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History 2 Collectivism
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History 2 Collectivism

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  • 1. COLLECTIVISM
    • Can be described as an anti-liberal political ideology
    • Rise of collectivism was a result of the damage done to liberalism by WWI
    • Collectivist developments were active responses to the failures of liberalism
  • 2. Basic Difference Between the Ideals of Liberalism and Collectivism
    • Liberalism favors maximum freedom for each individual, personal freedom in society
    • Collectivism favors active social planning and direction to promote the general welfare of all members of society
  • 3. Collectivism Took Many Forms:
    • Communism in Russia
    • Fascism in Italy and Germany
    • Capitalist Welfare State in Britain and the United States
  • 4. Mass Culture and the Rise of Modern Dictators
    • Creating a homogeneous culture within a population
    • Homogeneous: Of the same or similar nature; of uniform structure or composition throughout
  • 5.
    • Trend began with WWI, uniting a population against a common enemy
    • Homogenizing media instruments which expanded their influence during the 1920’s: radio, film, newspapers
  • 6. Potential of Mass Media
    • Enhancing democracy by creating an informed citizenry
    • Providing tools for dictatorship, making it possible for authoritarian rulers to control the masses
  • 7. Fascism in Italy and Germany
    • Origin of the word : Italian word is fascismo, derived from fascio (bundle or group)
    • Founded in 1919 : By the Italian Benito Mussolini
  • 8. Mussolini’s Entry for the Italian Encyclopedia
    • “ Fascism combats the whole complex system of democratic ideology, and repudiates {rejects} it, whether in its theoretical premises or in its practical application.”
  • 9.
    • “ Fascism denies that the majority, by the simple fact that it is a majority, can direct human society; it denies that numbers alone can govern by means of a periodical consultation,”
  • 10.
    • “ and it affirms the immutable {undeniable}, beneficial, and fruitful inequality of mankind, which can never be permanently leveled through the mere operation of a mechanical process such as universal suffrage…”
  • 11. The Great Depression and Its Effects on Society
    • Triggered by the U.S. stock market crash of 1929
    • U.S. cut back on loans and called in debts
    • Spawned a global depression
  • 12. 1) Unemployment during the 1930’s
    • Cities with heavy industry hardest hit
    • Created a general sense of fear in society
    • In agriculture industry, foreclosures on farm lands
  • 13. 2) Social Life and Gender Roles are Strained
    • Women sometimes forced to take low paying jobs
    • Men often left home unemployed
    • Upset of traditional gender roles
  • 14. 3) Declining Birthrates
    • Could no longer afford to feed as many mouths
    • After WWI, mandatory education enforced, thus children could contribute less to family income
  • 15. Conditions in Italy: Political Chaos and Discontent
    • Constitutional Monarchy had never won much loyalty
    • Italian government viewed as ineffective
    • Inflation and unemployment
    • Disillusioned with liberal ideals
    • National pride was wounded
  • 16. Benito Mussolini
    • Born into a socialist, working class family
    • Served in WWI until 1917
    • Started his own newspaper, expressing his political views
    • Opposed parliamentary style government
  • 17. The “Blackshirts”
    • Mussolini’s paramilitary group
    • Who the Blackshirts attracted
    • Engaged in street fighting with anyone who opposed their political views
    • Damaged opposition’s offices
    • Assassinated some opposing leaders
  • 18. Mussolini’s March on Rome
    • Blackshirts gave many Italians a false sense of the existence of order and discipline
    • When the capitol was under threat of the Blackshirts, the King “invited” Mussolini to create a new government
  • 19. Mussolini – Il Duce
    • Parliament voted to give him the power for one year as a dictator
    • As dictator, he changes election laws and eliminates any opposition parties
  • 20. Sources of Support for Fascists in Italy
    • Military – glorified militarism and heaped on financial support of the army
    • Industrial leaders – Fascists had worked to defeat socialism. Why would this be appealing to industrialists?
  • 21. Sources continued
    • Catholic Church – Lateran Treaty and Concordat of 1929. What did the Church get? And what did Mussolini get?
    • The Masses – propaganda and media; sense of belonging; mass rituals, parades and rallies
  • 22. The Fascist Philosophy Spreads Through Europe
    • Similar “strong men” coming to power in Hungary, Poland and Romania
    • Fascist followings in Austria, Portugal and Spain
    • However, became most successful in Germany under Hitler