2 Renaissance


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2 Renaissance

  1. 1. Renaissance: Introduction <ul><li>Means “rebirth” in French </li></ul><ul><li>Term first used by Giorgio Vasari to describe the renewal of classical Greek and Roman arts, movement toward perfection </li></ul><ul><li>Biographer of the artists, and contemporary art historian </li></ul>
  2. 2. Cause of the Renaissance <ul><li>Classical knowledge brought into Europe via…(3 ways) </li></ul><ul><li>Classics important because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfy increasing need for practical knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported involvement in urban affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-Christian, so didn’t require all emphasis to be on afterlife </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Spread of Islam </li></ul>©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  4. 5. The “Dignity of Man” and the Revival of Humanism <ul><li>Man is God’s most excellent creation </li></ul><ul><li>Man is excellent because he alone can know God </li></ul><ul><li>Man also has the ability to master his fate, and live happily in this world </li></ul>
  5. 6. The Humanities <ul><li>Replaced Medieval Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Focused more on ethical and political philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language : Latin and Greek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature : poetry, the sonnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History : Theocentric vs. Anthrocentric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics : Civic Humanism (city-states) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. City-States of Renaissance Italy
  7. 8. Why did the Renaissance Originate in Italy? <ul><li>Strongest urban development </li></ul><ul><li>Very little distinction between landed aristocracy and wealthy merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce and trade created a greater demand for literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Italy was littered with reminders of its classical past </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthiest in Europe (trade and banking) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Patronage of the Arts <ul><li>Demonstrating civic pride </li></ul><ul><li>Competition between wealthy families </li></ul><ul><li>Types of works: building of palaces, chapels, decoration of churches…use of family coat of arms </li></ul>
  9. 13. Humanist Writers: <ul><li>Francis Petrach (1304-1374) – “Father of Italian Renaissance Humanism” </li></ul><ul><li>Collected ancient Roman manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>Most known for his “Laura” love poems </li></ul><ul><li>Development of vernacular language </li></ul>
  10. 14. Francis Petrarch <ul><li>What nymph of fountains, goddess of the trees, </li></ul><ul><li>loosed such fine, gold hair to the wind? </li></ul><ul><li>When did a heart so many virtues seize, </li></ul><ul><li>that, through their total, I my death will find? </li></ul><ul><li>He looks for divine beauty uselessly </li></ul><ul><li>who never saw the eyes that she reveals, </li></ul><ul><li>how tenderly she lets them move and see; </li></ul><ul><li>nor can he know how love kills, or how it heals, </li></ul><ul><li>who does not hear how she sighs, so sweetly - </li></ul><ul><li>so sweet her speech, so sweet her laughter’s peals.” </li></ul>
  11. 15. Humanist Writers: <ul><li>Pico della Mirandola – “Oration of Man” </li></ul><ul><li>Man is the greatest creation of God’s because he can think </li></ul><ul><li>Man is in a quest for perfection through seeking knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of empiricism and inductive reasoning </li></ul>
  12. 16. Pico della Mirandola
  13. 17. Leonardo da Vinci <ul><li>An example of empiricism </li></ul><ul><li>“ Renaissance man” – painting, architecture, sculpture, drawing, scientific observation and experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Notebooks </li></ul>
  14. 21. <ul><li>Duke Cosimo I de’Medici in Armor </li></ul><ul><li>Early 1540’s by Agnolo Bronzino </li></ul>
  15. 22. <ul><li>The Ponte Vecchio (Old Bridge) in Florence </li></ul>
  16. 24. The Procession of the Magi by Gozzoli ca. 1460 <ul><li>Lorenzo de’ Medici as one of the Magi </li></ul>
  17. 25. La Primavera Sandro Botticelli 1477-8 <ul><li>Painted for the villa of Lorenzo de’ Medici at Castello, now in the Galleria degli Uffizi in Florence. </li></ul>
  18. 26. Birth of Venus Sandro Botticelli ca. 1485-6
  19. 27. Michelangelo’s Pieta’ 1498-9
  20. 28. Pieta’ detail of Mary’s Face
  21. 29. Michelangelo. David. Detail of Face. 1501-4
  22. 30. <ul><li>Michelangelo’s David. </li></ul><ul><li>Detail of the Hand. </li></ul>
  23. 31. Michelangelo Buonarotti; Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, completed between 1508 and 1512.
  24. 32. The Printing Press <ul><li>Johann Gutenberg, born 1398, a German metal-worker </li></ul><ul><li>Added the innovation of movable-type – metal, interchangeable characters </li></ul><ul><li>Replacing wood block type - expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Borrowed from China? </li></ul><ul><li>The Gutenberg Bibles, beginning 1455 </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy: will allow for future “turning points” including the Renaissance, Protestant Reformation and the Scientific Revolution </li></ul>
  25. 35. <ul><li>11 copies left </li></ul><ul><li>Library of Congress </li></ul>
  26. 36. Niccolo Machiavelli published The Prince in 1513 <ul><li>Dedicated to the Medici of Florence </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest supporter of Italian unification </li></ul><ul><li>Government possesses no supernatural power </li></ul><ul><li>A ruler should never pander to public opinion </li></ul><ul><li>A ruler should promote religion among his subjects, but not possess Christian virtues himself </li></ul>
  27. 37. Christian Humanism <ul><li>Centered in Northern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Focused ancient texts of biblical teachings and those of early Church fathers </li></ul><ul><li>Goal was to turn away from vanity and toward a purer form of Christianity </li></ul>
  28. 38. Desiderius Erasmus <ul><li>ON MONKS: </li></ul><ul><li>“ And next these come those that commonly call themselves the religious and monks, most false in both titles, when both a great part of them are farthest from religion” </li></ul><ul><li>ON THE POPE AND THE CARDINALS </li></ul><ul><li>“ A most inhuman and economical thing, and more to be execrated, that those great princes of the Church and true lights of the world should be reduced to a staff and a wallet” </li></ul>