Edmedia2011 lit.sys.review

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Edmedia2011 lit.sys.review

  1. 1. Literature Reviews & Systematic Reviews Dr. Valerie Irvine Co-Director, TIE Research Lab University of Victoria, Canada http://tie.uvic.ca [email_address] Twitter: _valeriei
  2. 2. Today’s Session <ul><li>Assumption: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students have prior knowledge of the literature review process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brief review of literature review provided </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of systematic reviews </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Reviews <ul><li>Traditional narrative literature reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-analysis </li></ul>Reference: Kathy Hornby, DMD, MLS, CertMINF (2005). Systematic Reviews session.
  4. 4. Common Elements <ul><li>Retrospective </li></ul><ul><li>Subject to bias and error </li></ul><ul><li>Should address an important question </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies gaps in current knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Provides information on the outcome of interest </li></ul>
  5. 5. Literature Review <ul><li>Helps round out the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies what has been done </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies potential methodology and procedures for your study </li></ul><ul><li>Helps develop theoretical structure </li></ul><ul><li>Helps stimulate inductive reasoning </li></ul>
  6. 6. Literature Review - Steps <ul><li>Write problem statement </li></ul><ul><li>Consult secondary sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for recent reviews of basic problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine descriptors </li></ul><ul><li>Search primary sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with current literature and move backward </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Lit Review – Search Engines <ul><li>DATABASES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PsychLit, PsychInfo, Web of Science, Eric, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on your discipline area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>INTERNET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Lit Review - After the Search <ul><li>List may be huge and difficult to organize </li></ul><ul><li>Create a working bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Use the abstract to help delimit your search </li></ul><ul><li>Computer software tools to help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RefWorks, EndNote, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Reading Research <ul><li>Weight by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-reviewed journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Book chapters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Published abstracts/proceedings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissertation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet sources/non-refereed material </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Impact Factor <ul><li>Represents the average number of times all articles in a journal are cited during one year </li></ul><ul><li>Not a perfect system because biased with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small fields of study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large numbers of journal in a field of study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>important work that is not cited in scientific journals </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Impact Factor cont. <ul><li>Better to try to roughly classify journals in a given area by A, B, C </li></ul><ul><li>Consider rejection rate </li></ul><ul><li>You are the final judge of the merit of the paper </li></ul>
  12. 12. Critical Reading <ul><li>Develop a table of findings to help look for similarities and differences between studies </li></ul><ul><li>Next slide shows components to record…. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Components of Chart <ul><li>Statement of problem </li></ul><ul><li>Participant characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Variables (IV & DV) </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment (if an experimental study) </li></ul><ul><li>Design and analyses </li></ul><ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Questions raised for future studies </li></ul>
  14. 14. Systematic Reviews <ul><li>A systematic review is a literature review focused on a single question which tries to identify, appraise, select and synthesize all high quality research evidence relevant to that question. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systematic_review </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Systematic Reviews <ul><li>Systematic reviews are generally regarded as the highest level of evidence </li></ul><ul><li>An understanding of systematic reviews and how to implement them in practice is becoming mandatory for all professionals involved in the delivery of health care. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systematic_review </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Systematic Reviews <ul><li>Scientific investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Primary study is the “subject” </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to limit bias and error </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive search </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit reproducible criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Data synthesis and interpretation of results </li></ul>
  17. 17. Differences Between Narrative & Systematic Reviews Cook, DJ, Mulrow, CD, Haynes, RB (1997). Systematic Reviews: Synthesis of Best Evidence for Clinical Decisions. Annals of Internal Medicine, 126(5), 376-80. Feature Narrative Systematic Question Broad Focused Sources/Search Not specified, potentially biased Comprehensive sources & explicit search strategy Selection Not specified, potentially biased Criterion-based selection, uniformly applied Appraisal Variable Rigorous critical appraisal Synthesis Often qualitative Quantitative (but not a statistical synthesis) Inferences Sometimes evidence-based Usually evidence-based
  18. 18. Weaknesses in Systematic Reviews <ul><li>Heterogeneity of the studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designs, populations, interventions, outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty of whether all relevant studies are included </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching difficulties, publication bias (for significance) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty as to whether to include unpublished results? </li></ul><ul><li>Quality assessment issues – assign weights? </li></ul>
  19. 19. STEPS…
  20. 20. The question <ul><li>The question must be focused </li></ul><ul><li>Includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population, problem, setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Survey the review literature <ul><li>Check to see if a review has already been done on your question </li></ul><ul><li>Re-define and focus your question, if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to understand the literature in the area prior to conducting the systematic review </li></ul>
  22. 22. Develop the protocol <ul><li>The protocol is your research plan and should include elements as defined by the collaboration group (campbell or cochrane) </li></ul><ul><li>Sample: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.campbellcollaboration.org/systematic_reviews/index.php?page=3 </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Locating information <ul><li>Start with the question </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on sources </li></ul><ul><li>Develop search strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Keep records </li></ul>
  24. 24. Managing information <ul><li>Use bibliographic software </li></ul><ul><li>Consider systematic review software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DistillerSR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EGOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Sources <ul><li>Databases of primary research articles </li></ul><ul><li>Hand searching core subject journals </li></ul><ul><li>Checking cited references </li></ul><ul><li>Conference proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>Contacting researchers & experts for recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Dissertations </li></ul><ul><li>Gray Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Web of Science (citation tracking) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul>
  26. 26. Gray Literature Def’n & Sources <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gray_literature </li></ul><ul><li>Technical reports, white papers, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>OpenSIGLE system for Information on Grey Literature in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Self-archiving (see John Willinsky) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Rationale for Thoroughness <ul><li>Missing studies can affect the results </li></ul><ul><li>Publication bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency for studies with positive results to get published </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency for studies with no significant difference or negative results to get rejected </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Government Priorities <ul><li>“ evidence-based decision-making” </li></ul>
  29. 29. Tour Protocols & Steps <ul><li>Campbell Collaboration (Education focus) http://www.campbellcollaboration.org/ http://www.campbellcollaboration.org/resources/resource_center.php </li></ul><ul><li>Cochrane Collaboration (Health focus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cochrane_Collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.cochrane.org/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note the “podcasts” as audio summaries of reviews </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Sample Reviews <ul><li>See Campbell Collaboration Website </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click on Review Library http://www.campbellcollaboration.org/library.php </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select sample on cyberbullying </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Questions?

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