Ethnic minority women’s poverty and     economic well being     Report for the Government Equalities Office     By Alita N...
Objectives:   Discuss economic well-being of women across    different ethnic groups   Discuss differences in women’s ex...
Existing research   Differences in employment by ethnic groups (Berthoud and    Blekesaune 2006)   Differences in pay by...
Data   Family Resources Survey (FRS)    –   Continuous household survey    –   Repeated cross-sectional survey with the f...
Sample                                  All Adults                    Female/                    Children                 ...
We assigned                                                                                                              e...
Number of children per household2.5      21.5      1.5      0          White British   Indian   Pakistani   Bangladeshi   ...
Objectives:   Discuss economic well-being of women across    different ethnic groups   Discuss differences in women’s ex...
Children live primarily in households with atleast one woman  100                  Family composition of households with d...
Different income measures   Individual income: Net (of taxes) individual    income that includes tax credits received as ...
Different income measures   Material deprivation (only for families with    children): prevalence weighted deprivation   ...
Different methods of summarising group’seconomic well-being   Mean income: Average income   Median income: Income below ...
Different methods of summarising group’seconomic well-being   Poverty rate: Proportion below the poverty    threshold (ye...
Average individual and household incomesChinese                                    Men                                    ...
Average individual and household incomesBlack                                      Men                                    ...
Average individual and household incomesWhite                                      Men                                    ...
Average individual and household incomesBanglades                                  Men                                    ...
Average individual and household incomes:    for men & women with dependant childrenBC & BA                               ...
Gains from income pooling and income sharing Comparing women’s individual and household incomes:    Black Caribbean and B...
Ethnic composition of spouse/partners                    All          White British                Indian             Paki...
Family composition of women by ethnic groups     White British            Indian         Pakistani     Bangladeshi        ...
Family composition of women with dependentchildren by ethnic groups     White British            Indian         Pakistani ...
Number of children per household2.5      21.5      1.5      0          White British   Indian   Pakistani   Bangladeshi   ...
Individual incomes of men and women                                Men                                              Men   ...
Women with dependent children   Men and women with children have higher individual incomes    (except Bangladeshi and Pak...
Median individual and household incomesMedian                                           Men                               ...
Median individual and household incomesRank of                                        Men                                 ...
Women’s individual income by ethnic groups.004                                                                       .004 ...
Percent (%)                                                                 Men:                                          ...
Percent (%)                                           10   20   30    40      50   60   70       W                        ...
Women’s household income by ethnic groups  .004                          White British                                    ...
Individual income inequalities within ethnic groups                                  Mean logarithmic deviation           ...
Household income inequalities within ethnic groups                    Mean logarithmic deviation                          ...
Individual Income gaps for women of different   ethnic groups vis-à-vis White British Men    White British women          ...
Individual Income gaps for women of different   ethnic groups vis-à-vis White British Men    White British women          ...
Individual Income gaps for women of different   ethnic groups vis-à-vis White British Men    White British women          ...
Income gaps and pay gaps for women of differentethnic groups vis-à-vis White British Men                                  ...
Household Income and % Poor                                              % poor                            0   10         ...
Household Income and % Poor                                              % poor                            0   10         ...
Household Income and % Poor                                              % poor                            0   10         ...
Poverty Rates                        All adults      Women           Men         Women     Men          Children          ...
Poverty Rates                        All adults      Women           Men         Women     Men          Children          ...
Poverty Rates                        All adults      Women           Men         Women     Men          Children          ...
Individual income composition                                              Women      White British             Indian    ...
Age composition of all women by ethnic groupsOverall             White Britishwomen in allnon-white                  India...
Age composition of women with dependent children by ethnic groupsAs expected                  White Britishwomen withdepen...
Age-income profiles   Very little variation in income gaps between ethnic    groups for different age groups   Except at...
Women’s income compositionIndividual Income Earnings    –   important source for all, 50-60%    –   except for Bangladesh...
Women’s income compositionIndividual Income Pension    –   Important for White British women, 20%   Other income and sel...
Contribution of different income sources toincome inequality   Labour income    – most important contributing factor, mor...
Material deprivation scores 21 questions of the following type, where 11 are about adults orfamily circumstances and 10 o...
Material deprivation items: 11 adult itemsDo you have a holiday away from home for at least one week a year, whilst not s...
Material deprivation items: 10 children itemsDoes your child have do your children have a family holiday away from home f...
Distribution of deprivation scores of women with  children by ethnic groups                       White British           ...
Distribution of deprivation scores of women with   children by ethnic groups                        White British         ...
Distribution of deprivation scores of children by     ethnic groups                        White British                  ...
Distribution of child poverty indicator by ethnicgroups           Child poverty indicator: Family deprivation             ...
Deprivation scores by poverty status                   Not poor                                             Poor  Black Af...
Link between income inequality of women and poverty  How would poverty rates change if group income inequalities were  eli...
Women’s new simulated poverty rates100  80  60  40  20      0          All                   Indian                     Ba...
Men’s new simulated poverty rates100  80  60  40  20      0          All                   Indian                     Bang...
Eliminating    Eliminating     Eliminating     Eliminating                        within group   within group   between gr...
Eliminating    Eliminating     Eliminating     Eliminating                         within group   within group   between g...
To conclude Diversity of women’s income within and  between ethnic groups But a substantial proportion of women are poor...
To conclude Poverty is determined not just by women’s  wages, or even their total income Who they live with matters: inc...
To conclude Bangladeshi & Pakistani women: low own  income, low income of spouses Black Caribbean and African women: hig...
Thank You!Email: anandi@essex.ac.uk, L.Platt@ioe.ac.uk
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Alita Nandi at SHU 22 Nov 2011

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Presentation from Alita Nandi Institute for Social and Economic Research (University of Essex) at Sheffield Hallam University on 22 Nov 2011 at Race, Ethnicity and Wellbeing Society Forum

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Alita Nandi at SHU 22 Nov 2011

  1. 1. Ethnic minority women’s poverty and economic well being Report for the Government Equalities Office By Alita Nandi, ISER and Lucinda Platt, IOE Alita Nandi ISER, University of EssexSheffield Hallam University, 22nd November 2011
  2. 2. Objectives: Discuss economic well-being of women across different ethnic groups Discuss differences in women’s experiences and characteristics Discuss the link between inequality and poverty Discuss these issues for women living with dependant children to understand economic well-being of children across different ethnic groups
  3. 3. Existing research Differences in employment by ethnic groups (Berthoud and Blekesaune 2006) Differences in pay by ethnic groups (Longhi and Platt 2008, Platt 2006a) Differences in poverty rates at the household level (Department of Work and Pensions 2009)But no research on Differences in women’s economic well-being
  4. 4. Data Family Resources Survey (FRS) – Continuous household survey – Repeated cross-sectional survey with the financial year as reference period – Stratified, clustered sample which is representative of UK population living in private households – Target annual sample size of 29,000 households – Face-to-face interviews of non-dependant adults over 16 years of age Households Below Average Income (HBAI) ― dataset containing variables derived from the FRS Analysis sample: – Pooled, 2003/04 to 2007/08 – without Northern Ireland
  5. 5. Sample All Adults Female/ Children (% of total) Male ratio (% of adults)White British 196542 89.06% 1.12 58550 30%Indian 3767 1.71% 1.05 1470 39%Pakistani 2260 1.02% 1.05 1640 73%Bangladeshi 706 0.32% 1.11 605 86%Chinese 732 0.33% 1.33 207 28%Black Caribbean 2009 0.91% 1.32 938 47%Black African 1836 0.83% 1.28 1353 74%Total 220679# 100.00%# 1.13 69142# 31% Notes: Unweighted, statistics except for female-male ratio which is weighted #This total includes persons in “mixed” and “other” categories, excluded from all analyses
  6. 6. We assigned ethnicity ofSample head of household to children All Adults Female/ Children (% of total) Male ratio (% of adults)White British 196542 89.06% 1.12 58550 30%Indian 3767 1.71% 1.05 1470 39%Pakistani 2260 1.02% 1.05 1640 73%Bangladeshi 706 0.32% 1.11 605 86%Chinese 732 0.33% 1.33 207 28%Black Caribbean 2009 0.91% 1.32 938 47%Black African 1836 0.83% 1.28 1353 74%Total 220679# 100.00%# 1.13 69142# 31% Notes: Unweighted, statistics except for female-male ratio which is weighted #This total includes persons in “mixed” and “other” categories, excluded from all analyses
  7. 7. Number of children per household2.5 21.5 1.5 0 White British Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Chinese Black-Caribbean Black-African
  8. 8. Objectives: Discuss economic well-being of women across different ethnic groups Discuss differences in women’s experiences and characteristics Discuss the link between inequality and poverty Discuss these issues for women living with dependant children to understand economic well-being of children across different ethnic groups
  9. 9. Children live primarily in households with atleast one woman 100 Family composition of households with dependant children 80 60 40 20 0 All White British Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Chinese Black-Caribbean Black-African only men in HH only women in HH both men and women in HH
  10. 10. Different income measures Individual income: Net (of taxes) individual income that includes tax credits received as benefits ̵ Indicator of her personal resources and financial control Household income: Net (of taxes) total household income equivalised by the OECD equivalence scale, before housing costs ― income pooling & income sharing ― Indicator of actual economic position
  11. 11. Different income measures Material deprivation (only for families with children): prevalence weighted deprivation scores ̵ Good indicator of persistent poverty ̵ Not direct measures of poverty ̵ Complements income poverty measures.
  12. 12. Different methods of summarising group’seconomic well-being Mean income: Average income Median income: Income below which 50% of the sample’s income lies ̵ Not sensitive to extreme values as the mean is Within and between group income inequality: gini coefficient, mean logarithmic deviation ̵ If incomes within the group are not similar, then these measures summarise that information
  13. 13. Different methods of summarising group’seconomic well-being Poverty rate: Proportion below the poverty threshold (yearly) which is 60% of the median of equivalised household incomes of the population for that year ̵ Direct measure of economic disadvantage for the group
  14. 14. Average individual and household incomesChinese Men Menwomen White British Chinese Chinese IndianHigh Indian White Britishmean Black-African Black-Africanindividual Black-Caribbean Black-Caribbeanincomes Pakistani Pakistani Bangladeshi BangladeshiGain from Women Womenincome Chinese Chinesepooling Black-Caribbean Indian Black-African White British White British Black-African Indian Black-Caribbean Bangladeshi Pakistani Pakistani Bangladeshi 0 100 200 300 400 0 100 200 300 400 Individual income (£) Household equivalent income (£)
  15. 15. Average individual and household incomesBlack Men MenCaribbean White British Chinese& Black Chinese IndianAfrican Indian White Britishwomen Black-African Black-African Black-Caribbean Black-CaribbeanHigh Pakistani Pakistanimean Bangladeshi Bangladeshiindividual Women Womenincomes Chinese Chinese Black-Caribbean IndianHardly Black-African White Britishgain from White British Black-African Indian Black-Caribbeanincome Bangladeshi Pakistanipooling Pakistani Bangladeshi 0 100 200 300 400 0 100 200 300 400 Individual income (£) Household equivalent income (£)
  16. 16. Average individual and household incomesWhite Men MenBritish & White British ChineseIndian Chinese Indianwomen Indian White British Black-African Black-AfricanLow mean Black-Caribbean Black-Caribbeanindividual Pakistani Pakistaniincomes Bangladeshi Bangladeshi Women WomenGain from Chinese Chineseincome Black-Caribbean Indianpooling Black-African White British White British Black-African Indian Black-Caribbean Bangladeshi Pakistani Pakistani Bangladeshi 0 100 200 300 400 0 100 200 300 400 Individual income (£) Household equivalent income (£)
  17. 17. Average individual and household incomesBanglades Men Menhi and White British ChinesePakistani Chinese Indianwomen Indian White British Black-African Black-AfricanLow mean Black-Caribbean Black-Caribbeanindividual Pakistani Pakistaniincomes Bangladeshi Bangladeshi Women WomenGain from Chinese Chineseincome Black-Caribbean Indianpooling Black-African White BritishBUT… White British Black-African Indian Black-Caribbean Bangladeshi Pakistani Pakistani Bangladeshi 0 100 200 300 400 0 100 200 300 400 Individual income (£) Household equivalent income (£)
  18. 18. Average individual and household incomes: for men & women with dependant childrenBC & BA Men MenHigh Chinese Chinese White British White Britishmean Indian Indianindividual Black-Caribbean Black-Caribbeanincomes Black-African Black-African Pakistani PakistaniLose from Bangladeshi Bangladeshiincome Women Womenpooling Black-Caribbean Chinese Chinese White British Black-African Indian White British Black-Caribbean Indian Black-African Bangladeshi Pakistani Pakistani Bangladeshi 0 100 200 300 400 0 100 200 300 400 Individual income (£) Household equivalent income (£)
  19. 19. Gains from income pooling and income sharing Comparing women’s individual and household incomes:  Black Caribbean and Black African women – high mean individual incomes – hardly gain from income pooling – Women with dependent children LOSE from pooling  Chinese women: – high average individual incomes – gain from income pooling  White British and Indian women: – low average individual incomes – gain from income pooling  Bangladeshi & Pakistani women: – low average individual incomes – gain from income pooling BUT…
  20. 20. Ethnic composition of spouse/partners All White British Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Chinese Black-Caribbean Black-African 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1 Proportion of women in couples Partner of same ethnic group White British partner
  21. 21. Family composition of women by ethnic groups White British Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Chinese Black-Caribbean Black-African 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent (%) single, no children single, with children one or more adults, no children one or more adults, and children
  22. 22. Family composition of women with dependentchildren by ethnic groups White British Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Chinese Black-Caribbean Black-African 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent (%) single, with children one or more adults, and children
  23. 23. Number of children per household2.5 21.5 1.5 0 White British Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Chinese Black-Caribbean Black-African
  24. 24. Individual incomes of men and women Men Men Net income White British Chinese Chinese Indian gap Indian White British Black-African White British Black-African 36.7 Black-Caribbean Chinese Black-Caribbean 24.9 Pakistani Pakistani Bangladeshi Indian Bangladeshi 43.8 Women Black African Women 27.0 Chinese Black Caribbean Chinese 24.9 Black-Caribbean Indian Black-African Pakistani White British 62.0 White British Bangladeshi Black-African 63.6 Indian Black-Caribbean Bangladeshi Men on an average have higher individual Pakistani Pakistani incomes than women in the same ethnic Bangladeshi 0 100 200 300 400 groups 0 100 200 300 400 Individual income (£) Household equivalent income (£)
  25. 25. Women with dependent children Men and women with children have higher individual incomes (except Bangladeshi and Pakistani women) But lower household incomes on average than those without (except Chinese women). Women with children are more likely to be poor than women without children. They are more likely to be younger
  26. 26. Median individual and household incomesMedian Men Menincomes are White British Chineselower than Indian White Britishmean incomes Chinese Indianfor all groups Black-African Black-Caribbeansuggesting Black-Caribbean Black-Africanincome higher Bangladeshi Pakistaniproportion Pakistani Bangladeshiwith low Women Womenincomes Black-Caribbean Chinese Black-African White British Chinese Indian White British Black-Caribbean Indian Black-African Bangladeshi Pakistani Pakistani Bangladeshi 0 100 200 300 0 100 200 300 Individual income (£) Household equivalent income (£)
  27. 27. Median individual and household incomesRank of Men MenChinese White British Chinesewomen w.r.t. Indian White Britishmedian Chinese Indianindividual Black-African Black-Caribbeanincome Black-Caribbean Black-Africanis lower Bangladeshi Pakistani Pakistani Bangladeshi Women Women Black-Caribbean Chinese Black-African White British Chinese Indian White British Black-Caribbean Indian Black-African Bangladeshi Pakistani Pakistani Bangladeshi 0 100 200 300 0 100 200 300 Individual income (£) Household equivalent income (£)
  28. 28. Women’s individual income by ethnic groups.004 .004 White British White British White British .004 Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi.003 .003 .003.002 .002 .002.001 .001 .001 0 0 0 0 400 800 1200 0 400 800 1200 0 400 800 1200 £ per week £ per week £ per week.004 .004 .004 White British White British White British Chinese Black Caribbean Black African.003 .003 .003.002 .002 .002.001 .001 .001 0 0 0 0 400 800 1200 0 400 800 1200 0 400 800 1200 £ per week £ per week £ per week
  29. 29. Percent (%) Men: White British 87.2% 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 W 0 hi te Br it is h In di an Pa ki st Ba a ni ng l All women ad es hi CBl hi ac ne k- se C ar ib b ea Bl ac n k- Percent (%) Af ric an 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 W 0 hi te Br it is h In di an Pa ki st Ba a ni ng l ad es hi CBl hi ac ne k- se C ar ib b ea Bl n ac k- Women with dependant children Af ric an Proportion of women employed, by ethnic group White British Men: 66.6%
  30. 30. Percent (%) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 W 0 hi te Br it is h In di an ethnic group P ak is ta B ni an gl All women ad es hi CB hi la ne c k- se C ar ib b B ea la n c k- A Percent (%) fri ca n 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 W 0 hi te Br it is h In di an P ak is ta B ni an gl ad es hi CB hi la ne c k- se C ar ib b B ea la n c k- Women with dependant children A fri ca n Proportion of 25-64 year old women employed, by
  31. 31. Women’s household income by ethnic groups .004 White British White British White British Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi .003 .001 .002 .003 .004 .001 .002 .003 .004 .002 .001 0 0 0 0 400 800 1200 0 400 800 1200 0 400 800 1200 £ per week £ per week £ per week .004 .004 .004 White British White British White British Chinese Black Caribbean Black African .003 .003 .003 .002 .002 .002 .001 .001 .001 0 0 0 0 400 800 1200 0 400 800 1200 0 400 800 1200 £ per week £ per week £ per week
  32. 32. Individual income inequalities within ethnic groups Mean logarithmic deviation Men and women Women living All men and living with with dependant women All women dependant children childrenWhite British 0.42 0.39 0.44 0.35Indian 0.73 0.82 High 0.71 0.72 individualPakistani 0.88 0.99 0.79 0.79 incomeBangladeshi 0.77 0.80 0.71 inequalities 0.67Chinese 0.78 0.87 0.88 driven by 1.05 zeroBlack Caribbean 0.44 0.39 0.48 0.28 incomesBlack African 0.64 0.61 0.62 0.65
  33. 33. Household income inequalities within ethnic groups Mean logarithmic deviation Household Men and women income All men and living with inequalities women dependant children lower thanWhite British 0.22 0.33 individual incomeIndian 0.30 0.37 inequalities.Pakistani 0.26 0.33Bangladeshi 0.18 0.30Chinese 0.45 0.41Black Caribbean 0.23 0.32Black African 0.28 0.35
  34. 34. Individual Income gaps for women of different ethnic groups vis-à-vis White British Men White British women Indian women Pakistani women Bangladeshi women Chinese women Black Caribbean women Black African women 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Individual Income Gap (%) Women vis-a-vis all White British Men 95% confidence interval Mean gap
  35. 35. Individual Income gaps for women of different ethnic groups vis-à-vis White British Men White British women Indian women Pakistani women All income gaps are Bangladeshi women negative and significantly Chinese women different from zero Black Caribbean women Black African women 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Individual Income Gap (%) Women vis-a-vis all White British Men 95% confidence interval Mean gap
  36. 36. Individual Income gaps for women of different ethnic groups vis-à-vis White British Men White British women Indian women Pakistani women Pay gaps are 16-17% for Bangladeshi women women with full time Chinese women employment Source: Longhi Black Caribbean women and Platt 2008 Black African women 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Individual Income Gap (%) Women vis-a-vis all White British Men 95% confidence interval Mean gap
  37. 37. Income gaps and pay gaps for women of differentethnic groups vis-à-vis White British Men Rank by pay gaps# Rank by income gaps Chinese 1 1 Black Caribbean 2 1 Indian 3 5 White British 4 4 Bangladeshi 5 6 Black African 6 3 Pakistani 7 7 #Source: Longhi and Platt 2008 using the Labour Force Survey
  38. 38. Household Income and % Poor % poor 0 10 20 30 40 50 Black African W Black Caribbean W Chinese W Bangladeshi W Pakistani W Indian W White British W White British M 0 100 200 300 Mean income (£ pw) Household Income % poor
  39. 39. Household Income and % Poor % poor 0 10 20 30 40 50 Black African W Black Caribbean W Chinese W Bangladeshi W Pakistani W Indian W White British W White British M 0 100 200 300 Mean income (£ pw) Household Income % poor
  40. 40. Household Income and % Poor % poor 0 10 20 30 40 50 Black African W Black Caribbean W Chinese W Bangladeshi W Pakistani W Indian W White British W White British M 0 100 200 300 Mean income (£ pw) Household Income % poor
  41. 41. Poverty Rates All adults Women Men Women Men Children With dependant ChildrenWhite British 15.5 16.7 14.1 17.4 13.3 19.4Indian 21.9 23.0 20.8 26.0 24.3 27.4Pakistani 45.9 46.0 45.7 49.8 49.3 54.6Bangladeshi 50.1 51.9 48.2 57.7 54.6 64.2Chinese 20.5 20.6 20.5 24.7 20.6 31.3Black-Caribbean 22.2 23.5 20.7 24.6 23.0 25.6Black-African 23.9 22.7 25.1 28.8 27.3 34.7Source: Family Resources Survey and Households Below Average Income 2003/4-2007/8 Child poverty rates are higher than that of women or men in the same ethnic group
  42. 42. Poverty Rates All adults Women Men Women Men Children With dependant ChildrenWhite British 15.5 16.7 14.1 17.4 13.3 19.4Indian 21.9 23.0 20.8 26.0 24.3 27.4Pakistani 45.9 46.0 45.7 49.8 49.3 54.6Bangladeshi 50.1 51.9 48.2 57.7 54.6 64.2Chinese 20.5 20.6 20.5 24.7 20.6 31.3Black-Caribbean 22.2 23.5 20.7 24.6 23.0 25.6Black-African 23.9 22.7 25.1 28.8 27.3 34.7Source: Family Resources Survey and Households Below Average Income 2003/4-2007/8
  43. 43. Poverty Rates All adults Women Men Women Men Children With dependant ChildrenWhite British 15.5 16.7 14.1 17.4 13.3 19.4Indian 21.9 23.0 20.8 26.0 24.3 27.4Pakistani 45.9 46.0 45.7 49.8 49.3 54.6Bangladeshi 50.1 51.9 48.2 57.7 54.6 64.2Chinese 20.5 20.6 20.5 24.7 20.6 31.3Black-Caribbean 22.2 23.5 20.7 24.6 23.0 25.6Black-African 23.9 22.7 < 25.1 28.8 27.3 34.7Source: Family Resources Survey and Households Below Average Income 2003/4-2007/8 Women’s poverty rates are almost always higher than that of men the same ethnic group
  44. 44. Individual income composition Women White British Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Chinese Black-Caribbean Black-African 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent share Earnings Self-employment Pension income Benefits Tax credits as benefits Other income
  45. 45. Age composition of all women by ethnic groupsOverall White Britishwomen in allnon-white Indiangroups are Pakistanimore likely to Bangladeshibe younger.More than Chinese75% of EM Black-Caribbeanwomen are 54years or less Black-Africanwhile only59% of white 0 20 40 60 80 100women are 55 Percent (%)or less 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+
  46. 46. Age composition of women with dependent children by ethnic groupsAs expected White Britishwomen withdependent Indianchildren are Pakistanirelativelyyounger: Bangladeshiaround 80% Chineseare 44 yearsor less Black-Caribbean Black-African 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent (%) 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+
  47. 47. Age-income profiles Very little variation in income gaps between ethnic groups for different age groups Except at very young or very old ages Individual Income (£ per week) Equivalent Household Income (£ per week) 100 150 200 250 300 350 100 150 200 250 300 350 50 50 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+ 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+ age in years age in years White British Pakistani Bangladeshi
  48. 48. Women’s income compositionIndividual Income Earnings – important source for all, 50-60% – except for Bangladeshi & Pakistani women, 30-40% & 25-30% for women with dependent children Non-pension benefits and tax credits – Important for Bangladeshi & Pakistani women, 45-50% – More so for Bangladeshi and Pakistani women with dependant children, 10% higher – Relatively important for Caribbean and Black African women, 20-25%
  49. 49. Women’s income compositionIndividual Income Pension – Important for White British women, 20% Other income and self-employment income – Important source for Chinese womenHousehold Income Labour income more important, and Non-pension benefits & tax credits less important
  50. 50. Contribution of different income sources toincome inequality Labour income – most important contributing factor, more so for men – Self-employment disproportionately higher – More so for women with dependent children, less so for men with dependent children Non-pension benefit income & tax credits – reduces income inequality a little, 2%
  51. 51. Material deprivation scores 21 questions of the following type, where 11 are about adults orfamily circumstances and 10 only about children Do you [and your family/and your partner] have a holiday awayfrom home for at least one week a year, whilst not staying withrelatives at their home?― We/I have this― We/I would like to have this but cannot afford this at the moment― We/I do not want / need this at the moment― [Does not apply] Total deprivation score is a prevalence weighted sum of individualitem scores (1 if cannot afford, 0 otherwise). Note only available for familieswith children.
  52. 52. Material deprivation items: 11 adult itemsDo you have a holiday away from home for at least one week a year, whilst not staying with relatives at their home? have friends or family around for a drink or meal at least once a month? have two pairs of all weather shoes for [Name of all adults in Benefitunit]? have enough money to keep your home in a decent state of decoration? have household contents insurance? make regular savings of £10 a month or more for rainy days or retirement? replace any worn out furniture? replace or repair major electrical goods such as a refrigerator or a washing machine, when broken? have a small amount of money to spend each week on yourself (not on your family)? have a hobby or leisure activity? in winter, are you able to keep this accommodation warm enough?
  53. 53. Material deprivation items: 10 children itemsDoes your child have do your children have a family holiday away from home for at least one week a year? leisure equipment such as sports equipment or a bicycle? celebrations on special occasions such as birthdays, Christmas or other religious festivals? an outdoor space or facilities nearby where they can play safely?Does your child/do your children go swimming at least once a month? do a hobby or leisure activity? have friends around for tea or a snack once a fortnight? go to toddler group / nursery / playgroup at least once a week.? go on school trips? Are there enough bedrooms for every child of 10 or over of a different sex to have their own bedroom?
  54. 54. Distribution of deprivation scores of women with children by ethnic groups White British Indian Pakistani .6Higher .4proportionwith low .2deprivation 0 Bangladeshi Chinese Black Caribbeanscores: .6White .4British,Indian and .2Chinese 0women 0 50 100 Black African Total .6 .4 .2 0 0 50 100 0 50 100 Deprivation score
  55. 55. Distribution of deprivation scores of women with children by ethnic groups White British Indian Pakistani .6Higher .4proportionwith high .2deprivation 0 Bangladeshi Chinese Black Caribbeanscores: .6Bangladeshi, .4BlackAfrican, .2Pakistani 0and Black 0 50 100 Black African TotalCaribbean .6women. Highest deprivation scores for .4 Bangladeshi and Black African .2 women 0 0 50 100 0 50 100 Deprivation score
  56. 56. Distribution of deprivation scores of children by ethnic groups White British Indian PakistaniSame picture .5as forwomen.Bangladeshi 0 Bangladeshi Chinese Black Caribbeanand Black .5Africanchildrenhave highest 0deprivation Black African Total 0 50 100scores Nearly half of Bangladeshi .5 children have incomes < 70% of Median AND deprivation scores >25 0 0 50 100 0 50 100 Deprivation score Compared to 16-17% of all children
  57. 57. Distribution of child poverty indicator by ethnicgroups Child poverty indicator: Family deprivation score>25 & household income <70% of median Children Women Men Living with childrenBangladeshi 48.8% 40.4% 39.2%Pakistani 39.1% 30.9% 29.5%Black African 33.5% 29.3% 20.2% 16-17% of allBlack Caribbean 21.0% 20.4% 15.2% childrenWhite British 14.5% 12.9% 7.1% fall intoIndian 13.4% 11.9% 10.1% this categoryChinese 8.3% 10.1% 6.5% (DWP 2009)
  58. 58. Deprivation scores by poverty status Not poor Poor Black African Black AfricanBlack Caribbean Black Caribbean Chinese Chinese Bangladeshi Bangladeshi Pakistani Pakistani Indian Indian White British White British 0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40 Deprivation Score Deprivation Score Men Women Men Women
  59. 59. Link between income inequality of women and poverty How would poverty rates change if group income inequalities were eliminated? Simulate women’s individual and household incomes to eliminate within and between group income inequalities  Assign to all women the mean income of women in her ethnic group  Assign age-adjusted mean income of White British women to all women  Do not change men’s incomes  Re-calculate household incomes and the new poverty lines and poverty status
  60. 60. Women’s new simulated poverty rates100 80 60 40 20 0 All Indian Bangladeshi Black Caribbean White British Pakistani Chinese Black African Ethnic group New poverty rates using new poverty line after equialisation of Within group household income Within group individual income Between group household income Between group individual income Original Poverty Rate
  61. 61. Men’s new simulated poverty rates100 80 60 40 20 0 All Indian Bangladeshi Black Caribbean White British Pakistani Chinese Black African Ethnic group New poverty rates using new poverty line after equialisation of Within group household income Within group individual income Between group household income Between group individual income Original Poverty Rate
  62. 62. Eliminating Eliminating Eliminating Eliminating within group within group between group between group household individual household individual income income income income inequality inequality inequality inequalityAll men and womenMove out of poverty 14% 10% 14% 10%Move into poverty 1% 4% 1% 5%Remain in poverty 2% 6% 2% 7%Remain out of poverty 83% 80% 82% 79%WomenMove out of poverty 17% 13% 18% 12%Move into poverty 0% 5% 0% 7%Remain in poverty 0% 5% 0% 6%Remain out of poverty 82% 77% 82% 75%MenMove out of poverty 11% 8% 11% 8%Move into poverty 2% 2% 2% 2%Remain in poverty 5% 8% 4% 7%Remain out of poverty 83% 82% 82% 83%
  63. 63. Eliminating Eliminating Eliminating Eliminating within group within group between group between group household individual household individual income income income income inequality inequality inequality inequalityAll men and women withdependant childrenMove out of poverty 17% 7% 18% 10%Move into poverty 1% 10% 0% 6%Remain in poverty 1% 10% 0% 8%Remain out of poverty 82% 72% 82% 76%Women with dependantchildrenMove out of poverty 19% 8% 19% 10%Move into poverty 0% 14% 0% 8%Remain in poverty 1% 12% 0% 9%Remain out of poverty 80% 66% 81% 72%ChildrenMove out of poverty 19% 8% 20% 10%Move into poverty 1% 11% 0% 7%Remain in poverty 1% 13% 0% 10%Remain out of poverty 79% 69% 79% 72%
  64. 64. To conclude Diversity of women’s income within and between ethnic groups But a substantial proportion of women are poor across different ethnic groups to varying degree Women’s poverty is very closely related to poverty of children as most children live with at least one woman guardian
  65. 65. To conclude Poverty is determined not just by women’s wages, or even their total income Who they live with matters: income pooling (sharing rule) and family size Different patterns of women’s own income and income pooling across groups We need to measure economic well-being directly
  66. 66. To conclude Bangladeshi & Pakistani women: low own income, low income of spouses Black Caribbean and African women: high own income, relatively lower income of spouses/partner, single mothers Indian and Chinese women: gain from income pooling on average, but high within group income inequality
  67. 67. Thank You!Email: anandi@essex.ac.uk, L.Platt@ioe.ac.uk

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