed
    • Upset of traditional gender roles
  • 14. 3) Declining Birthrates
    • Could no longer afford to feed as many mouths
    • After WWI, mandatory education enforced, thus children could contribute less to family income
  • 15. Conditions in Italy: Political Chaos and Discontent
    • Constitutional Monarchy had never won much loyalty
    • Italian government viewed as ineffective
    • Inflation and unemployment
    • Disillusioned with liberal ideals
    • National pride was wounded
  • 16. Benito Mussolini
    • Born into a socialist, working class family
    • Served in WWI until 1917
    • Started his own newspaper, expressing his political views
    • Opposed parliamentary style government
  • 17. The “Blackshirts”
    • Mussolini’s paramilitary group
    • Who the Blackshirts attracted
    • Engaged in street fighting with anyone who opposed their political views
    • Damaged opposition’s offices
    • Assassinated some opposing leaders
  • 18. Mussolini’s March on Rome
    • Blackshirts gave many Italians a false sense of the existence of order and discipline
    • When the capitol was under threat of the Blackshirts, the King “invited” Mussolini to create a new government
  • 19. Mussolini – Il Duce
    • Parliament voted to give him the power for one year as a dictator
    • As dictator, he changes election laws and eliminates any opposition parties
  • 20. Sources of Support for Fascists in Italy
    • Military – glorified militarism and heaped on financial support of the army
    • Industrial leaders – Fascists had worked to defeat socialism. Why would this be appealing to industrialists?
  • 21. Sources continued
    • Catholic Church – Lateran Treaty and Concordat of 1929. What did the Church get? And what did Mussolini get?
    • The Masses – propaganda and media; sense of belonging; mass rituals, parades and rallies
  • 22. The Fascist Philosophy Spreads Through Europe
    • Similar “strong men” coming to power in Hungary, Poland and Romania
    • Fascist followings in Austria, Portugal and Spain
    • However, became most successful in Germany under Hitler