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Real Estate Finance 101: The Basics (Jay Rollins) - ULI Fall Mmeeting 102611
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Real Estate Finance 101: The Basics (Jay Rollins) - ULI Fall Mmeeting 102611

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  • 1.
    • Real Estate Finance 101: The Basics
    • Wednesday,
    • October 26
    • 9:00 a.m. - 10:15 a.m.
    • Presented by:
    • Jay Rollins
    • JCR Capital
    • www.jcrcapital.com
  • 2.
    • Commercial real estate can be a huge wealth creator available to the masses.
    • The industry is non-regulated and has little transparency – a good thing.
    • Insider information is not only okay, but GOOD.
    • Asset doesn’t trade very often.
    • Local knowledge beats macro knowledge.
    • Real estate doesn’t go to zero!
    • You can leverage your investment and super charge your returns (pros/cons).
    • You can participate in many ways: owners, investment sales, mortgage banking, leasing, etc.
    • Real estate offers distinct risk profiles that are right for you: Core Value Added, and Opportunistic.
    • Markets dislocate, creating winners and losers.
  • 3.
    • Real Estate Capital Markets Overview
  • 4.
    • THEN
    • Summer 2007
    • Aggressive pricing
    • Aggressive underwriting
      • Debt service coverage ratio below 1.0 x
      • Credit for future income
    • Aggressive structuring
      • Interest-only
      • No reserves
    • No separation of asset/quality
    • NOW
    • November 2011
    • Conservative pricing
    • Underwriting
      • Debt service coverage ratio of 1.30-1.40x
      • Credit for in-place income only
    • Conservative structuring
      • Amortization
      • Reserves collected and escrowed
    • Huge separation of asset/quality
  • 5. 96%-100% Sponsor Equity
    • Highest Risk
    • First Loss Piece
    • Profit Equals Difference in Cost and Value
    91%-95% Preferred Equity
    • Returns: 10-12%
    86%-90% 2 nd Mezzanine
    • Returns: 8-10%
    76%-85% 1 st Mezzanine
    • Returns: 6-10%
    0%-75% Senior Debt
    • First Trust
    • Lower Rate/Lower Risk/Pays current
    • Required Yield: 5-7%
  • 6. Equity 35% Rates: 12-20% Debt 65% Rates: 5-9%
  • 7.
    • The Distressed Commercial Real Estate Market
  • 8. Source: Foresight Analytics ESTIMATED $1.7 TRILLION OF COMMERCIAL MORTGAGES MATURING OVER THE NEXT FIVE YEARS
  • 9.
  • 10.
    • Real estate risk can be viewed on a continuum, going from left (least risky) to the right (most risky).
    • 1. Life insurance companies : Generally the most conservative underwriters.
    • 2. Banks : Most banks will not do long term loans.
    • 2. Conduit lenders : Also known as securitized lenders. These lenders aggregate loans and then repackage them as rated bonds or securities
    • 3. Opportunistic lenders : Typically lenders who hold whole loans on a balance sheet. Can include opportunity funds, finance companies, mezzanine lenders and mortgage REITs.
    • 4. Equity investors : Has the “first loss piece” of the transaction, but also has an uncapped upside.
    LEAST RISK - LEAST RETURN MOST RISK - MOST RETURN Opportunistic Lenders/ Private Finance Banks Life Insurance Companies Conduit Lenders 75-80% LTV Private Equity Investors Over 95% LTV Selective Coming back In Sidelines – coming in In
  • 11.
  • 12.
    • 1. Stabilized Properties
    • Permanent financing is for stabilized properties.
    • KEY POINT : Common characteristics of stabilized properties are :
      • Occupancy: The property is fully occupied.
      • Rents: Property rents are at market rates.
      • NOI: The NOI is “stabilized,” meaning there will be little growth in the future.
    • 2. Unstabilized or Value Added Properties
    • Typically are financed by bridge loans. Common characteristics of unstabilized or value added properties are:
    • • Occupancy : May not be fully occupied.
    • • Rent roll : May not have a good tenant mix.
      • Rents : May be below market rates.
    • 3. Distressed Assets
    • Land, construction
    • These properties typically require “specialized” financing.
  • 13.
    • Asset level expertise : Understand the cash flows.
    • Debt level: Understand how loans are sized and structured.
    • Equity level: Understand how “leveraged investments” can super charge returns on the upside and create “fast” losses on the downside.
  • 14.
    • The Capital Stack: Debt equity amounts
    • Sources & Uses of Funds
    • Net Operating Income
    • Stabilized NOI
    • Unstabilized NOI
    • Asset Cash Flow
    • Rent Roll: Roll schedule
    • Cash on Cash Return
    • Leveraged Cash on Cash Return
    • Positive Leverage vs. Negative Leverage
    • Cap Rate: Going in, Stabilized, Underwritten
    • Loan to Value
    • Debt Service Coverage Ratio
    • Loan Constant
    • Loan Amount
  • 15.
  • 16. $2 Million / 20% $8 Million / 80% Sponsor Equity First Trust Senior Debt
  • 17.
    • Sources of Cash :
    • Loan: $8,000,000
    • Sponsor Equity: $ 2,000,000
    • Total: $10,000,000
    • Uses of Cash :
    • Building Acquisition: $ 10,000,000
    • Total: $10,000,000
  • 18.
    • From the owner’s perspective:
    • NOI: The first step in underwriting any stabilized transaction is to understand the project’s NOI.
    • The NOI is calculated as follows :
    • Gross Revenues
    • LESS: Vacancy
    • Equals: Net Revenues
    • LESS: (Operating Expenses)
    • Equals: NOI
    • Example:
    • Gross Revenues: $2,000,000
    • Vacancy: ($200,000)
    • Net Revenues: $1,800,000
    • Operating Expenses: ($850,000)
    • NOI: $950,000
  • 19.
    • The Stabilized NOI
    • For the NOI to be stabilized, it must have the following characteristics:
      • Building occupancy : needs to be at market, typically 90% leased.
      • Building leases : rates need to be at current market rates (not below or above).
      • Tenant rollover : the property should not have a significant amount of tenant rollover (expiring leases) in the short term, or at the same time.
  • 20.
    • The Rent Roll
      • Stabilized properties are driven by their rent rolls. All rent rolls are not created equal.
      • Rent roll analysis will include:
        • Percentage of the building currently leased
        • Rate of lease (monthly payments)
        • Lease terms: how long is the lease
        • Lease expiration dates
    • (Continued on next slide)
  • 21.
    • Rent Roll Topics
        • Renewal clauses
          • Extension options
          • Contract rate increases
          • Owner requirements over the lease term (i.e. improvements to space, building, storage, etc.)
        • Credit quality of tenants
          • Credit tenant: “A rated” company by Moody’s or S&P
          • Strong credit: A company with a good balance sheet and income statement
          • Poor credit: A “Mom & Pop” business
        • Roll schedule: The make up of the leases, their duration, and term.
  • 22.
    • Types of Leases: Two Basic Types
    • • Full-service : Landlord pays all expenses such as maintenance, taxes, and insurance.
    • • Triple Net : Typical charges in triple net include:
      • Taxes: Paid by tenant
      • Insurance: Paid by tenant
      • Maintenance: Paid by tenant
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25.
    • KEY POINT : Permanent financing relates only to stabilized properties. Only stabilized properties can qualify for permanent financing.
    • 1. The Stabilized Investor
    • • Stabilized financing most closely resembles a bond.
    • • Stabilized financing is generally underwritten to 70-80% loan to value and 1.25x debt service coverage.
    • • Stabilized investors seek a cash on cash return (like a bond return).
    • • Stabilized investors also seek a leveraged cash on cash return (similar to margined return for a stock or a bond).
    • 2. Repaying the Permanent Loan
    • • Another loan : Permanent loans are repaid by another permanent loan or by a sale, in which case another permanent loan is obtained.
    • KEY POINT : Nothing is truly “permanent,” these are 10 year loans.
  • 26.
  • 27.
    • Life Companies
      • Examples include: MetLife, Allstate, Teachers, & Great Western.
      • Very conservative: Low leverage/low rate
      • Very picky on: Asset quality, location, market and sponsor
      • Typical underwriting: 60-75% LTV, 1.35x Debt Service Coverage, and high quality asset/sponsors
      • Limited annual capital allocations
  • 28.
    • Banks
      • Banks are not providers of long term debt
      • Why not: They cannot match asset & liabilities
      • Never: Lend “long” with short term capital
      • Most banks started conduit programs
      • Bank underwriting: 70-75% LTV, 1.25x Debt Service Coverage, recourse, stays in local market
      • Recourse lenders
      • May be local market constrained
  • 29.
      • Government Agency Lenders
        • Fannie Mae
          • Single family loans
          • Multifamily loans
        • Freddie Mac
          • Single family loans
          • Multifamily loans
        • FHA/HUD : They provide the most proceeds, 40 year amortizations, and will do business will all levels of sponsorship. This is a government subsidized lending program. FHA deals typically take a long time to close.
          • Single family loans
          • Multifamily loans
          • Nursing homes/Assisted Living
  • 30.
    • Commercial Mortgage Backed Securities (CMBS)
    • A fixed rate stabilized loan is originated by a CMBS lender, also known as a “Conduit Lender.”
    • • Pooling : loans are “pooled” or put together with many other loans.
    • • Diversification : the loans are diversified by:
        • Size
        • Market
        • Sponsor
        • Asset type
    • • In theory, the risk of loss in a “diversified pool” is less than one loan or a “non-diversified pool.”
  • 31.
    • Commercial Mortgage Backed Securities (CMBS)
    • • Loans to bonds : the loans are then “packaged” into a securitization or bonds. These are known as commercial mortgage backed securities.
    • • The bonds are then “tranched” and rated by the rating agencies (S&P, Moody's, Fitch).
  • 32.
  • 33.
    • Cap Rates
    • Loan to Value Ratio
    • Debt Service Coverage Ratio
  • 34.
    • Cap Rates
    • • KEY POINT : Cap rates are a key factor in determining the value of a commercial real estate project.
    • Cap rate is unleveraged cash on cash return NOI/cost
    • • The yield that the buyers will accept on an unleveraged basis, to own the building.
    • • Cap rates are influenced by:
        • The rate of return on the 10 year Treasury Bill
        • The availability of debt in the market (the more debt, the lower the cap rates)
        • The overall health of the real estate market
        • The rent roll of the property (tenant quality, lease terms, etc.)
  • 35.
    • Loan to Value
    • • One of the key formulas that drives the loan size.
    • • The lower the loan to value, the greater the implied safety of the loan.
    • • The lower the better from the lenders perspective:
        • 70% and below = good
        • 80% and below = was “market”
        • 90% and below = high
        • 95% and below = very high
    • Quick formula :
    • LTV = Loan Amount/ Asset Value (or Purchase Price)
    • Example: Value = $10 million
    • Loan= $8 million
    • LTV = $80%
  • 36.
    • Debt Service Coverage Ratio
    • • One of the key formulas that drives loan size.
    • • Also known as the “coverage ratio”.
    • • If the debt service coverage ratio is over a 1.0x, it means that monthly property cash flow is equal to the principal and interest payments.
    • • Permanent lenders typically look for a 1.20 to 1.25x coverage ratio as the benchmark for a safe loan.
    • Quick formula :
    • Stabilized DSC Ratio = Stabilized NOI/Debt Service
    • Example: NOI = $950,000
    • Debt service= $760,000
    • DSCR= 950/760 = 1.25x
  • 37.
  • 38. Overview of Mezzanine Financing Market
    • Niche market: Comprised of opportunity funds, investment banks, and commercial banks
    • Higher returns: Capital sources aggressively entered the market attracted by high risk adjusted rates of return
    • Similar to : Preferred Equity and Second Trust Loans.
  • 39.
      • Different types of debt products :
      • Second Trust Debt : Defined by the collateral
      • Mezzanine Debt : Typically does not have a recorded lien.
        • Subordinate Debt : Can mean the same as the above
        • Junior Debt : Can mean the same as the above
      • B-Notes : The junior or subordinate part of the senior loan.
  • 40.
      • Defining features of junior debt:
      • Security/Collateral : What is the lender’s security?
          • A portion of the first trust = note
          • Deed of trust = second trust
          • Partnership interests behind the first trust = mezzanine loan
      • Order or preference of repayment : Who gets repaid first?
      • Default Remedies : What are the lender/investor options in the event of a default?
  • 41.
      • Mezzanine lenders want:
      • Notice of default
      • Ability to cure default
      • Ability to assume First Trust
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44.
      • Overview
      • Security/Collateral : The preferred equity investor does not have a secured position. They are part of the equity and are governed by the Partnership Agreement.
      • Intercreditor Agreement : Preferred Equity investors have no written agreements with the First Trust lenders.
      • Remedies : The Preferred Equity investor cannot look to the collateral. Their primary remedy is the dilution of the General Partner’s economic interests.
  • 45.
  • 46.
      • Partner Overview
      • General Partner/Sponsors : The on the ground, day to day operators. Typically the local partner.
      • Limited Partner : Passive partner, along for the ride. Views the transaction as an alternative investment.
      • Institutional Equity : The big money partner. Looks for co- investment from General Partner which may include investment from the Limited Partner.
  • 47.
    • Each joint venture is different; there are no pre-set terms and conditions
    • Key terms you must understand:
      • Co-investment amount
      • Promote
      • Preferred return
      • IRR
      • IRR waterfall
      • Multiple on investment
      • Exit strategy
  • 48.
      • Typical Partnership Structure Diagram :
      • Total Costs: $10 Million $10 Million
    Total equity: $2,000,000 Total debt: $8,000,000 Equity $2,000,000 Sponsor Equity $400,00 -20% of equity -4% of total costs Institutional Equity $1,600,000 -80% of equity -16% of total costs 80% First Trust Lender $8,000,000
  • 49.
      • IRR Waterfall – Simple Version: Preferred Return: 10%
      • Sponsor: 50% after a 10% preferred return
      • Investor: 50% after a 10% preferred return
  • 50.
      • IRR Waterfall – Complex Version: Preferred Return: 12%
      • Sponsor Institutional
      • IRR Promote Equity
      • 0-12% 0% 100%
      • 13-15% 15% 85%
      • 16-20% 20% 80%
      • 21-25% 25% 75%
      • 25%+ 50% 50%
  • 51.
    • Real Estate Ownership Structures
  • 52. Individual Ownership
    • Simple & easy to form with limited ability to raise funds
    • Creates a lot of liability
  • 53.
    • A separate legal entity in the eyes of the IRS, taxed at the corporate instead of individual tax rates.
    • The C Corporation status will have a double taxation effect, one tax at the corporation level and one at the individual level upon distribution of dividends.
  • 54.
    • An S corporation is a domestic corporation with no more than 75 eligible shareholders (shareholders can not be nonresident aliens).
    • There is only one class of stock (but can have voting and non voting stock).
    • Personal liability is limited in the same way as a Subchapter C corporation.
    • It avoids double taxation.
  • 55.
    • Similar to Chapter S
    • A Limited Liability Company is a hybrid of a corporation and a general partnership that is treated like a corporation for liability purposes, and like a partnership for tax purposes.
    • An LLC, like a corporation, has not only the benefit of "limited liability," i.e., the owners, called members, are not personally liable for the LLC’s debts, but also an LLC has the benefit of being treated as a partnership for income tax purposes.
  • 56.
    • Keys to success in real estate: Total real estate.
    • Understand the asset level issues
    • Understand the debt
    • Understand the equity
    • Understand the ownership entity
    • To survive in the new real estate world, you will need to be a “total” real estate expert.

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