COLLECTIVISM <ul><li>Can be described as an anti-liberal political ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of collectivism was a r...
Basic Difference Between the Ideals of Liberalism and Collectivism   <ul><li>Liberalism favors maximum freedom for each in...
Collectivism Took Many Forms: <ul><li>Communism in Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Fascism in Italy and Germany </li></ul><ul><li...
Mass Culture and the Rise of Modern Dictators <ul><li>Creating a homogeneous culture within a population </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Trend began with WWI, uniting a population against a common enemy </li></ul><ul><li>Homogenizing media instruments...
Potential of Mass Media <ul><li>Enhancing democracy by creating an informed citizenry </li></ul><ul><li>Providing tools fo...
Fascism in Italy and Germany <ul><li>Origin of the word :  Italian word is  fascismo,  derived from  fascio  (bundle or gr...
Mussolini’s Entry for the  Italian Encyclopedia <ul><li>“ Fascism combats the whole complex system of democratic ideology,...
<ul><li>“ Fascism denies that the majority, by the simple fact that it is a majority, can direct human society; it denies ...
<ul><li>“ and it affirms the immutable {undeniable}, beneficial, and fruitful inequality of mankind, which can never be pe...
The Great Depression and Its Effects on Society   <ul><li>Triggered by the U.S. stock market crash of 1929 </li></ul><ul><...
1) Unemployment during  the 1930’s   <ul><li>Cities with heavy industry hardest hit </li></ul><ul><li>Created a general se...
2)  Social Life and Gender Roles are Strained   <ul><li>Women sometimes forced to take low paying jobs </li></ul><ul><li>M...
3)  Declining Birthrates   <ul><li>Could no longer afford to feed as many mouths </li></ul><ul><li>After WWI, mandatory ed...
Conditions in Italy:  Political Chaos and Discontent <ul><li>Constitutional Monarchy had never won much loyalty </li></ul>...
Benito Mussolini <ul><li>Born into a socialist, working class family </li></ul><ul><li>Served in WWI until 1917 </li></ul>...
The “Blackshirts” <ul><li>Mussolini’s paramilitary group </li></ul><ul><li>Who the Blackshirts attracted </li></ul><ul><li...
Mussolini’s March on Rome <ul><li>Blackshirts gave many Italians a false sense of the existence of order and discipline </...
Mussolini – Il Duce <ul><li>Parliament voted to give him the power for one year as a dictator </li></ul><ul><li>As dictato...
Sources of Support for  Fascists in Italy <ul><li>Military – glorified militarism and heaped on financial support of the a...
Sources continued <ul><li>Catholic Church – Lateran Treaty  and Concordat of 1929.  What did the Church get?  And what did...
The Fascist Philosophy Spreads Through Europe <ul><li>Similar “strong men” coming to power in Hungary, Poland and Romania ...
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History 2 Collectivism

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History 2 Collectivism

  1. 1. COLLECTIVISM <ul><li>Can be described as an anti-liberal political ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of collectivism was a result of the damage done to liberalism by WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivist developments were active responses to the failures of liberalism </li></ul>
  2. 2. Basic Difference Between the Ideals of Liberalism and Collectivism <ul><li>Liberalism favors maximum freedom for each individual, personal freedom in society </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivism favors active social planning and direction to promote the general welfare of all members of society </li></ul>
  3. 3. Collectivism Took Many Forms: <ul><li>Communism in Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Fascism in Italy and Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalist Welfare State in Britain and the United States </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mass Culture and the Rise of Modern Dictators <ul><li>Creating a homogeneous culture within a population </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneous: Of the same or similar nature; of uniform structure or composition throughout </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Trend began with WWI, uniting a population against a common enemy </li></ul><ul><li>Homogenizing media instruments which expanded their influence during the 1920’s: radio, film, newspapers </li></ul>
  6. 6. Potential of Mass Media <ul><li>Enhancing democracy by creating an informed citizenry </li></ul><ul><li>Providing tools for dictatorship, making it possible for authoritarian rulers to control the masses </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fascism in Italy and Germany <ul><li>Origin of the word : Italian word is fascismo, derived from fascio (bundle or group) </li></ul><ul><li>Founded in 1919 : By the Italian Benito Mussolini </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mussolini’s Entry for the Italian Encyclopedia <ul><li>“ Fascism combats the whole complex system of democratic ideology, and repudiates {rejects} it, whether in its theoretical premises or in its practical application.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>“ Fascism denies that the majority, by the simple fact that it is a majority, can direct human society; it denies that numbers alone can govern by means of a periodical consultation,” </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>“ and it affirms the immutable {undeniable}, beneficial, and fruitful inequality of mankind, which can never be permanently leveled through the mere operation of a mechanical process such as universal suffrage…” </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Great Depression and Its Effects on Society <ul><li>Triggered by the U.S. stock market crash of 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. cut back on loans and called in debts </li></ul><ul><li>Spawned a global depression </li></ul>
  12. 12. 1) Unemployment during the 1930’s <ul><li>Cities with heavy industry hardest hit </li></ul><ul><li>Created a general sense of fear in society </li></ul><ul><li>In agriculture industry, foreclosures on farm lands </li></ul>
  13. 13. 2) Social Life and Gender Roles are Strained <ul><li>Women sometimes forced to take low paying jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Men often left home unemployed </li></ul><ul><li>Upset of traditional gender roles </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3) Declining Birthrates <ul><li>Could no longer afford to feed as many mouths </li></ul><ul><li>After WWI, mandatory education enforced, thus children could contribute less to family income </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conditions in Italy: Political Chaos and Discontent <ul><li>Constitutional Monarchy had never won much loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Italian government viewed as ineffective </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation and unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Disillusioned with liberal ideals </li></ul><ul><li>National pride was wounded </li></ul>
  16. 16. Benito Mussolini <ul><li>Born into a socialist, working class family </li></ul><ul><li>Served in WWI until 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Started his own newspaper, expressing his political views </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed parliamentary style government </li></ul>
  17. 17. The “Blackshirts” <ul><li>Mussolini’s paramilitary group </li></ul><ul><li>Who the Blackshirts attracted </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged in street fighting with anyone who opposed their political views </li></ul><ul><li>Damaged opposition’s offices </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated some opposing leaders </li></ul>
  18. 18. Mussolini’s March on Rome <ul><li>Blackshirts gave many Italians a false sense of the existence of order and discipline </li></ul><ul><li>When the capitol was under threat of the Blackshirts, the King “invited” Mussolini to create a new government </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mussolini – Il Duce <ul><li>Parliament voted to give him the power for one year as a dictator </li></ul><ul><li>As dictator, he changes election laws and eliminates any opposition parties </li></ul>
  20. 20. Sources of Support for Fascists in Italy <ul><li>Military – glorified militarism and heaped on financial support of the army </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial leaders – Fascists had worked to defeat socialism. Why would this be appealing to industrialists? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sources continued <ul><li>Catholic Church – Lateran Treaty and Concordat of 1929. What did the Church get? And what did Mussolini get? </li></ul><ul><li>The Masses – propaganda and media; sense of belonging; mass rituals, parades and rallies </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Fascist Philosophy Spreads Through Europe <ul><li>Similar “strong men” coming to power in Hungary, Poland and Romania </li></ul><ul><li>Fascist followings in Austria, Portugal and Spain </li></ul><ul><li>However, became most successful in Germany under Hitler </li></ul>
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